pt. 1. Of general principles. pt. 2. Of truth

Front Cover
J. Wiley & son, 1888 - Aesthetics
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Contents

Reasons for insisting on the infinity of Turners works
22
Of Ideas of Beauty
26
The first quality of execution is truth
30
Local color how far expressible in black and white and with
31
Of Ideas of Power as they are dependent
36
Danger is sublime but not the fear of
42
282AARAHA
43
That the Truth of Nature is not to be dis
50
PAGE
65
G Robson D Cox False use of the term style
97
Samuel Prout Early painting of architecture how deficient
103
And of the Venetians generally
109
Modern architectural painting generally G Cattermole
115
Influence of this feeling on the choice of Landscape subject
125
Changes introduced by him in the received system of art
133
OF GENERAL TRUTHS
140
Of Truth of Color PAGE 1 Observations on the color of G Poussins La Riccia
155
Turner himself is inferior in brilliancy to nature
157
Poussin and Claude
158
Turners translation of colors
160
Notice of effects in which no brilliancy of art can even ap proach that of reality
161
Reasons for the usual incredulity of the observer with respect to their representation
162
Color of the Napoleon
163
Necessary discrepancy between the attainable brilliancy of color and light
164
This discrepancy less in Turner than in other colorists
165
Turner scarcely ever uses pure or vivid color
166
The basis of gray under all his vivid hues
167
The variety and fulness even of his most simple tones
168
His dislike of purple and fondness for the opposition of yel low and black The principles of nature in this respect
169
His early works are false in color
170
His drawings invariably perfect
171
Of Truth of Chiaroscuro 1 We are not at present to examine particular effects of light
174
And therefore the distinctness of shadows is the chief means of expressing vividness of light
175
And partial absence in the Dutch
176
The perfection of Turners works in this respect
177
The effect of his shadows upon the light
178
The distinction holds good between almost all the works of the ancient and modern schools
179
Second great principle of chiaroscuro Both high light and deep shadow are used in equal quantity and only in points
180
And consequent misguiding of the student
181
The great value of a simple chiaroscuro
182
Of the Open
204
Secondly as its Appear
191
Breadth is not vacancy
197
First of the Region
216
4 The symmetrical arrangement of its clouds
217
Their exceeding delicacy
218
Causes of their peculiarly delicate coloring
219
Total absence of even the slightest effort at their representa tion in ancient landscape
220
The intense and constant study of them by Turner
221
His vignette Sunrise on the Sea
222
His use of the cirrus in expressing mist
223
His consistency in every minor feature
224
Recapitulation
225
Secondly of the Cen tral Cloud Region 1 Extent and typical character of the central cloud region
226
The clouds of Salvator and Poussin
227
Their angular forms and general decision of outline
228
The composition of their minor curves
229
Their characters as given by S Rosa
230
Vast size of congregated masses of cloud
231
And consequent divisions and varieties of feature
232
Imperfect conceptions of this size and extent in ancient land scape
233
14 Total want of transparency and evanescence in the clouds of ancient landscape
234
Farther proof of their deficiency in space
235
Instance of perfect truth in the sky of Turners Babylon
236
And in his Pools of Solomon
237
Association of the cirrostratus with the cumulus
238
Farther principles of cloud form exemplified in his Amalfi
239
Instances of the total want of it in the works of Salvator
240
The multiplication of objects or increase of their size will not give the impression of infinity but is the resource of novices
241
Farther instances of infinity in the gray skies of Turner
242
The average standing of the English school
243
Thirdly of the Region of the RainCloud 1 The apparent difference in character between the lower and central clouds is dependent chiefly on proximi...
