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I. and who partook of all the hospitalities of the English court (whatever he might think), speaks of us in the most enthusiastic terms. Our ladies he describes as positive divinities, and the country and inhabitants, generally, as worthy the highest admiration. To be sure, he was writing the description of a most splendid spectacle, of which he was the witness, where the people were all dressed in their holiday clothes, and as the same kind of ceremony attended the Queen's mother all the way
from her landing at Dover, he may be said to have only seen the best side of us.
Jorevin de Rochford, another French traveller, in the time of Charles II. says—" This nation is tolerably polite, in which they, in a great measure, resemble the French, whose modes and fashions they study and imitate. They are in general large, fair, pretty well made, and have good faces. They are good warriors on the land, but more particularly so on the sea : they are dexterous and courageous, proper to engage in a field of battle, where they are not afraid of blows. The honour of understanding the art of ship-building, beyond all the other nations of Europe, must be allowed to the English. Strangers in general are not liked in London, even the Irish and Scots, who are the subjects of the same King. They have a great respect for their women, whom they court
with all imaginable civility. They always sit at the head of the table, and dispose of what is placed on it by helping every one, entertaining the company with some pleasant conceit, or agreeable story. In fine, they are respected as mistresses, whom every one is desirous of obeying, so that, to speak with truth, England is the paradise of women, as Spain and Italy is their purgatory."
The above travellers, it will be recollected, are describing our forefathers, and drawing a picture which, in some respects, is as new to us as it was to them. The next is a traveller of comparatively modern daysma man of information, and apparently good nature. He speaks, as, indeed, almost all foreigners do, of the extreme rudeness of the lower orders of English, but bestows every praise on the higher ranks, as well as on the country generally. The
person alluded to, is M. Grossly, who wrote his Tour in the year 1772. Our custom of shaking hands, he describes very ludicrously.—“To take a man by the arm," says he," and shake it until his shoulder is almost dislocated, is one of the grand testimonies of friendship which the English give each other, when they happen to meet. This they do very coolly ; there is no expression of friendship in their countenances, yet the whole soul enters into the arm which gives the shake ; and this
He supplies the place of embraces and salutes of the French." endeavours to correct the notions of foreigners, as to the English jostling them about in crowded streets of the metropolis from motives of enmity.
“The English," he tells them,
6 walk very
fast, their thoughts being entirely engrossed by business, and are very punctual to their appointments, so that those who happen to be in their way are sure to be sufferers by it : constantly darting forward, they jostle them with a force proportioned to their bulk, and the velocity of their motion. I have seen foreigners," he adds, “ not used to this exercise, let themselves be tossed and whirled about for a long time, in the midst of a crowd of passengers, who had nothing else in view but to get forward. Having soon, however, adopted the English custom, I made the best of my way through crowded streets, exerting my utmost efforts to shun persons who were equally careful to avoid me.” Of the polite way in which his inquiries after places were answered by the better sort of passengers, he speaks in very gratifying terms
- Whatever haste," says he, a gentleman may be in the street, as soon as you speak to him he stops to answer, and often steps out of his way to direct you, in a manner that sufficiently indemnifies you
for the insolence of the moh.” His greatest difficulty in these cases, he complains, was to make himself understood, and sometimes he was obliged to quit a good-natured guide, who had accompanied him part of his journey to show him, with only nods and grimaces. On these occasions, he informs us, he was accustomed to say to him, with a laugh and squeeze of the hand, “ Tower of Babylon ! He would laugh one side likewise,” says he, “ and so we used to part.”
Perhaps you will not think the following account of “ An Agricultural Experiment,” by Dr. Adam Clarke-addressed to the Editor of the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, too uninteresting to obtain a place in the Gleaner.. I am, sir, your constant Reader,
« Dear Sir, “ The following Agricultural Experiment, though not as perfect as I could have wished, may induce some of your readers to pursue the same method on a larger, and, I hope, a more successful scale.
“ On June 10, 1816, I planted three grains of red wheat, in what might be called good, but not rich, ground, at Millbrook, in Eccleston, Lancashire; they sprouted well, and produced several side shoots, which I had intended to divide and transplant, early in August, but being from home the transplanting was delayed till the 28th of the month : I then took up the three grains and divided the shoots, which amounted to one hundred and fifty; but in transplanting found I had room for only one hundred and twenty-six without going to a different soil.
These one hundred and twenty-six plants might be considered the produce of two and a half grains of wheat.
“ A few of the slips died ; the rest were healthy, and each put forth several side shoots. Owing to the excessive wetness and backwardness of the season, I did not transplant these as soon as I could have wished; but, on October, the 18th, I took up all the survivors of the one hundred and twenty-six sub-divided and re-planted them in a more open place, and found that the produce was six hundred and fifty-eight perfect wheat plants. I threw aside what might be called the produce of half a grain, and ascertained that, at this second sub-division and transplanting, two grains of wheat had yielded five hundred and seventy-four distinct plants, or two hundred and eighty-seven plants from one grain. I then committed the whole to Divine Providence, till the next spring, intending to sub-divide and transplant the produce of those five hundred and seventy-four plants twice in that season,
should it be propitious. “ On Monday and Tuesday, March 24, 25, 1817, I took up the above plants, which had in general stood the winter very well, a few plants only having died, and a few been killed with the frost, which had been keen for several mornings in the preceding week. As they had in the course of the preceding October (the time of the last transplanting), and in the beginning of this spring put forth several side shoots, I again divided them and found, that one of the grains, that is, two hundred and eighty-seven plants, had multiplied itself into nine hundred plants, and the second grain into nine hundred and sixteen! These I planted in rows, in a field along side of other wheat, sown in the common way; setting the plants four inches asunder, and about ten inches between the rows. I once more committed these two grains in their produce to the care of that astonishing Providence which had multiplied one into nine hundred, and intended to sub-divide once more, should the spring be forward and favourable.
