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bours, from their establishments on this Continent, and the adjacent Islands, more powerful motives connect us with the States recently formed in America. Their origin, their interests, are the same as our own; they are threatened by the same dangers, and, as our destiny is the same, our exertions should correspond. Influenced by these considerations, the Republick of Colombia has proposed the assembling of a General Confederation of all the States of America, formerly Spanish : the proposal has been accepted by the Republicks of Peru and Chili, which have entered into Treaties of Alliance and Commerce with Colombia.
The Honourable Señor Miguel Santamaria, Envoy-Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from that Republick, made the same proposition to our late Government; but circumstances of a peculiar nature, and the departure of that Minister from this Capital, prevented the acceptance of it at that time. Our good understanding with Colombia has since, however, been re-established, and, on the return of that Minister to this City, Negociations were commenced, the result of which has been, the conclusion of a Treaty, which I shall have the honour of presenting to the Sovereign Congress, for its consideration and approval. It will serve as a basis for that real Social Compact, which will comprehend all Americans as one family, united for their defence, independence, and liberty, and for the purpose of furthering their commercial and reciprocal interests.
Since the Union of Guatemala to the so-called Mexican Empire, symptoms of disagreement have been exhibited amongst the inhabitants of that ancient Kingdom. The Province of San Salvador resisted the Union with open War, and, although it submitted to force, it was again preparing for resistance. The dissolution of the Imperial Government, which for a time embarrassed those Provinces, led to the Convocation of a Congress, which assembled in the Capital of that Country, annulled the Act of Union, and established a Republick, under the title of the United Provinces of Central America. By direction of the former Sovereign Congress, and by order of this Government, the Mexican division, under the command of General Filisola, stationed in that territory, has been withdrawn: it has not, however, been deemed expedient to proceed to the formal recognition of its Independence since that time, its interior tranquillity having subsequently been disturbed, and symptoms of disaffection exhibited in its Provinces, although the Congress and Goveroment still continue in the exercise of their functions.
The savage tribes, that frequently occupy and infest our northern frontier, have been, and continue, pacifick, although an attack from them was expected in the Province of Sonora, and the “ Apaches” had committed assassination and plunder in that of Chihuahua, but the judicious conduct of the Governors has been
sufficient, either to avoid or put a stop to these disorders. It is, how-' ever, to be feared that they may be repeated; owing to their tribes requiring the payment of the tributes which they were accustomed to receive annually, but which circumstances have prevented us latterly from continuing to them. They are aware of the imperfect organization of our troops, and will take advantage of it, until they be re-established on a proper footing, and the Militia of those Provinces organized; but when we possess an adequate force in that quarter, it is to be hoped that, with the increase of population, and their being brought into a more regular intercourse with us, they will lead a more settled life, and, by reaping the benefits of Religion and Society, become at length useful Members of the Nation. Mcxico, Ist November, 1823.
POLITICAL CONSTITUTION of the State of Chili.
Promulgated the 29th December, 1823.
The Supreme Director of Chili to those who may see and hear these presents, be it known,
That the Sovereign Constituent Congress of the Nation has decreed and sanctioned the Political Constitution of the State of Chili, in the following Code:
In the name of God, the All-powerful Creator, Preserver, Benefactor, and Supreme Legislator, of the Universe,
The National Constituent Congress of Chili decrees and sanctions the Political and Permanent Constitution of the State, under the following Titles:
OF THE CHILIAN NATION AND PEOPLE.
ART. I. The State of Chili is one and indivisible : the National Representation is consolidated for the whole Republick.
II. Chili is a Nation independent of the Spanish Monarchy, and of any other Power.
JII. The Sovereignty belongs essentially to the Nation, and the exercise of it to its Representatives.
IV. The Territory of Chili, North to South, extends from the Desert of Atacama to Cape Horn; and, East to West, from the Pacifick Ocean, including all the adjacent Islands, the Archipelago of Chiloé, and the Islands of Juan Fernandez, Mocha, and Santa Maria, to the Mountains of the Andes.
V. The Constitutional Guarantees and the Laws protect every Individual resident in Chili.
VI. Those are Chilians":
2. Who are born in other Countries, if they be Children of a Chilian Father or Mother, and become domiciliated in Chili.
3. Foreigners resident in Chili, married to a Chilian Woman, domiciliated according to the Laws, and exercising any profession.
4. Foreigners married to Foreign Women, after a Year's residence, possessing a legal domicile, and exercising a profession enabling them to subsist.
5. Those favoured by the Legislative Power.
VII. Every Chilian is equal in the eye of the Law; and he may be called to employments under the conditions required by it. All are to contribute towards the expenses of the State in proportion to their
All are its defenders. VIII. In Chili there are no Slaves. Whoever resides on its Terri. tory during one day is free. Whoever carries on the Slave Trade shall not reside in Chili longer than one month, nor shall ever become naturalized.
