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shall then immediately proceed to enter on all these important matters, on the most friendly and satisfactory ground to your bighness.
"Hugh Boyd." Upon the arrival of our ambassador at Kandy, he met with innumerable delays, and was received with distrust and suspicion by the Kandian court; the natural result of our former breach of faith, and which but ill. accorded with the British character for probity. “ It is now twenty years since your ambassador arrived here, while we waged war with our Dutch enemies; we replied frankly, and accepted cheerfully your offered and promised aid ; but since your envoy left, not a breath have we heard of your offered aid, nor promised assistance. As you are now at war, in your turn, with the Dutch nation, and are desirous to injure them, and obtain their possessions, you come to us, professing that it is only for our benefit that you desire to force them to quit our kingdom. We doubt the sincerity of your nation, as we have ever met with treachery from Europeans.” * Our ambassador made excuses for the non-fulfilment of the former treaty, and referred to the high character borne by England for probity and truth; but all his efforts proved abortive, and he quitted Kandy the latter end of March, without having accomplished either of the objects of bis mission_namely, to make a treaty, and form an alliance with the king of Kandy-and for some years we left the Kandians and Dutch in undis. turbed possession of Ceylon.
In the year 1785, Governor Van der Graaff first introduced paper currency into Ceylon; and in 1789, the same governor caused a census to be taken of all the inhabitants of the maritime districts, subject to the Dutch East India Company; and the statistical returns gave eight hundred and seventeen thousand inhabitants, of both sexes, and of all ages.
In the year 1795, the union of Holland with France took place, and war was declared by us; and Colonel, afterwards General Stewart, was sent by the Governor of Madras, with a large force, to reduce Trincomalee, to which he laid siege, and after the lapse of little more than three weeks, the
fort was surrendered by the Dutch commander, as our troops were preparing to storm it. In the September following of that year, Jaffna was taken by the same general ; Colpentyn was surrendered to the British forces, under the command of Colonel Bowser, on the 5th of November; and General Stewart shortly afterwards took Negombo. Success now followed the British arms in Ceylon, and General Stewart resolved upon attacking Colombo, the seat of government then as well as now, and marched for that place with his Majesty's 52nd, 73rd, and 77th regiments, accompanied by three battalions of Native Infantry, and some Bengal Artillery. The route to Colombo lay through dense jungle, and over rivers swollen by the late rains ; but no ambush was laid by the Dutch to obstruct the progress of our troops, and they reached the river Kelany (about four miles from the Fort of Colombo), which was defended by a strong fort, and there halted to await the expected coming of the Dutch troops. At the conclusion of the second day, in. telligence reached them that the guns were dismantled and spiked, and that the troops had abandoned the fort, and retreated to Colombo. Our men crossed the river with great caution, fearing surprise, but no ambuscade had been laid. Our encampment was then formed, the siege of Colombo planned, and our soldiers immediately afterwards marched for the fort, expecting a strong resistance to be made by the Dutch ; but, to the astonishment both of General Stewart and the troops which he commanded, the only attempt to defend Colombo was made by a body of Malays, headed by a French officer, who were sent to meet them, but quickly retreated, and very shortly after Colombo surrendered, by capitulation, to the British forces, who were commanded by General Stewart and Captain Gardiner, R.N. Within a short period, the whole of the forts and possessions in the island belonging to the Dutch were delivered up to our troops. We should not have found Ceylon so facile a conquest, had it not been for the want of discipline and subordination found amongst the Dutch troops—the men refusing to obey their officers' orders, and the officers almost devoid of bravery or energy to defend their country's rights.
portunity or means whereby wealth could be amassed. Their public policy and private enterprise began and ended with the same goal in viewnamely, the acquirement of riches. Thus the English commenced their rule in Ceylon, having the impressions to eradicate which had been produced upon the minds of the Cingalese, through the sufferings they had experienced under the military and reli. gious oppression of the Portuguese, and no less oppressive grasping and religious despotism of their Dutch successors.
These fearful examples, set by professing Christians, have been too forcibly stamped upon the feeble and flexible characters of the natives; and European vices have thus become en. grafted upon the effeminate, pusillani. mous dispositions of the Cingalese who inhabit the lowland and maritime districts, thus forming a character of the most despicable description.
We subjoin the following extract from “ Philalethe's History of Ceylon," in support of our previously-expressed views and sentiments :
According to “ Percival's Ceylon,” p. 92_“ The Dutch force consisted of two battalions of Hollanders, the French Regiment of Wirtemberg, with some native troops, forming in all a force equal to that of the invaders."
