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CON TEN T S.
United States of America.
HIS third, which is much the largest division of the United States, comprehends
MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, KENTUCKY,
SOUTH-CAROLINA, and GEORGIA.
This extensive division is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania and the Ohio river ; on the west by the Miffiflippi; on the south by East and West Florida ; and on the east by the Atlantic ocean and the Delaware State. It is interfected in a N. E. and S. W. direction by the range of Allegany mountains, which give rise to many noble rivers, which fall either into the Atlantic on the east, or the Misfirfippi on the west. From the sea coast, fixty, eighty, and in some parts an hundred miles back towards the mountains, the country, generally speaking, is nearly a dead level, and a very large propora tion of it is covered, in its natural state, with pitch pines. In the neighbourhood of ftagnant waters, which abound in this level country, the inhabitants are fickly, but in the back, hilly and mountainous country, they are as healthy as in any part of America.
This district of the Union contains about two millions of inhabitants, of whom about six hundred and forty-eight thousand are llaves. The influence of lavery has produced a very distinguishing feature in the general character of the inhabitants, which, though now discernible to their disadvantage, has been softened and meliorated by the benign effects of the revolution, and the progress of liberty and humanity.
HISTORY OF ITS SETTLEMENT, &c.
MARY LAND. This State was granted by a patent of King Charles the First, June 30, 1632, to George Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, in Ireland, * who had been obliged, on account of the French government, to abandon the province of Avalon, in Newfoundland, after having expended ewenty-five thousand pounds in its advancement.
The government of this province was by charter vested in the proprietary; but it appears, that he either never exercised these
powers alone, or but for a short time; for we find, in 1637, that the freemen rejected a body of laws drawn up in England, and transmitted by his lordship, in order to be passed for the government of the province. In the place of these they proposed forty-two bills to be enacted into laws, by the consent of the proprietary: these were, however, never enacted, at least they are not on record.
The first emigration to Maryland consisted of two hundred gentlemen of considerable fortune and rank, with their adherents, chiefly Roman Catholics, who hoped to enjoy liberty of conscience under a proprietary of their own profession. They failed from England in November, 1632, and landed in Maryland the beginning of 1633. The Honourable Leonard Calvert, brother to Lord Baltimore, who was the first governor, very wisely and juftly purchased, by presents of various goods, the rights of the Indians, and with their free consent took possession of their town, which he called St. Mary's. The country was settled with so much ease, and furnished with so many conveniencies, that emigrants repaired thither in such numbers, that the colony foon became populous and flourishing.
In 1638 a law was passed, constituting the first regular House of Assembly, which was to consist of such representatives, called bur
* A Copy of this patent may be seen by refeuing to Hazard's Historical Collections, page 327.