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side it, would appear but a small hill. This enormous mass is surrounded by smaller mountains ; and while the lava of Vesuvius may issue its stream for seven miles, Ætna will emit a torrent of liquid fire thirty miles in length.

All travellers agree, that this mountain affords an epitome of the different climates throughout the world. Towards the base it is extremly hot ; further up, more temperate ; and grows gradually colder, till at length the traveller perceives that its head is enveloped in a mantle of eternal snow.

In the middle, at the top, stands the great mouth of the volcano, which is a little mountain about a quarter of a mile perpendicular, situated in the centre of a gently inclining plain. In the middle of this little mountain is a large hollow, the inside of which is incrusted with salts and sulphur of different colours. In the midst of this funnel is the terrific gulf, whence continually issues smoke accompanied by terrible and confused noises, which, during the time of an eruption, may be heard at a prodigious distance.

The great eruption of this volcano in the year 1669, broke out on the 11th of March, two hours before midnight, on the southeast side of the mountain, about twenty miles from the old mouth, and ten from the city of Catania. The matter thrown out was a stream of metals and minerals, which ran for fifteen or twenty days together into the sea, close to the walls of Catania. In its course it overwhelmed fourteen towns and villages, and during the whole time of this eruption, which was fifty-four days, neither sun nor stars could be seen in the neighbouring country.


Sir Everard Home, in delivering his introductory lecture on the physiology of the blood, at St. George's Hospital, explained a discovery made by him on the component parts of the blood, in the year 1818, and which is known but to few of the profession. Sir Everard's new theory is, that carbonic acid gas forms a large proportion of the blood, and that this fuid is of a tabular structure. He asserts that carbonic acid gas exists in the blood, in the large proportion of two cubic inches to an ounce, and that it is given out in large quantities from the blood of a person after a full meal, and very little from the blood of a feverish person. The fact of the appearance of the tubes passing through every particle of the blood, Sir Everard was led to discover by observing the growth of a grain of wheat daily through a microscope, he first saw a blob, and then a tube passing from it ; the blob was the juice of the plant, and the tube was formed by the extrication of carbonic acid gas. Reasoning from analogy, he examined a globule of blood, and found it composed of similar tubes, which he was enabled to inject under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump. His discovery, trifling as it may appear, will probably lead to important results.



The American brig Indus, J. Day, master, which arived at Cowes, about two months since, afterwards proceeded to Hamburgh to discharge her cargo. In removing the bags of coffee between decks, two of the crew discovered a large snake coiled up. The reptile reared its head and began hissing, which so alarmed the men, that they both fell backwards; but the snake remained coiled up very quiet, it being rather cold. The men soon recovered themselves, and mustered up courage to make a blow at it with an axe, which nearly severed the head from the body. The skin is remarkably beautiful. It has a yellow serpentine line from the head to the tail, each side of which is bordered with black and brown, in every hollow is a spot of white in the shape of a diamond : the head resembles that of a large congor eel, and the body in its natural size was four inches wide; the tail was similar to that of an alligator or lizard, about twelve inches long. On opening the hody it had a great quantity of undigested Indian corn in its stomach, which must have been its principal food for nine months--the time it must have been on board. The Indus touched at several parts of the East Indies, before she could procure a cargo ; and it is conjectured the animal must have got on board by the cable through the hawseholes, whilst the brig was at anchor at Siane ; for a number of snakes were observed swimming about in the water there, but at no other place that the brig touched at.


Mr. Editor,

The following “ Confession of Hartley" though it has appeared in a great portion of the London and Provincial Journals, is of so extraordinary a nature, that I doubt not you will give general satisfaction, by assigning it a place in yonr entertaining miscellany.

I am, Sir. yours, &c.

Jan. 28, 1823,


This notorious and hardened offender suffered the sentence of the law at Maidstone, on Thursday, January 9, and seen by the following particulars which have since transpired, that he has made a confession which may be the means of bringing to justice the long-sought murderers both of Mrs Donatty and Mr. Bird and his housekeeper, at Greenwich. The ruthless deeds of this man appear to have rivalled even those of the notorious Abershaw, whose body was stolen from the gibbet on which it hung on Wimbledon Common.--Some days before his execution, Hartly confessed to the Rev. Mr. Winter having been concerned in upwards of two hundred burglaries in Kent, Essex, Surrey, Middlesex, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Yorkshire, Westmoreland, Durham, Lincoln, and Norfolk. He had been confined in sixteen different prisons, besides undergoing several examinations at the principal Police Offices ; and had gone by the following names,--Robert Stainton, Alexander Rombolton, George Grimes, Robert Wood, William Smith, George Croggington, and Robert Hartley-Hartley's father formerly kept an Inn (Sir John Falstaff), at Hull, in Yorkshire. He was put to school in that neighbourhood, but his conduct at school was so marked with depravity, and so continually did he play the truant, that he was dismissed as unmanageable. He then, although only nine years of age, began with pilfering and robbing gardens and orchards, till at length his friends were obliged to send him to