In taking leave of the Dutch as rulers in Ceylon, we give the names of those who were sent there as gover. nors. The first, in 1640, was W. J. Koster, who took Galle; J. Thysz, J. Matsuyher, J. Van Kiltenstein, A. Vander Meyden, R. Van Goens, J. Hustaur, L. Van Peil, T. Van Rhee,
P. De Rhoo, G. De Heer, C. J. Si. monsy, N. Becher, T. A. Rumph, A. Moll, J. Hertenberg, J. P. Schagen, P. Vuyst, S. Versluzs, G. Wontersz, J. C. Pielaat, D. V. Domburg, J. Maccara, Baron Von Imhoff, W. M. Bruininch, D. Overpeck, J. V. S. Von Galnesse, G. Van Vreeland, J. De Joug, J. G. Laton, J. Schrender, Baron Van Eck, A. Mooyart, J. W. Falck, W. J. Van der Graaff, J. G. Van Angelbeech, under whom Co. lombo and the entire possessions of the Dutch were delivered over to the British.
Under the Dutch, their own mode of worship was introduced into Cey. lon, and there were many professed converts among the Cingalese. This arose from a regulation of the Dutch, which prohibited any native from hold ing an office, however humble, under their government, unless he professed to belong to their church. The Dutch encouraged agriculture to a great extent, and introduced the cultivation of coffee, pepper, cardamons, and cinnamon. It was under Governor Falck that the latter shrub was first culti. vated. The pearl-fisheries were also lucrative and productive, under their management; consequently it must have been a national loss of no trivial na. ture, when so profitable and promising a settlement was wrested from them by the British.
2 shall wind up our summary by glancing at the effect produced upon the native character by the line of conduct pursued by the Dutch, who acted as if they believed that their responsibility as Christians and enlightened men, commenced and terminated by forcing nominal religion upon the natives—by making an external avowal of Christianity the only stepping-stone to patronage or employment under government; and they neglected no op
“The Portuguese were under the influence of a sentiment of bigotry, which, when it becomes a predominant feeling in the human heart, equally disregards the suggestions of caution, admonitions of prudence, and the higher considerátions of humanity. It is a blind impulse, and it has all the effect of blindness, both visual and mental; in the strange deviations which it causes from the straight path of virtue and truth, and consequently of the best policy, and most stable interest. The Dutch did not bend before the grim Moloch of religious bigotry; but cent. per cent. was their faith, gold was their object, and Mammon was their god. But the idol of the Dutch is as unfavourable to the growth of the loftier virtues, and to all that tends to humanise the exercise of power, as that of the Portuguese. Avarice is a cold, calculating feeling, and where it totally pervades the bosom, absorbing the affections, and concentrating the desires in a single object, it renders the heart as impenetrable as a stone to those moral considerations which are more particularly associated with a benevolent regard for the happiness of those who are placed in subjection to our will, or within the sphere of our influence. The insensate avarice of the Dutch proved as unfavourable to the happiness of the people of Ceylon, as the enthusiastic bigotry of the Portuguese."
Behold that wild, impetuous, wayward boy,
Bound o'er the play-ground with a lusty shout,
In antic leap-frog foremost of the rout Of Merry-Andrews. But the boisterous joy Sinks into silence soon where Science coy
Sits veil'd: he at her feet. His soul looks out
Less brightly now, less stirr'd from things without, And bearing trace of some severe employ.
Yet oft he starts, as visions wondrous fair
Fiery Ambition-Fame, a cherub rare,
Whose falling leaves quick-coming blooms repair
“Oh, glorious world, thy frowning heights all scaled,
Youth, health, and fortune mine, what more remains
But happiness, enhanced by pleasant pains,
His entrance into life. As Fancy feigns,
All sights are fair, all sounds transporting strains, And even the common air's from joy exhal’d.
Break not the spell—melt not, oh tender hazeSpread thy fine drapery o'er the early dawn.
Oh, Fancy, follow where the enthusiast strays In raptured mood, from worldly eye withdrawn.
Call up an image of the pastoral days, Some laughing Satyr romping with a Faun,
He hath been wounded. Ah, too cruel gashes
Into the bosom'd home of young delights,
Where Love's first hope lay dreaming days and nights, And would not be awak'd.' The lightning flashes, The tempest rocks, the whitening billow dashes
Its foam around. Nor wind nor wave affrights.
'Tis smiling Falsehood's poisoned steel that smites, 'Tis the fair cheat that crumbles into ashes.