244
And in definiteness of form
245
Value to the painter of the raincloud
246
The old masters have not left a single instance of the paint ing of the raincloud and very few efforts at it Gaspar Poussins storms
247
The great power of the moderns in this respect
248
His weakness and its probable cause
249
Impossibility of reasoning on the rainclouds of Turner from engravings
250
Moment of retiring rain in the Llanthony
251
And of commencing chosen with peculiar meaning for Loch Coriskin
252
The drawing of transparent vapor in the Lands End
253
Deepstudied form of swift raincloud in the Coventry
254
Effects of Light rendered by Modern
266
plains its rest
271
Mountains come out from underneath the plains and are their support
272
Structure of the plains themselves Their perfect level when deposited by quiet water
273
General divisions of formation resulting from this arrange ment Plan of investigation
274
Of the Central Mountains 1 Similar character of the central peaks in all parts of the world
275
Causing groups of rock resembling an artichoke or rose
276
Vignette of the Andes and others
277
Total want of any rendering of their phenomena in ancient art
278
Their total want of magnitude and aerial distance
279
And violation of specific form
280
Farther illustration of the distant character of mountain chains
281
Illustrated from the works of Turner and Stanfield The Borromean Islands of the latter
282
Turners Arona
283
Want of this decision in Claude
284
The perpetual rendering of it by Turner
285
General principles of its forms on the Alps
287
Average paintings of Switzerland Its real spirit has scarcely yet been caught
289
by being divided into beds
290
And by lines of lamination
291
The perfect expression of them in Turners Loch Coriskin
292
Glencoe and other works
293
Compared with the work of Salvator
294
And of Poussin
295
Effects of external influence on mountain form
296
The gentle convexity caused by aqueous erosion
297
The exceeding simplicity of contour caused by these influ ences
298
And multiplicity of feature
299
The fidelity of treatment in Turners Daphne and Leucippus
300
The rarity among secondary hills of steep slopes or high pre cipices
301
And consequent expression of horizontal distance in their ascent
302
The use of considering geological truths
303
Expression of retiring surface by Turner contrasted with the work of Claude
304
The peculiar difficulty of investigating the more essential truths of hill outline
305
Importance of particular and individual truth in hill drawing
306
Works of Copley Fielding His high feeling
307
Works of J D Harding and others
308
Of the Foreground 1 What rocks were the chief components of ancient landscape foreground
309
curves
310
Peculiar distinctness of light and shade in the rocks of nature
311
And total want of any expression of hardness or brittleness 31
312
Their absolute opposition in every particular
313
Especially of Turner
314
Its exceeding grace and fulness of feature
315
Importance of these minor parts and points
316
Ground of Cuyp
317
The entire weakness and childishness of the latter
318
General features of Turners foreground
319
And perfect unity
320
Various parts whose history is told us by the details of the drawing
321
Turners drawing of detached blocks of weathered stone
322
And of complicated foreground
323
not affect right ones
330
Water takes no shadow
331
Modification of dark reflections by shadow
332
Examples on the waters of the Rhone
333
Effect of ripple on distant water
335
Effect of rippled water on horizontal and inclined images
336
Deflection of images on agitated water
337
Various licenses or errors in water painting of Claude Cuyp Vandevelde
339
And Canaletto
341
The sea of Copley Fielding Its exceeding grace and rapidity
351
But deficiency in the requisite quality of grays
352
Works of Stanfield His perfect knowledge and power
353
Of Water as Painted by Turner 1 The difficulty of giving surface to smooth water
355
Morbid clearness occasioned in painting of water by distinct ness of reflections
356
How avoided by Turner
357
The error of Vandevelde
358
Difference in arrangement of parts between the reflected ob ject and its image
359
The boldness and judgment shown in the observance of it
360
The texture of surface in Turners painting of calm water
361
Relation of various circumstances of past agitation c by the most trifling incidents as in the Cowes
363
Expression of contrary waves caused by recoil from shore
364
Turners painting of distant expanses of water Calm inter rupted by ripple
365
His drawing of distant rivers
366
And of surface associated with mist
367
The abandonment and plunge of great cataracts How given by him
368
Difference in the action of water when continuous and when interrupted The interrupted stream fills the hollows of its bed
369
But the continuous stream takes the shape bed
370
His exquisite drawing of the continuous torrent in the Llan thony Abbey
371
And of the interrupted torrent in the Mercury and Argus
372
Sea painting Impossibility of truly representing foam
373
Character of shorebreakers also inexpressible
374
Their effect how injured when seen from the shore
375
32 Turners expression of heavy rolling sea
376
Peculiar action of recoiling waves
377
