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the hustings, the military' interfered, and the people fled in confusion. A tradesman who resided in the vicinity, hearing the shouts, hastily moved towards the spot to inquire the cause. The first person he met was Henry Sheares, pallid, trembling, and almost gasping for breath. He asked what had happened. Sheares with looks and tones importing extraordinary perturbation, implored him, if he valued his own life, to turn back. It was with some difficulty that the interrogator could obtain an intelligible account of the cause and extent of the danger. As soon as he had ascertained the fact, he fixed his eye on Sheares, and said, “Mr. Sheares, I know more of some matters than you may be aware of; take a friend's advice, and have no more to do with politics ; you have not nerve, Şir, for the business you have engaged in." But the infatuation of the times, and the influence of his brother's character and example prevailed. When the catastrophe came, John Shear's felt, when too latė, that he should have offered the same advice. This reflection embittered his last moments. It also called forth some generous traits that deserve to be remembered. His appeal to the Court in behalf of his brother, as given in the report of the trial.


Here lies, entombed,
The ashes, earthly parts, and remains
Of a bright and aspiring genius,

Who, in his youth,

Discovered some sparks
Of a brilliant and volatile nature ;

But was, in maturity,
Of a steady and grateful disposition,

And diffusive benevolence.
Though naturally of a warm temper,

And easily stirred up,
Yet was he a shining example
Of fervent and unreserved benignity;

For, though he might have been
The most dangerous and dreadful

Of enemies,

Even upon

He was the best and kindest

Of friends.
Nor did he ever look cool

his foes ;
Though his fondest admirers
Too often turned their backs upon

Oh! undeserving and invidious times !

When earths, illlustrious examples,
Are thus wantonly made light of;

Such resplendent virtues

Thus basely blown upon!
Tho' rather the promoter of a cheerful glass with others,

And somewhat given to smoaking,

Yet he was never seen in liquor,

Which was his utmost abhorrence.
Raking, which ruins most constitutions,

Was far from spoiling his,
Though it often threw him into inflammatory disorders.

His days, which were short,
Were ended by a gentle and gradual decay:
His substance wasted, and his strength consumed,
A temporal period was put to his finite existence

By his being seized with a cold,

In one of the warm days
Of the fatal month of May.
His loss, and cheering influence,
Iš often and feelingly regretted

By his friends,
Who erected this monument in memory

Of his endearing virtues.


Among the scenes of terror of which Smyrna has becn, at different times, the theatre, since the commencement of the Greek insurrection, the following affecting circumstance occurred :

While the murderers were forcing in the doors of the houses with their carbines, a poor Catholic family, in the neighbourhood of these massacres, was in a desperate situation. False security had hitherto made them neglect the necessary precautions. The unhappy father did not perceive his error, till his house-door was pierced through and through, by a shower of musket balls. The only means that remained to save his wife and numerous family from inevitable destruction, was to escape over the roofs of the houses. The moments were precious ; the door was already giving way to the efforts of the assailants. Taking his youngest son in his arms, he climbed from his own to the next roof, followed by his trembling wife with an infant at her breast, and after her his four daughters. But this flight was soon interrupted by a cross street. They already heard, on the neigbouring terraces, the furious cries of their pursuers ; it was necessary to venture the dangerous passage over the street. The father, inspired with new strength, pulled a plank from the adjoining house. and laid it across the street, so that it rested on the two opposite roofs, and offered a narrow, insecure bridge to this unfortunate family. But the imminent danger of falling, was not the only one that threatened them; the street they had to cross was that in which the shot (the cause of tumult) had been fired. It was full of furious Turks, whose continual firing alarmed them. But they had no time to consider. At last one of the daughters ventured on the narrow board ; but at her first step a hundred muskets were discharged at her. However, she reached the opposite roof without injury; and her sister, who followed, was equally fortunate. Meantime the rest of the family were discovered by the furious Turks on the neighbouring roofs, and a shower of balls from that side also assailed the unhappy fugitives. Urged by alarms from all quarters they all crowded at once on the frail bridge, which at first they hardly thought would bear one person. All the shots were now directed to the same point, and pierced, in many places, the board, which bent under their weight! But it seemed as if Providence covered with its Ægis this unhappy family—not one was wounded all reached the opposite roof, and thence the residence of an European family ; where the father, exhausted by exertion and mental agitation, as soon he found himself in safety, fainted away.


