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geant des Expéditions Commerciales sur les Ports bloqnés, se voit forcé de déclarer le Blocus effectif des Ports de Cadix, Barcelone, Santona et Saint-Sébastien. Je vous prie, Monsieur, de vouloir bien l'annoncer à votre Gouvernement, et lui faire connaître que, conformément aux principes du droit maritime, les bâtimens, de quelque Nation qu'ils soient, qui tenteraient de s'introduire dans les Ports ci-dessus désignés, seront arrêtés par les forces de Sa Majesté, et pourront encourir la confiscation.

Le Gouvernement du Roi espère que la mesure qu'il a du prendre, sera de peu de durée, et que bientôt les places bloquées pourront de nouveau s'ouvrir au commerce de tous les Etats. J'ai l'honneur d'être, etc.


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(2).- Circular.-Blockade of Ferrol and Corunna. MONSIEUR,

Paris, le 26 Juillet, 1823, Je m'empresse de vous prevenir que, pour compléter la mesure dont j'ai eu l'honneur de vous donner connaissance par ma lettre du 24 de ce mois, le Gouvernement de Roi s'est déterminé à déclarer en état de blocus effectif les Ports de Ferrol et de la Corogne.

Je vous prie, Monsieur, de vouloir bien l'annoncer à votre Gouvernement, et je profite de cette occasion, etc.


(3.)-Circular.-Blockade of Ferrol raised. MONSIEUR,

Paris, le 3 Aoút, 1823. Sa Majesté, ayant été instruite que ses troupes étaient entrées au Ferrol le 15 Juillet par capitulation, a donné ordre que le blocus que ses vaisseaux avaient formé devant cette place et devant la Corogne, soit levé pour le Ferrol, et ne fût plus maintenu que devant la Corogne, selon les usages de la guerre reconnus et avoues en pareil cas.

Je vous prie de vouloir bien transmettre cette information à votre Gouvernement, et je saisis cette occasion, etc.


(4.)-Circular.-Blockade of Corunna, St. Sebastian, and Santona,

raised, MONSIEUR,

Paris, le 7 Octobre, 1823. J'ai l'honneur d'annoncer à Votre Excellence, que le Gouvernement du Roi vient de donner l'ordre de lever le blocus des Ports Espagnols de la Corogne, de Saint-Sebastien et de Santona, qui se sont rendus aux forces de Sa Majesté. En conséquence, les bâtimens

neutres qui se présenteront devant ces Ports y seront admis sans difficulté.

Je prie Votre Excellence de vouloir bien donner à sa Cour connaissance de cette disposition, et j'ai l'honneur d'être, etc.


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DECREE of the Spanish General Morales, relative to the

Blockade of the Spanish Main, and the punishment of Foreigners found in the Service, or in the Territories in possession of the Spanish American Insurgents; and Protests of Officers of the British, American, and Netherlands' Governments against the same.

September to December, 1822.

(1.)– Decree of General Morales. Maracaybo, 15 September, 18224
By Don Francisco Thomas Morales, Field Marshal of the National

Armies, and Commander-in-Chief of that employed on the Spanish
Main, &c.

WHEREAS, notwithstanding the Blockade imposed upon all the Ports of the Spanish Main, in possession of the Insurgents, many Foreigners have found means to introduce themselves into the said Ports, some for the purpose of assisting in the Rebellion, and others with the intertion of opening and carrying on trade, and also relations of a punishable nature, militating against the Sovereignty and the Legitimate Rights of the Spanish Nation, against the purity and sanctity of our Holy Religion, and against the honest and virtuous customs that formerly honoured these happy Countries; and whereas I do not feel less interested in the vindication of objects of so great and important a nature, than in the re-establishment of the good National customs which the inconsiderate protection granted to the said Foreigners has caused to disappear from Venezuela; I do therefore by virtue of the Power and Authority in me vested, and in order to put an end at once to evils so alarming, hereby order and decree as follows:

Art. I. Such Foreigners as shall hereafter be taken or found in the Military Service, or in any branch of administration of the Enemy; such as shall be convicted of having a share in any Printing Office; or of being Editors or Compilers of any Journal, Pamphlet, or Work, relative to the present War, the Affairs of revolted America, the Roman Catholick Religion, or that shall be in any manner offensive to the Nation, its Government, or subjects, shall suffer death, alter under

* Mem. This Decreo was revoked by a Proclamation of General Morales, or the 8th February, 1823, which also gave publieity to the Law of the Cortes, or the 27 June, 1821, in favour of Foreigners resorting to South America.

going a shoat Military trial, and whatever property they possess, whether real or personal, or in moveables, shall be forfeited to the use of the Publick Treasury.

II. Such Foreigners as may be found in the Country, who are not in the exercise of any of the employments, or who do not come under any of the descriptions mentioned in the foregoing Article, but who may have come to the Country while it was in possession of the enemy, shall be condemned to labour at the Publick works, for three Years, and all the property that they may be possessed of shall be confiscated to the use of the National Treasury.

III. Such Foreigners as have been found in this Capital, and in the Territory reduced by the Spanish Arms, to whom a remission of the fate which their persons, as well as their properties, deserved, has been granted by the National generosity; in consequence of their acts, and their political and religious conduct not being then so well known as they are at the present day, shall quit the Spanish Territory, (and be allowed to go to any other Country they may chuse), within the limited term of eight days, with their baggage, and such property as they have been permitted to retain, and shall be prohibited from returning to the said Spanish Territory, under pain of death, unless it be under the conditions and circumstances that may


prescribed, for the purpose of carrying on a lawful Trade with the Ports of Venezuela.