“ The first week in April there came a severe frost for four or five nights; and not having taken any precaution to defend these tender plants, one-third, at least, of the whole was killed ! Finding that my experiments were thus necessarily rendered incomplete, I did not attempt any further sub-division and transplanting. The remaining plants thrived, and were very healthy, and, in general, greatly surpassed the other wheat in length, bulk, and weight of ear; many of the ears were five and six inches long, and the grains large and well fed. As some of the more slender stalks did not ripen as soon as the rest, I left them growing after the field of wheat had been cut down ; and, to complete the catastrophe of this experiment, fowls and birds destroyed one half of the crop ! What remained, which amounted to several quarts, was of the finest quality; and, had it not been for the preceding accidents, the result of this single experiment would, I am_satisfied, have astonished the most scientific agriculturists in Europe.
“ From this experiment, it is evident that a single grain of wheat has an almost unlimited capacity of multiplying itself by slips and effects—that every slip possesses, in potentia, the full virtue of the original plant ; and that so abundant is its germinating power, that if all the wheat in Europe were destroyed to å single grain, that grain, by proper management in the above way, would, in a short time, produce a sufficiency to sow all the cultivated surface of the continent and islands, of this fourth part of the globe. He who cannot see the hand, the wisdom, and the beneficent Providence of God in this thing must be blind indeed ; and he whose soul does not expand in gratitude to his Heavenly Father for the profusion of love and tender care manifested even in this one case, must have a stupid head, or a callous heart.
“ Perhaps I may, at some future time, give you the result of some similar experiments ; I am, dear sir,
“ Your affectionate Friend, Millbrook,
ADAM CLARKE.” July, 12, 1892.
P.S.-As in some districts in Ireland the populace are said to be in a starving condition, chiefly occasioned through want of employment (and as most liberal subscriptions are now in the course of being made to supply their wants): query, would it not make the charity more effectual to give them some employment that would be the most likely to be immediately beneficial to themselves, and, ultimately, to the interests of the nation ? and as there are so few things on which, in that country, they can be engaged, would it not be well to set them to plant and till wheat on the above plan? If such a project should be entertained, from my experience in this way, I could give many useful hints and directions for its proper management, so as to ensure the greatest degree of success.
ERUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS.
(From Travels in Italy, by an American.) Vesuvius, since we have been in its neighbourhood, has only rolled out volumes of smoke; sometimes gracefully mounting into the air, sometimes lowering about the crater, according to
the state of the atmosphere, and the direction of the wind. There has been no flame since the eruption of 1794, though the mountain has been often thought to threaten,
A day or two ago we rambled up its sides, as far the foot of the cone. They exhibit the most singular contrast of barrenness and fertility ; according to the course of the torrents of lava, the intervals between which are covered with chesnut-trees and vineyards, from which are made lucious wines called the Lachryma Christi, and Muscadel.
At the top of the ascent, where you are still a mile and a half from the crater, there was, before the insurrection, a convent of monks, where refreshments could be procured; but it is now deserted, and the weary visitant must content himself with the enchanting prospect which throws the bay of Naples, with its cities and its islands, its hills and its valleys, at once at his feet, bordering with a sparkling semicircle in the open sea, terminating every evening with the indescribable glories of the Italian sky.
We approached the crater, a hill of ashes and pumice-stones, in the shape of a cone, half a mile in diameter, and five hundred feet high, near enough to hear the great pot boil : the continual bubbling of the liquid lava producing a sound that exactly resembled the boiling of a cauldron.
But as this conical hill cannot be ascended without excessive fatigue, from sinking every step half-leg deep in ashes, hot enough to scorch a pair of boots; and as we had an account of the present situation of the mouth of the crater from a French gentleman who had descended into it the day before, we suffered curiosity to press us no further, and amused ourselves with tracing across the subjacent country, the various currents of lava with which fertile valleys have been desolated, and flourishing cities overwhelmed.
Towards Midsummer, 1794, Vesuvius had ceased to vomit either fire or smoke, a circumstance which generally presages an eruption ; and at half past three o'clock on the morning of the 13th of July, the inhabitants of the foot of the mountain were suddenly alarmed with a shock, like that of an earthquake. This terrifying stroke was thrice repeated, and the people immediately fled into their gardens, where they passed the remainder of the night in anxious expectation.
Next morning nothing was to be seen at Naples but penitential processions of men, women, and children, walking barefoot to the cathedral, to implore the protection of San Gennaro.
For the next three days the weather was tempestuous, and the air loaded with vapors, with which, together with clouds of ashes, it was sometimes surpernaturally darkened ; and, during these terrific | intervals, several slighter shocks were felt, attended with rumbling noises, like distant thonder ; when, about two