This mountain, one of the most furious volcanos in the world, is situated ou the southern side of Iceland, a large island in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. It was visited, in 1772, by Dr. Van Troil, a Swedish gentleman, along with Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Solander and Dr. James Lind, of Edinburgh. On their first landing they found a tract of land sixty or seventy miles in extent entirely ruined by lava, which appeared to have been in the highest state of liquifaction. Having undertaken a journey to the top of the mountain, they travelled three hundred or three hundred and sixty English miles over an uninterrupted tract of lava and had at length the pleasure of being the first who had arrived at the summit of the mountain.

Hecla, according to the accounts of these gentlemen, is situated in the southern part of the island, about four miles from the seacoast, and is divided into three parts at the top, the middle point being the highest ; and, according to an exact observation with Ramsden's barometer, is five thousand feet above the level of the sea. They were obliged to quit their horses at the first opening from which the fire had burst. They decribe this as a place with lofty glazed walls and glazed cliffs, unlike any thing which they had ever seen before.

A little higher up they found a large quantity of grit and stones; and still farther on, another opening, which, though not deep, descended lower than that of the highest point. Here they imagined they plainly discerned the effects of boiling water; and, not far off, the mountain began to be covered with snow, excepting some spots which were bare. The reason of this difference they perceived to be the hot vapour ascending from the mountain. As they ascended higher they found these spots became larger ; and about two hundred yards below the summit, a hole about a yard and a half in diameter was observed, whence issued so hot a steam, that they could not measure the degree of heat with the thermometer. The cold now began to be very intense. Fahrenheit's thermometer which, at the foot of the mountain, was at 54, now fell to 24 ; the wind also became so violent, that they were sometimes obliged to lie down for fear of being blown into the most dreadful precipices. On the very summit they experienced, at the same time, a high degree of heat and cold ; for, in the air, Fahrenheit's thermometer stood constantly at 24, but when set on the ground it rose to 153 ; the barometer stood 22. 247. Though they were very much inclined to remain here for some time, it could by no means be done safely ; for which reason they were obliged to descend very quickly.

The mountain seems to be made up, not of lava, but of sand, grit, and ashes ; which are thrown up with the stones, partly discoloured, and partly melted by the fire. Several sorts of pumice-stones were found on it, among which was one with some sulphur. Sometimes the pumice was so much burnt, that it was as light as tow. Its form and colour were sometimes very fine, but at the same time, so soft, that it was difficult to remove it from one plaee to another. The common lava was found both in large pieces and small; as likewise a quantity of black jasper burned at the cxtremities, and resembling trees and branches. Some slate of a strong red colour was observed among the stones thrown out by the volcano. In one place the lava had taken the form of chimney-stacks half broken dowu. As they descended the mountain they observed three openings. In one, every thing looked as red as brick ; from another, the lava had flowed in a stream about fifty yards broad, and which, after proceeding for some distance, had divided into three, large branches. Further on they perceived an opening, at the bottom of which was a mountain in the form of a sugar-loaf in throwing up of which the fire appeared to have exhausted itself.

We have already observed, that our travellers were the first who ascended to the top of this mountain. The reason that no one before them had ever done so was partly founded in superstition, and partly the steepness and difficulty of the ascent, which was greatly facilitated by an irruption in 1766. Most kinds of lava found in other volcanic countries, are to be met with about Hecla, or other Iceland volcanoes : as the grey, dark, perforated kind, similar to the Derbyshire loadstone ; the Iceland agute, pumex vitreus both the niger and viridis. Some have conjectured this to be the lapis obsideanus of the ancients, which they formed into statues.

The lava is seldom found near the openings whence the irruptions proceed, but rather loose grit and ashes ; and the greater part of the Icelandic mountains consist of this matter; which, when it is grown cold, generally takes an arched form. The upper crust frequently grows hard and solid, whilst the melted matter beneath it continues liquid. This forms great cavities, the walls of which, bed,and roof, are of lava, and where great quantities of stalactite lava are found. There are a vast number of these caves in the island, some of which are very large, and are made use of by the inhabitants for sheltering the cattle. The largest in the island is five hundred and thirty-four feet long, and from fifty to fifty-four in breadth, and between thirty-four and thirtysix in height-there are some prodigious clefts left by the irrup

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