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3. Answer the following questions, using “There is,” “There was," "There are,” or “There were' in each answer.

Do not say they for there.

(a) How many months are in a year?
(6) How many days are in a year?
(c) How many blue fields are in the flag ?
(d) How many stripes are in the flag?
(e) How many stripes are white?
() How many are red?
(9) How many stars are in the flag ?
(h) How many original states were there?
(i) How many days are in this week ?
(j) How many days were in last week?

VI. STUDYING A LETTER

One Monday morning, as Frank Burton was leaving the house, the postman handed him a letter. "It must be for mother," thought Frank. But no, there plainly written on the envelope was the address :

Mr. Frank Burton
21 Hanover St.
Harrisburg

Pennsylvania

"It's for me! It's from Walter Norris !” cried Frank, as he tore the envelope open. Then he read the following letter:

STUDYING A LETTER

157

16 Maple Street
Middletown, Pa.

Oct. 4, 1924 Dear Frank,

Where were you this morning ? Did you forget that

you had promised to spend the day with me? I was at the station to meet every train. But no Frank appeared.

All the other boys I invited were here, and we had a very good time. But I missed you. What are you going to do next Saturday? Can you come and spend the day with me?

Sincerely yours,

Walter Norris

Frank slowly returned the letter to its envelope.

“If Walter only knew why I didn't keep my promise! Forget it? I guess not! If ever a fellow had an excuse for breaking a promise, I had. I'll write to Walter tonight and tell him why I could not be with him. Won't he be surprised when he gets my letter!” With these thoughts running through his mind, Frank hurried off to school.

Studying Walter's Letter Look at what was written on the envelope. What is written on the first line? “Mr.” is an abbreviation for Mister. You know that the abbreviations of the names of the days and

months are followed by a period (.). “Mr.” is also followed by a period.

Every abbreviation is followed by a period.

What is written on the second line? "St." is the abbreviation for Street. What is written on the third line? What is on the fourth?

Often the name of the state is abbreviated. The abbreviation for "Pennsylvania” is Pa. It is usually better to write the name in full on the envelope, for some abbreviations, as written, may look much alike. For example, Pa. might be confused with Va., the abbreviation for “Virginia," leading to delay and perhaps mistake in delivery of the letter.

The address is written on the envelope. It gives the name of the person to whom the letter is sent and the place where he lives — city or town, street and number, and state; or, if the person lives on a rural mail delivery route, the route and number, with the city or town and state is given. If the person addressed lives in a foreign country, the name of the country is also a part of the address.

The address of the writer of the letter is usually written or printed in the upper left-hand corner of the envelope.

STUDYING A LETTER

159

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Now let us look at Walter's letter itself. In the upper right-hand corner, what is written? What do the first two lines tell? What does the third line tell?

The part of the letter, written in the upper right-hand corner, that tells where the writer lives and the date of the writing, is called the heading.

What abbreviations are used in the heading ?
What is written after each abbreviation?

In every heading a comma is used to separate the name of the city or town from the name of the state, and the day of the month from the year.

To whom is Walter writing? How does he address or call him? See what is written at the left. You know already that the name of the person addressed, or spoken or written to, is separated from what is said by a comma. That is why there is a comma after “Dear Frank.”

At the close of the letter, notice the comma after “Sincerely yours.” There is no mark of punctuation after Walter's name. None is needed.

Why do you think Frank did not go to see Walter? He himself said that he did not forget to go. He also said he had a good excuse. It must have been something unexpected or he would have written and told Walter he could not go. It must have been something unusual or strange,

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for he knew it would surprise Walter when he heard the reason.

Think of something interesting that might have kept Frank at home. At the next lesson you are going to play that you are Frank and write a letter to Walter, telling him why you could not visit him.

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Where does Frank live? You can find out from the address on the envelope of the letter that Walter wrote (p. 156).

What will you write on the first line of your heading? What on the second line? Where will you place commas? periods?

Frank said he would write to Walter on Monday night; that would be October the sixth. How will you write the date on the third line of the heading ?

Where will you write “Dear Walter”? What mark will you place after “Dear Walter?

Notice where the first word of Walter's letter, “Where,” is written. Write the first word of your letter in the same position.

How will you begin your letter to Walter ? You might begin by saying to him something like

this:

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