He soon contrived to run away from the vessel in which he had been placed, and having regained the land, pursued his old habits, and got connected with many of the principal thieves in London, with whom he commenced business regularly as a housebreaker, which was almost always his line of robbery.-Hartley acknowledged that from his earliest days he was of a most vindictive aud revengeful spirit. He had been punished when at school, and, in revenge, contrived to get from his bed in the night, and destroy the whole of the fruit trees and every plant and shrub in his master's garden. At another time, having robbed a neighbour's garden, he was detected and punished; when, in order to wreak his vengeance, he set fire to the house in the night, which was nearly destroyed, together with its inmates. He had adopted a plan to escape from his father's house in the night time, without detection, which was done by means of a rope ladder, that let him down from his bed-room window, and after effecting his robberies, he used to return to his room in the sanje way.-Hartley had once before received sentence of death, and was not respited till within a few hours of the usual time of execution ; he was sent to Botany Bay, from which he contrived to escape, and afterwards entered on board one of his Majesty's ships, in the East Indies. Whilst on this station, he was removed to the hospital on shore, at Bombay, on account of his sickness ; but even in this state he could not refrain from thieving. His practice was to scale the walls of the hospital in the evening, and way-lay the natives, whom he contrived to rob by knocking them down with a short ebony stick, and then seizing their turbans, in which their wealth was usually deposited, he stole off unperceived, while his victims were left weltering in their blood. While on this station, a gentleman on board ship missed a valuable box of pearls, and suspicion falling upon a native Indian, he was put on shore and dreadfully tortured (his finger and toe-nails heing torn out) to make him confess. A few days before Hartley's execution, he confessed that he had been the thief, having stolen the pearls, and secreted them in a crevice in the ship's side, where they had slipped down to the bottom, and he never could get at them again. Hartley wrote an account of this circumstance to the commander of the ship, who came to Maidstone immediately, and recognised Hartley as having been engaged as an officer's servant on board, and Hartley assured him that the pearls still remained in the place where he had secreted them.-Hartley acknowledged that he was an accomplice in the murder of Mr. Bird and his housekeeper, at Greenwich, for which Hussey was executed in 1818, but that neither himself nor Hussey were the actual murderers. Hartley obtained admission into the house by presenting a note at the door, when himself, with Hussey and another person, whom he named rushed into the house and shut the door. Hartley instantly ran up stairs to plunder the drawers, and whilst there he heard a loud cry for mercy. He then went to the top of the stairs and saw Hussey pull Mr. Bird's housekeeper to the floor, whilst

struck her repeatedly with a hammer. Hartley ran down stairs, and saw Mr. Bird lying dead on his back. The sight so affected him that he immediately threw on the table two watches which he had secured, ran out of the house, and never saw Hussey afterwards, nor had any share in the plunder. Happy would it have been had is hands always been as free from blood, as he confessed he afterwards met a Gentleman on the highway and shot him dead ; after which he took from his person a watch and £75. Hartley was also witness to another dreadful scene of murder which occurred in one of his midnight robberies. Himself and a companion had entered the dwelling house of a Gentleman, who, being alarmed, seized a poker and made towards Hartley, who instantly snapped a pistol, which missed fire. The Gentleman seized him by the collar and dragged him to the floor, when Hartley's companion plunged a knife into his heart, and he fell dead upon Hartley. Two Ladies had followed the Gentleman into the room, and at the horrid sight they instantly fainted, whilst Hartley and his companions made their escape. He also frequently confessed that the murderer of Mrs. Donatty was the above mentioned who he represented to be a most blood-thirsty villian-. In one of his midnight excursions with two of his companions, he had a narrow escape of his life. They had packed up the principal part of the plate in the lower rooms ; when one of his companions, with horrid oaths, declared that he would proceed up stairs, in attempting which he was shot dead at the side of Hartley, who, with his other companion, made a hasty retreat. This circumstance only served to harden him in iniquity, as he acknowledged that he was totally devoid of fear or natural affection. Feelings of remorse were, however, a little awakened a few days before his trial, by an affectionate letter from a sister imprisoned for debt, whom he had robbed of £200. by forging a power of attorney, by which he obtained possession

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