IX. Expenses for the defence of the Country, the Publick Administration, and the instruction of the Citizens, are essentially National. The Legislatures alone shall provide for others, after those shall have been settled.
X. The Religion of the State is the Roman Catholick Apostolick, to the exclusion of the worship and exercise of any other.
OF ACTUAL CITIZENS.
XI. Every natural or legal Chilian is a Chilian Citizen, with the Right of Suffrage in the Electoral Assemblies, provided he be 21 Years of age, or have contracted marriage, and that he possess any of the following requisites :
1. An immoveable property of 200 dollars.
3. Being a Proprietor of, or being regularly instructed in, any permanent manufacture.
4. The having produced or brought to the Country any invention, industry, science, or art, the utility of which is approved by the Government.
5. The having fulfilled his civick duties.
6. The being a Roman Catholick, or favoured by the Legislative Power.
All must be instructed in the Constitution of the State, their names inscribed in the great National Book, and be in possession of the Certificate of Citizenship, at least one month before the Elections. They must be able to read and to write, after the Year 1840.
XII. Citizenship shall be forfeited :
2. By accepting employment from other Governments, without permission of the Senate.
3. By declining, without sufficient cause, the fulfilment of any duty required by the chief Authorities of the State.
4. By fraudulent Bankruptcy.
1. Of having been condemned to corporeal or other degrading punishment, unless reinstated in society.
2. Of physical or moral incapability of free and deliberate action
Declaration being made of the defects mentioned in this and the former Article, one month previous to the Elections, and by competent authority.
OF THE EXECUTIVE POWER. XIV. A Citizen, with the Title of Supreme Director, shall govern the State, with submission to the Laws, and hold exclusively the exercise of the Executive Power. The office shall last 4 Years; re-election being allowed a second time by two-thirds of the Votes.
XV. In the event of the sickness, death, resignation, deposition, or absence of the Director, or of bis being in command of the Armed Force, the President of the Senate, separated from that body and its functions, shall take his post. He shall also officiate in his stead. during his absences in the Interior, in such part of the Administration as the Director may appoint.
XVI. The Dress of the Supreme Director shall be peculiar, and distinguished from that of the Civil or Military Officers.
XVII. To be Supreme Director it is requisite :
'1. To be a Citizen by birth, and, if a Foreigner, to have exercised the Citizenship for 12 Years, and to have been previously declared deserving in an eminent degree.
2. For a Native, to have been 5 Years; and, for a legalized Citizen, to have been 12 Years, an immediate resident in the Country; unless he have been absent on official service of the State ; and to be 30 Years
XVIII. The exclusive faculties of the Supreme Director are:
1. To govern the State ; executing and fulblling the Laws and Regulations which may have been sanctioned.
2. To promulgate the Laws,
3. To originate, exclusively, the Laws, except during the Constitutional Period, when the same belongs to the Senate, and the sanction of them to the Director.
4. To organize and dispose of the Land and Sea Forces conformably to the Law.
5. To nominate the Generals in Chief, with the consent of the Senate.
6. To declare War in the Constitutional form.
7. To decree the supply of the funds legally destined for the branches of Publick Service.
8. To nominate the Officers of the Army and Navy below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.
9. To dictate hostile or defensive measures, of urgency, in the event of a sudden attack from without, or of any internal commotion; consulting on the occasion with the Senate.
10. To appoint to civil and ecclesiastical employments, appertaining to civil nomination or presentation, which are not prohibited by the Constitution.
11. To nominate the Ministers of the Cabinet, previously consulting with his Council of State, and his Councillors, according to the Constitution.
12. To watch over the ministerial conduct of the functionaries of justice, and the fulfilment of their decrees.
13. To remove his Ministers, without assigning a cause.
14. To take especial care that the Constitution be fulfilled, in respect of the Elections and the requisite qualifications,
15. To pardou and commute punishments, with the consent of the Senate.
16. To withhold or confirm Warrants for Papal Bulls and Ecclesiastical Ordinances; with the consent of his Council of State, and the sanction of the Senate, if they relate to matters of Government; and with the consent of the Supreme Court of Justice, if they relate to contentious matters.
17. To suspend Persons in Office, for unfitness, neglect of duty, or crimes. In the first case, with the consent of the Senate, and in the two last, communicating the necessary information to the Tribunals of Justice for judicial decision.
18. To negotiate Treaties of Peace, Alliance, Commerce, Subsidies, and Limits, subject to the sanction of the Senate.
19. To render an account annually to the Serate, of the state of the Nation, in all the branches of Publick Administration.