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tions, the largest of which are called Almeneggaa, near the water of Tingalla, in the south-western part of the island. It is one hundred and five feet broad and very long. The direction of the chasm itself is from north to south. Its western wall, from which the other has been perpendicularly divided, is one hundred and seven feet six inches each in height, and consist of many strata, of abont ten inches each in height, of lava grown cold at different times. The eastern wall is only forty-five feet four inches in height, and that part of it which is directly opposite the highest part of the other side is no more than thirty-six feet five inches high.
REMARKABLE DISCOVERY IN GALLICIA.
A Mr. John Chimelecki having read in Kirchner's Annals a conjecture that the subterraneous caves and passages in Podolia had a comunication with those below Kiow, resolved to examine a site in Czorikow, to discover any traces of subterraneous caves in that direction. A cavity in the alabaster rocks, overgrown with grass and weeds, was found to be an opening made by art, which had, however, been choked up with earth and rubbish. When the workmen had cleared away the earth before the entrance, a mephetic vaponr issued from the opening, which so affected them, that they fell senseless to the grown ; but being removed into a pure atmosphere, soon recovered. On the following day, Mr. Chimelecki returned with the town clerk and six resolute peasants, provided with swords, pistols, torches, and candles, and descended himself into the cave, well armed, and with a lighted torch and tinder-box. Having hold of a rope three hundred fathoms, he crept through the entrance, which is about ten yards long, in subterraneous excavation, which resembled a spacious and lofty oval hall, hewn in alabaster, and had a very pleasing effect. Here he rested for some time, and then called to his companions who were waiting at the entrance, and who after persuasion followed him.-On further examining the cave, they discovered several passages of various sizes connected with each other, all curiously hewn out in alabaster, and covering a large extent. But whether these passages extended to a great distance whether they had an issue on the surface or not, were questions which they could not resolve, as they had got to the end of their line, and would not venture to proceed without a clue. After remaining there four hours, they were obliged to retreat by the pressure of the long confined air, which almost extinguished their torches and impeded their breath. The results of their examination are as follow :--All the subterraneous vaults, appeared to be formed partly by nature, and partly by art : they contain several halls or rather spacious vaults, the walls and roofs of which are of pure alabaster. They communicate by means of several passages running in different directions and of various breadths, some of them large enough for a coach and horses to turn in. One of these caves has a near resemblance to a kitchen, for they found upon the hearth, raised of several layers of alabaster, fragments of charcoal and remains of a kind of wood (fresnia, summer cherry,) which is not a native of the country, near the excavation. In some places they discovered human skulls, which crumbled into dust on being touched. They likewise found a silver coin, of about the size of a sixpence, on which, but with much difficulty, the name of Hadrianus is to be deciphered. They also saw several earthen vessels, resembling modern dishes, but did not touch them.
WAR AND COMMERCE.
It is estimated that more than a million of bushels of human and inhuman bones were imported last year from the Continent of Europe, into the port of Hull. The neighbourhood of Leipsic, Austerlitz, Waterloo, and of all places where, during the late bloody war, the principal battles were fought, have been swept alike of the bones of the hero and of the horse which he rode. Thus collected from every quarter, tbey have been shipped to the port of Hull, and thence forwarded to Yorkshire bone-grinders, who have erected steam-engines and powerful machinery for the
purpose of reducing them to a granulary state. In this condition they are sent chiefly to Doncaster, to the largest agricultural markets in that part of the country, and are there sold to the farmers to manure their lands. The oily substance gradually evolving as the bone calcines, makes a more substantial manure than almost any other substance-particulary human bones. It is now ascertained beyond a doubt, by actual experiment, upon an exstensive scale, that a dead soldier is a most valuable article of commerce; and for aught known to the contrary, good farmers of Yorkshire are, in a great measure, indebted to the bones of their children for their daily bread. It is certainly a singular fact, that Great Britain should have sent out such multitudes of soldiers to fight the battles of this country upon the Continent of Europe, and should then import their bones as an article of commerce to fatten her soil. Dr. Darwin, in his book on the Principles of Agriculture, laments that our bodies when dead, should be buried, deep in earth, instead of adding to the fertility of the, soil, and thereby increasing the mass of enjoyments of the living. The Yorkshire bone-grinders, however, seem determined that all shall not be lost.
Mr. Editor, Punning is not confined to Great Britain nor Ireland ; I have lately received the following from a Correspondent in Americathey turn entirely upon etymoligies, and may perhaps excite some of your ingenious Correspondents to try their hands upon the etymoligies of persons and things nearer home.
I am, Sir, your's, December 9, 1822.
When the seamen on board the ship of Christopher Columbus, after a series of fatigues, came in sight of St. Salvador, they burst out in exuberant mirth and jollity.
" The lads are in
a merry key,” cried the Commodore. America is now the name of a quarter of the globe.
Antiquarians say, that an old negro, at Cape Cod, whenever his master required any thing of him, would exclaim “ Massa chuse it.” Thence, in time, the name of Massachusett.
The city of Albany was originally settled by Scotch people. When strangers, on their arrival, asked how the new comers did, the answer was, “ All bonny.” The spelling we find a little altered, but not the sound.
A fat landlady, who, about the time of the flight of Mahomet from Meca, lived between New Orleans and the Chicasaw-cliffs, was scarcely ever unfurnished with pigeon sea pye; and thence got the name of Mrs. Seapie. The enormous river Mississippi owes its name to this fat landlady.
When the French first settled on the banks of the river St. Lawrence, they were stinted by the intendant, Monsieur Picard, to a can of spruce beer a-day. The people thought this measure very scant, and every moment articulated “ Can a-day!" It would be ungenerous in any reader to desire a more rational derivation of the word Canada.
A French surgeon lately published a long dissertation on the beneficial influence of groaning and crying on the nervous system. He contends that groaning and crying are the two grand operations by which nature allays anguish ; and that he has uniformly observed that those patients who give way to their natural feelings, more speedily recover from accidents and operations, than those who imagine it is unworthy of a man to betray such symptoms of cowardice and weaknes, as either to groan or to cry. He is always pleased by the crying and violent roaring of a patient, during the time he is undergoing a severe surgical operation, because he is satisfied that he will thereby so soothe his system as to prevent fever and insure a favourable termination. From the benefit terical and other nervous patients derive from crying or groaning, he supposes that by these processes of nature, the superabundant nervous power is exhausted, and the nervous system is in consequence rendered calm, and even the circulation of the blood greatly diminished. He relates a case of a man who, by means of crying and laughing, reduced his pulse from one hundred and twenty to sixty in the course of two hours. That some patients often have great satisfaction in groaning, and that hysterical patients often experience great relief from crying, no person will deny. As to restless, hypochondriacal subjects, or those who are never happy but when they are under some course of medical or dietetic treatment, the French surgeon assures them that they cannot do better than to groan all night and cry all day. By following this rule, and observing an abstemious diet, a person will effectually escape disease, and may prolong life to an incredible extent.
(From the Works of Father Fitz-Eustace.)
“ Pallida Mors æquo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas
Regumque turres."--HORACE. “ With equal pace impartial Fate
Knocks at the palace, as the cottage gate.”-FRANCIS.
In the above quotation Horace inculcates a severe moral truth; but the figure is by no means equal to the dignity, or perhaps the awfulness of the subject. Malherbe, on the contrary, has quite surpassed the Roman poet, as he has expressed the same idea with a greater degree of strength and pathos.
“ Le pauvre en sa cabane, ou le chaume le couvre,
Est sujet a ses loix ;
N'en defend pas nos rois."