General character of sea on a rocky coast given by Turner in the Lands End
378
Open seas of Turners earlier time
379
Effect of sea after prolonged storm
380
Turners noblest work the painting of the deep open sea in the Slave Ship
382
Its united excellences and perfection as a whole
383
SECTION VI
384
Laws common to all forest trees Their branches do not taper but only divide
385
And care of nature to conceal the parallelism
386
And of the Italian school generally defy this law
387
Boughs in consequence of this law must diminish where they divide Those of the old masters often do not
388
Boughs must multiply as they diminish Those of the old masters do not
389
Boughdrawing of Salvator
390
All these errors especially shown in Claudes sketches and concentrated in a work of G Poussins
391
Impossibility of the angles of boughs being taken out of them by wind
392
Boughdrawing of Turner
394
Perfect regularity of Poussin
395
Exceeding intricacy of natures foliage
396
How followed by Creswick
397
Perfect unity in natures foliage
398
How rendered by Turner
399
Universal termination of trees in symmetrical curves
400
Altogether unobserved by the old masters Always given by Turner
401
Foliage of J D Harding Its deficiencies
402
His brilliancy of execution too manifest
403
His boughdrawing and choice of form
404
Opposition between great manner and great knowledge
406
Hunt and Creswick Green how to be rendered expressive of light and offensive if otherwise
407
The truth of Turner 183
409
Extreme difficulty of illustrating or explaining the highest truth
410
The exceeding refinement of his truth
411
And nothing which knowledge will not enable us to enjoy
412
Standing of his present works Their mystery is the conse quence of their fulness
413
Conclusion Modern Art and Modern Criticism
414
The entire prominence hitherto given to the works of one artist caused only by our not being able to take cognizance of character
415
No man draws one thing well if he can draw nothing else
416
General conclusions to be derived from our past investigation
417
Modern criticism Changefulness of public taste
418
General incapability of modern critics
419
How the press may really advance the cause of art
420
By which the public defraud themselves
421
Sketches not sufficiently encouraged
422
The duty and after privileges of all students
423
What should be their general aim
425
Duty of the press with respect to the works of Turner
427
spirit has scarcely
v
Turners painting of French and Swiss landscape The lat
viii
Farther illustrations in architectural drawing
xii
The common selfdeception of men with respect to their
1
Painting as such is nothing more than language
2
Two great resultant truths that nature is never distinct
4
The fourth inadequacy and the fifth decision
5
Illustrated by Turners Marengo
6
The principle of Turner in this respect
7
work of Clande
8
D
13
Swift execution best secures perfection of details
17
19 And consequent expression of horizontal dastare a ther
19
Entire expression of tempest by minute touches and circum
20
11
25
Full statement of all these facts in various works of Turner
29
30 Full statement of all these facts in various works of Turnet
30
Of the Relative Importance of Truths
45
The importance of truths of species is not owing to their
51
Necessity of determining the relative importance of truths 58
58
Yet even the legitimate sources of pleasure in execution
113
117
117
Of the Foreground
126
SECTION II
142
The pictures of the old masters perfect in relation of middle
157
196
196
Of the Central Mountai 1 Similar character of the central I
i
world
v
Of Ideas of Power
1
General truths are more
2
Causing groups of rock resembling
3
The faithful statement of these fact at Daybreak
4
And consequently totally false in relation of middle tints
5
Necessary distance and consequent
6
mountains 7 Total want of any rendering of their
7
Character of the representations of A Claude
8
And fondness for ideas of power leads to the adoption of
9
And violation of specific form
10
Even in his best works
11
Farther illustration of the distant cha chains
12
Not owing to want of power over the material
13
19
14
Turners Arona
15
Space and size are destroyed alike by distinctness and
16
Want of this decision in Claude
17
The perpetual rendering of it by Turner
18
Effects of snow how imperfectly studied
19
20
20
Average paintings of Switzerland Its real sp yet been caught
21
The same moderation of slope in the contours of his
23
5 Works of other modern artistsClarkson Stanfield
27
Sublimity is the effect upon the mind of anything above it 41
41
His rendering of Italian character still less successful
42
60
60
72
72
143
143
2
144
But gains in essential truth by the sacrifice
150
202
202
Burkes theory of the nature of the sublime incorrect
218
34
219
222
222
Of the Foreground
236
21
243
stances in the Coventry 255
255
Salvators limestones The real characters of the rock
259
24
260
23
287
29
297
Of the Foreground
323
pictures 324
324
Of Water as Painted by the Ancients 1 Sketch of the functions and infinite agency of water 325
325
Difficulty of properly dividing the subject 326
326
Difficulty of treating this part of the subject 328
328

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