And in order that the Blockade, as well as the present Decree may be made known to all, that they may have their full effect, that they may be supported by the civil and military authorities, and that the Foreigners alluded to may not again violate the former, I hereby direct that the same be proclaimed in this Capital, and throughout the other Provinces as soon as they become pacified, and that the present Decree be printed and circulated through the Colonies, and wherever it may be necessary.

Given at the Head Quarters at Maracaybo, the 15th September, 1822.



(2.)—Protest of the Dutch Governor of Curaçoa. 7 he Rear Admiral, Governor of Curaçoa and its Dependencies, to His

Excellency the General in Chief of the Spanish Army on the Main. SIR,

Curaçoa, November 5, 1822. I HAD the honour, on the 4th inst. to receive your Excellency's Letter of the 18th October, together with an authentick Copy of your Excellency's Decree, dated 15th September, ult, relative to the treatment which Foreigners have to expect from your-Excellency, as ex


préssed in the said Decree, if they are found in the Service, or in the Territories in possession, of the Enemies of the Spanish Nation on the Mains Youpon) Summit

II. i II osted will not enter into the measures of policy and safety which four Excellency may think proper to adopt, wherever you have lawfalaus thority, with regard to the Rights of Nations and Warfare. I feel myself, however, in consequence of your Excellency's said Decreer obliged to oppose those measures which may be made applicable to or exercised oa Dutch Subjects, who may be found engaged in lawful trade, or in the peaceable prosecution of their profession.

I refer myself to what I have already stated with regard to the Blockade, namely: I will not acknowledge any other than such as is declared in conformity to the Laws of Nations, and is duly enforced.

With respect to the threatened proceedings, I most solemnly deny the right your Excelleney presumes to have, of putting them in force against peaceable Dutchmen, Subjects of the Kingdom of The Ne therlands, who may be found trafficking, or in the prosecution of their business or interests, which are not prohibited by Laws and Customs generally admitted and acknowledged by Subjects of Neutral Powers, who do not interfere in the disputes or wars of others. sic !!!

I thus protest against all and every act of violence or ill treatment and against all injustice exercised by your Excellency on Dutch Suba jects, either in their persons or property, for which, and for the conse quences whereof, I hold your Excellency responsible, whilst i reserve to myself all such measures and steps, which your Excellency's preceedings may render necessary for the maintenance of the dignity and rights of the Dutch Nation, and for the protection of the persons and properties of its Subjects. I remain, with all consideration, His Excellency General Morales.

CANTZ'LAAR 1 Make known the above-mentioned Letter, with its annexed Docum ment, by publication in the usual manner, and through the medium of the Curaçoa Gazette, in order that the said Decree of the General-inChief of the Spanish Army on the Main, and our Answer thereto, may come to the knowledge of all Dutch Subjects. VD.'!114


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(3.)-Protest of Captain Spence, United States' Navy. From the Commander of The United States Ship Cyane, and Senior

Naval Officer in the West Indies, to His Excellency Francis Thomas

Morales, General-in-Chief of the Spanish Royal Forces on the Mein. SIR,

pel ! for Curuçoa, November 15, 1822. I HAVB been presented with your Excellency's Publick Decree of the 15th September last; a declaration of the most despotick and sanguinary nature, against all Foreigners, whose love of glory, -com

mercial pursuit, and lawful occupations, may enlist them in the Service of, or detain them in the Territories possessed by, the Enemies of Spain, recognized by The United States as Independent Governments. 1. A Manifesto so extraordinary, so hostile to the Rights of Nations, so disparaging and prejudicial to the character of the era in which we live, cannot fail to excite astonishment, and to attract the attention of all who wish to preserve civilization from the encroachments of barbarism, or have rights to protect from Military misrule and invasion. kovs As Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Forces, ineffectually employed in Venezuela, you are accountable to your King only for your proceedings against his Subjects. But, for acts of rapacity, cruelty, and oppression, exercised against Foreigners--for their illegal imprisonment-for the seizure and confiscation of their property--for their degradation under the aforesaid Proclamation, you are answerable to the World, because, by such acts of hostility, you wage an indiscriminate War against all Governments, and, by trampling on the sacred Rights of Man, place at defiance Nations who hold the Laws and humane usages of civilized Society as rules of action.

War, under the mildest aspect, is a calamity to be deplored; but when to its inseparable horrors are superadded cruelties, perpetrated without necessity, and men, pursuing peaceable avocations, are included in the most sanguinary proscriptions, without reference or tea spect to the Nation which owes them protection, it becomes a demoniac i scourge, la hydra curse, which policy and humanity are equally inter rested in arresting!

IHIN bu Against such a course of violence as you have proclaimed to the World, in behalf of my Countrymen, I protest, and dohere by premonish your Excellency, that, to enforce the penalty, punishment and ignominy, threatened in your Manifesto, against the Citizens of The United States, who are at present, or who may hereafter be found by your Excellency in the Independent Territories to which you refer, prosesi cuting their Commercial concerns under the guarantee of Laws and usages, which 'no- Christian Soldier, fighting either for glory, his Monarch, or his Country, can violate with impunity, the Soldier, whose sword is stained with the blood of unoffending men, superfluously shed, wins not the wreath of the Warrior, but the reputation of a recreant. & 16 bitni

۱۶۹ ۱۷ ،۱۱۱۱۱۱ The Blockade declared by General Morillo, to which your Excellency alludes, exists not; neitber has it, at any anterior period, been enforced in conformity to rules prescribed by the accepted decisions of the highest Authorities, rendered valid by time and general acqui. escence. Ity therefore, has hitherto been a mere pretext for the intercéption of our lawful trade--for the seizure and detention of our property for the abuse and maltreatmeut of our Marineret for purposes of plunder and outrage-all of which evils it has produced.

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