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2. Every complete direct quotation begins with a capital letter.
I said, “ Good morning.”
3. A short direct quotation is usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma (,) or
Come on, boys,” cried Harry.
4. If the quotation is a question, it is followed by a question mark; if it is an exclamation, it is followed by an exclamation mark.
Where are you going, boys?” asked Harry.
5. The word “I” is always written with a capital.
6. The words "yes” and “no” are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
Yes, I am well.
7. The name of the person spoken to, or addressed, is always separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas.
My child, listen.
8. Words shortened by intentionally omitting a letter or letters are called contractions.
In a contraction an apostrophe (') is always used to show where a letter or letters have been omitted.
Do not, don't; is not, isn't; cannot, can't; we will, we'll.
XIII. CHAPTER TEST 1 Your teacher will dictate some sentences for you to write. As you write, think especially of the use of the apostrophe, comma, and quotation marks. Be self-reliant.
1 Note to the teacher: You will find sentences for dictation in your Manual, page 88.
WRITING FABLES AND SHORT STORIES
Note to the teacher: Your Manual is your silent partner, unobtrusive, but ever ready with necessary directions and helpful, thought-stimulating suggestions.
I. A FABLE TO STUDY
The Donkey and the Race Horse A DONKEY boasted that he could outrun a horse. The horse consented to run a race with the foolish beast. Of course the donkey was defeated, and he was loudly laughed at by the other animals.
“I now see what was the matter with me,” he said. “I ran a thorn into my foot some months ago and it still pains me.”
LESSING This story is called a fable. A fable is a short story, usually about animals, that teaches some truth or lesson.
Did the donkey give the true reason for his defeat? Why was he defeated ? Even if he had never hurt his foot, could he have defeated the race horse ?
Did you ever know a boy or a girl who always gave some excuse for being defeated in a game or for doing poorer work than another?
What does this fable teach?
Study this fable as you studied the story, The Hunter and the Lion (p. 77).
The ” begins with a capital letter because “ Donkey
and “Race Horse" begin with capital letters because
How many paragraphs are in this fable ?
Paragraph 1: Which words in the first paragraph begin with capital letters? Why?
How many sentences are in the first paragraph ?
Paragraph II: In this paragraph who is speaking ?
What words in this paragraph are not part of a quotation? Why not?
Study this fable thoughtfully so that when your teacher dictates it, you can write it without a mistake.
STUDYING THE MEANING OF WORDS
II. WRITING A FABLE FROM DICTATION 1
In writing the fable, The Donkey and the Race Horse, from your teacher's dictation, try to write it without making one mistake. Think of five things: the title, capitals, paragraphs, spelling, and marks of punctuation and quotation.
III. CORRECTING DICTATION 1 Next to writing without a mistake, the best thing that you can do is to find your mistakes yourself, to think what you should have done, and to correct each mistake. In this way, you will learn to do a thing right the first time.
IV. STUDYING THE MEANING OF WORDS 1. Copy these words taken from the fable,
, The Donkey and the Race Horse :
Under each of the above words write the words from the lists below that mean the same.
bragged beaten run faster
1 Note to the teacher: Carry out these exercises according to directions and suggestions in your Manual, pages 95 and 96.