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Europe is still unsettled, and although the War long menaced between Russia and Turkey has not broken out, there is no certainty that the Differences between those Powers will be amicably adjusted. It is impossible to look to the oppressions of the Country, respecting which those Differences arose, without being deeply affected. The mention of Greece fills the mind with the most exalted sentiments, and arouses in our bosoms the best feelings of which our nature is susceptible. Superior skill and refinement in the arts, heroic gallantry in action, disinterested patriotism, enthusiastic zeal and devotion in favour of public and personal liberty, are associated with our recollections of ancient Greece. That such a Country should have been overwhelmed, and so long hidden, as it were, from the World, under a gloomy despotism, has been a cause of unceasing and deep regret to generous minds for Ages past. It was natural, therefore, that the re-appearance of those People in their original character, contending in favour of their liberties, should produce that great excitement and sympathy in their favour, which have been so signally displayed throughout The United States. A strong hope is entertained that these People will recorer their Independence, and resume their equal station among the Nations of the Earth.

A great effort has been made in Spain and Portugal to improve the condition of the People, and it must be very consoling to all benevolent minds, to see the extraordinary moderation with which it has been conducted. That it may promote the happiness of both Nations, is the ardent wish of this whole People, to the expression of which we confine ourselves; for, whatever may be the feelings or sentiments, which every Individual under our Government has a right to indulge and express, it is, nevertheless, a sacred maxim, equally with the Government and the People, that the destiny of every Independent Nation, in what relates to such improvements, of right belongs, and ought to be left, exclusively to themselves.

Whether we reason from the late Wars, or from those menacing symptoms which now appear in Europe, it is manifest, that, if a 600vulsion should take place in any of those Countries, it will proceed from causes which have no existence, and are utterly unknown in these States, in which there is but one Order, that of the People, to whom the Sovereignty exclusively belongs. Should War break out in any of those Countries, who can foretel the extent to which it may be carried, or the desolation which it may spread ? Exempt as we are from these causes, our internal tranquillity is secure; and, distant as we are from the troubled scene, and faithful to first principles, in regard to other Powers, we might reasonably presume, that we should not be molested by them. This, however, ought not to be calculated on as certain. Unprovoked injuries are often inflicted; and even the peculiar felicity of our situation, might, with some, be a cause for efcitement and aggression. The history of the late Wars in Europe furnishes a complete demonstration, that no System of conduct, however correct in principle, can protect Neutral Powers from injury, from any Party; that a defenceless position, and distinguished love of Peace, are the surest invitations to War: and that there is no way to avoid it, other than by being always prepared and willing, for just cause, to meet it. If there be a People on Earth, whose more especial duty it is, to be at all times prepared to defend the Rights with which they are blessed, and to surpass all others in sustaining the necessary burthens, and in submitting to sacrifices to make such preparations, it is undoubtedly the People of these States.

When we see that a Civil War, of the most frightful character, rages from the Adriatic to the Black Sea; that strong symptoms of War appear in other Parts, proceeding from causes which, should it break out, may become general, and be of long duration; that the War still continues between Spain and the Independent Governments, her late Provinces, in this Hemisphere; that it is likewise menaced between Portugal and Brazil, in consequence of the attempt of the latter to dismember itself from the former; and that a system of Piracy of great extent is maintained in the neighbouring Seas, which will require equal vigilance and decision to suppress it, the reasons for sustaining the attitude which we now hold, and for pushing forward all our measures of defence with the utmost vigour, appear to me to acquire new force.

The United States owe to the World a great example, and, by means thereof, to the cause of liberty and humanity, a generous support. They have so far succeeded, to the satisfaction of the virtuous and enlightened of every Country. There is no reason to doubt, that their whole movement will be regulated by a sacred regard to principle, all our Institutions being founded on that basis. The ability to support our own Cause', under any trial to which it may be exposed, is the great point on which the Public solicitude rests. It has been often charged against Free Governments, that they have neither the foresight nor the virtue to provide, at the proper season, for great emergencies; that their course is improvident and expensive; that War will always find them unprepared, and, whatever may be its calamities, that its terrible warnings will be disregarded and forgotten, as soon as Peace returns. I have full confidence that this charge, so far as relates to The United States, will be shewn to be utterly destitute of truth. Washington, Dec. 3, 1822.

JAMES MONROE.

ACT of the Congress of The United States, for carrying into

effect the Convention of Navigation and Commerce between The United States and France, concluded at Washington on the 24th day of June, 1822.

Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of The United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Act to im. pose a new Tonnage Duty on French Ships and Vessels, approved on the 15th day of May, 1820, be, and the same is hereby, repealed.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That, for the term of 2 years, from and after the 30th day of September last, articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture, of France, imported into The United States, in French Vessels, shall pay an Additional Duty of 3 dollars and 75 cents per ton of merchandise, according to the tenour of the Convention of Navigation and Commerce between The United States and France, concluded on the 24th day of June, 1822, over and above the Duties collected upon the like articles, also of the growth, produce, or manufacture of France, when imported in Vessels of The United States: Provided always, That no discriminating Duty shall be levied upon the productions of the soil or industry- of France, imported in French bottoms, into the Ports of the United States, for transit or re-exportation.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That, from and after the expiration of 2 years from the said 30th day of September last, in case of the continuance in force of the said Convention, and so long as the same shall continue in force, the extra Duties, specified in the 2d Section of this Act, shall, from and after the said 30th day of September, 1824, be diminished by one-fourth of their whole Amount; and, afterwards, by one-fourth of said Amount, from year to year, so long as neither of the Parties to the said Convention shall have declared the intention of renouncing the same, in the manner therein provided, and until the whole of such discriminating and extra Duty shall have been done away.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That, during the continuance in force of the said Convention, the duties of Tonnage, Light Money, Pilotage, Port Charges, Brockerage, [Brokerage,) and all other Duties upon Foreign Shipping, over and above those paid by Vessels of The United States, other than those specified in the 2d Section of this Act, shall not exceed, for French Vessels, in the Ports of The United States, 94 cents per ton of the Vessel's French Passport.

Sec 5. And be it further enacted, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is hereby authorized to cause to be refunded, from any moneys in the Treasury, not otherwise appropriated, any extra duties levied before the 24th day of June last, by virtue of the Act of Congress of the 15th of May, 1820, imposing a new Tonnage Duty on French Ships or Vessels.

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Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That if the 2d Separate Article of the said Convention, concluded on the 24th of June last, should be ratified by both the Contracting Parties thereto, and the Ratifications thereof should be exchanged, on or before the 230 day of June next, then, from and after the expiration of two months, subsequent to the said exchange of Ratifications, and during the continuance in force of the said Separate Article, the extra Duties specified in the 2d Section of this Act shall be levied only upon the excess of value of the merchandise imported into The United States in any French Vessel, over the value of the merchandise exported from The United States in the same Vessel, upon the same voyage; so that if the value of the articles exported shall equal or exceed that of the articles imported in the same Vessel, (not including articles imported for transit or re-exportation,) no such extra Duties shall be levied; and if the articles exported are less in value than those imported, the extra Duties shall be levied

the amount of difference of their value. Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, 'That all Acts, or parts of Ats , of Congress, incompatible with the execution of each and every Article of the said Convention, concluded on the 24th of June last, and of its rati. fied Separate Article, be, and the same are hereby, repealed. Approved, March 3, 1823.

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BRITISH NOTIFICATION, relative to the French Blockade of the Ports of Cadiz, Barcelona, Santano, and St. Sebastian,

Foreign Office, July 29, 1823. It has been notified, by the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the Ambassadors and Ministers of Neutral Powers, at Paris, “ That the French Government has declared an effective Blockade of the Ports of Cadiz, Barcelona, Santona, and St. Sebastian.”

BRITISH NOTIFICATION, relative to the French Block

ade of the Port of Corunna.

Forcign Offire, August 5, 1823. It has been notified, by the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the Ambassadors and Ministers of Neutral Powers, at Paris, That the French Government has declared an effective Blockade of the Port of Corunna."

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BRITISH ORDER in COUNCIL, prohibiting the Expert

ation of Gun-powder, or Saltpetre, or Arms or Ammunition, to the Coast of Africa.

At the Court at Carlton House, the 21st of February 1823.

PRESENT, THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY IN COUNCIL.

WHEREAS His Majesty was pleased, by His Order in Council, bearing date the 15th of November last, to order, require, prohibit, and command, that no Person or Persons whatsoever (except the Master-General of the Ordnance for His Majesty's service) should, at any time during the space of six months (to commence from the 30th. day of November then instant), presume to transport any Gun-powder or Saltpetre, or any sort of Arms or Ammunition, to any Port or Place within the Dominions of the King of Spain, or to any Port or Place on the Coast of Africa, (except to any Ports or Places within the Streights of Gibraltar), or in the West Indies, or on any part of the Continent of America (except to a Port or Place, or Ports or Places in His Majesty's Territories or Possessions on the Continent of North America, or in the Territories of The United States of America), or ship or lade any

Gunpowder or Salt-petre, or any sort of Arms or Ammunition, on board any or Vessel, in order to transporting the same into any such Ports or Places within the Dominions of the King of Spain, or into any such Port or Place on the Coast of Africa, (except as above excepted), or in the West Indies, or on the Continent of America, (except as above excepted), without leave or permission in that behalf first obtained from His Majesty, or His Privy Council, upon pain of incurring and suffering the respective forfeitures and penalties inflicted by an Act, passed in the 29th year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the Second, intituled “ An Act to empower His Majesty to prohibit the exportation of Gun-powder, or any sort of Arms or Ammunition, and also to empower His Majesty to restrain the carrying coastwise of Salt-petre, Gun-powder, or any sort of Arms or Animunition;” and also by an Act, passed in the 33d year of His late Majesty's Reign, cap. 2, intituled “ An Act to enable His Majesty to restrain the exportation of Naval Stores, and more effectually to prevent the exportation of Salt-petre, Arms, and Ammunition, when prohibited by Proclamation or Order in Council;" His Majesty, by and with the advice of His Privy Council, is pleased hereby to revoke His said Order in Council; and His Majesty is further pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy Council, to order, require, prohibit, and command, that no Person or Persons whatsoever (except the Master-General of the Ordnance for His Majesty's Service), do, at any time during the space of six months, (to commence from the date of this Order), presume to transport any Gua

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