Vanish vain visions-beautiful deceitsYour reign is over ; never, never more,
Will his heart nestle in those green retreats Where Poesy once taught her golden lore.
A shadow falls on every thing he meets, And deeper lines his brow have furrow'd o'er.
Nearer the goal, with measured step and slow,
He wends alone along the beaten way:
Long since hath Winter nipp'd the buds of May.
Kept with his heart perpetual holiday ?
Can this be he, whose dreams fram'd many a lay
Yet deem him not unblest, for from the past
The mortal things on which man's eyes are cast.
On firm-set truth his soul is anchor'd fast,
ON A PICTURE BY CARRACCI: "CHRIST RAISING THE WIDOW'S SON FROM THE DEAD."
LUKE, VII. 11.
And character'd with matchless eloquence.
Is she not living ?-is not every sense
Faith, hope, and love, these three, and joy o'er-wrought,
Perception of a thing, whose evidence
Ah, for a mind from whence could emanate
A limit, or pronounce a darker fate,
" Young hearts which languished for some funny isle,
Where summer years and summer women smile."-ISLAND.
I with my books were lodged ; far, far away,
Some sunny isle where, in an elder day,
Lest the lone spirit on itself might prey,
And from its self-contentment go astray,
While round their hearts a thousand chains are worn,
For care, and nature's tendencies uptorn,
A heart too oft proved faithless and forsworn.
OUR JURY SYSTEM,
No greater misfortune could well be fal a country than a distrust in the administration of justice, or a doubt as to the efficiency of the institutions by which it is dispensed ; and it is not among the least of the evils which have been occasioned by the revolutionary faction in this country, that in the legal proceedings which became necessary for their suppression, the efficiency of our jury system came to be questioned. When Mr. Smith O'Brien was put on his trial, in March last, for seditious speeches, ten of his jurors were for conviction ; two, how. ever, refused to concur in a verdict of guilty, and the jury, after being locked up for a night, were discharged without agreeing to a verdict. Again, the day following, Mr. Meagher was put on his trial, and with precisely a simin lar result-two of his jurors refused to agree with the other ten, and, as in the preceding case, they were imprisoned for a night, and discharged the following morning. Messrs. O'Brien and Meagher stood out on their recognizances, and the entire proceedings went for nothing. The event was hailed as a triumph by the rebellious and the disaffected, and the clubs of Dublin marched in procession to celebrate their victory. Loyal and good men, however, began to fear that our system of trial by jury was unequal to the difficulty to be encountered : of the treasonable character of the speeches which were indicted, they could not possibly entertain a doubt; and men naturally felt that it was a monstrous thing that the perverseness of a small minority of a jury should thus frustrate the ends of justice, and give a triumph to sedition. In this country, as well as in England, an opinion began to prevail that Irish juries were not to be depended on; and while some scrupled not to avow that political offenders should either be tried by military tribunals, or in some county in England, very many were of opinion that the Scotch system was a preferable one to ours, and that the verdict of a majority of the jury ought to be received. Again, some short
VOL. XXXII.-NO, CXCII.
time afterwards, Mr. Mitchel was tried, and in his case the jury were unanimous, and he was convicted. But forthwith a cry arose that his convic. tion was obtained by a packed jury and a perjured sheriff, and the right of challenge, as it was exercised by the crown, was denounced as arbitrary and unconstitutional; and so it continued through all the succeeding trials, almost without an exception -- men founded their expectation of the prisoner's fate, not on the merits of his case, but on the composition of his jury--the Liberals avowing, and the Conservatives well knowing, that with one man on the jury to sympathise with the prisoner, there should never be a conviction ; and it was obvious to every one, that in the conduct of the trials, the great, the anxious, and, must we add it, the decisive struggle, was in the selection of the jury. This was less so at Clonmel; for the constitution of the panel, the superior class from which the jurors were taken, left little or no ground for expectation that any partisan of rebellion could possibly find his way into the jury-box; but it prevailed universally in those trials which were had in Dublin.
That such a state of things is a serious reproach to our jury system, it is impossible to deny-equally impossible is it to conceal from ourselves, that the offence is a most fearful one in those jurors who allow their private feelings, or political bias, to control them in the discharge of their sworn duty. But let no man say that it is a reproach to which Irish juries are alone exposed, or that it is restricted to juries at all, and has not extended to the highest assembly in the country. Who can forget the election committees in the House of Commons? Were those tribunals not controlled, and avowedly so, by political bias? We take the judgment which was formed of them by the as. sembly from which they were selected, and we appeal to the cheers of triumph which echoed within the walls of St. Stephen's as the names of the several members of the committee were an