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tents, with wet cloths wrapped round their heads_but more Europeans died from the effects of the heat, than would have sufficed to win a battle. At last, guns were heard on the east, where Jacob's forces completed the circle ; but so few, and so soon stopping, that it was feared that the Ameer had crushed him, broken through the lines, and would throw himself into the Delta; that the danger, the labour, and the loss had proved fruitless, and that the partisan warfare must occur. At this moment, as the general went out of his tent, he fell sun-stricken, and thirty-three of the Europeans were at the same time struck down by the intense heat; most died within a few minutes—all save the general within three hours. He himself says that his life was saved by the sudden intelligence that Jacob was victorious, and the Lion's troops dispersed. Shere Mohammed had made a dash at Jacob's, as the weakest force, but the spirit of his men was broken by their remembrance of Meeanee and Hyderabad, and they soon scattered. He fled to the desert with but ten followers. Thus was the war finished_the power of the last hostile Ameer completely crushed.
In 1844, the independent and robber tribes, amongst whom Shere Mohammed had taken refuge, passed the desert on the north-west frontier of Scinde, and ravaged the plain. They cut to pieces two hundred grass-cutters belonging to the irregular cavalry, and many of the troopers also. They defeated and killed a small body of the police, destroyed twenty-five villages, murdered many of the inhabitants, and carried away all the cattle and grain. Troops were sent to attack their principal fortress, but were repulsed with loss. These robbers boasted that royal armies had often assailed their terrible fastnesses, but never for six hundred years had penetrated beyond the entrances, being always defeated there. During the Affghan war, two British detachments, sent against them, had been cut to pieces, and now a third was defeated. They had ravaged the plains of Scinde; and it was evident that if not subjected they would, in the event of a war in the Punjab, make common cause with the Affghans, Candaharees, and Mooltanees, and that 200,000 men would be in array against Scinde. Sir Charles Napier resolved to crush them. Almost the entire Indian press denounced the scheme as madness—its success was declared impossible. Even his troops, swayed by these assertions so often repeated, thought the matter unwisely entered upon; but, though expecting no suceess, bent all their indomitable energies to the task. We are enabled to give here some extracts from : journal kept by him during this campaign :
“ 13th January, 1845.— I had to deal with the mountain robbers, a bold, well. armed, and wary race of men. The game was not easy; I therefore ordered the Scindian troops, under the Jagheerdars Wallee Chandia, and Ahmed Khan Muzzy, to advance from Jull and Chandia, upon Poolajee. I ordered Jacob, with the camel corps and Scinde horse from Larkhana, to follow up the march of these chiefs, after giving them twelve hours' start, and the whole were to arrive at Poolajee the 16th January--the chiefs in the evening, and our troops before day. light the next morning. "I knew that the robbers had no fear of the chiefs, and would not retire to their mountains for them, I therefore hoped to surprise them on the 16th. As soon as Jacob started, I, too, marched with head-quarters from Sukhur. The right flank of the robbers was therefore turned by an echelon more ment. The chief's assembled at and advanced from Kunda. The next echelon
was Jacob's column—the third mine. Thus my object was to throw the robbers into the hills east of Poolajee, where I could enclose them as seen in the map. I
also ordered Ali Moorad to advance upon Zuranee from the south, while I moved from Poolajee on the west, and I sent to the Murrees to come down from the north.
“ 13th.--Reached Shikarpoor, twenty-six miles; sent on well-diggers, sappers and miners, and entrenching tools.
"14th.-Reached Jagur, thirteen miles, bringing with me four guns, horse artillery, from Shikarpoor.
" 15th.-Reached Khanghur, sixteen miles ; Jacob at Rojars, fourteen miles to my left, pushing on on Busharee; he is in great distress for water. Has a terrible march through the desert to Poolajee; hear that the enemy have, up to the 14th, no word of our move, and had received a letter I wrote to the Khan of Kelat, to deceive them; it said my troops were so sick, I could not move this season against the robbers; this letter Beja Khan read, as I purposely threw it into his hands. I heard also that the enemy occupied Shahpoor, thirty-five miles in our front. Ordered Jacob to march direct on Shahpoor, and order a detachment of two guns and four hundred horse upon Ooch, under Captain Salter, to cut off the retreat of the enemy from Shahpoor, or, if he fled that way, instead of to Poolajee, which I thought probable, when he found Wallee Chandia marching upon that point. As the attack of Shahpoor put an end to the deception that we were not to march this season, the detachment marched at a later hour; received intelligence from spies that the enemy was in force at Ooch. Feared this force would be joined by that at Shahpoor, and overpower Captain Salter, so I immediately mounted my horse, and taking two guns (which had already marched sixteen miles that morning), and two hundred irregular horse, I followed to support Captain Salter, forty miles to Ooch ; marched all night, and 16th January reached Captain Salter, just before day-break; he had engaged and defeated 700 of the enemy, and taken 3,500 head of cattle from them. Videttes still kept on the neighbouring hills watching us; they were well mounted and daring; one engaged M.Murdo for twenty minutes, and was finally slain by him in this single combat ; M‘Murdo took his arms and horse; he had two swords and a matchlock; his horse was severely wounded by M'Murdo, in cutting at the master; it has recovered though. This man nearly shot John Napier, but the matchlock missed fire; when he applied the match, John was not six yards distance; nothing could have prevented his being hit. We rested a few hours, and then received despatches from Jacob; he had surprised the enemy in Shahpoor. At the same moment Salter attacked Ooch, and lost about the same number of people; he made prisoners of the whole of the enemy; for, before he reached Shahpoor, they heard the guns at Ooch, and knowing these must be English, the chiefs in Shahpoor fled, leaving sixty-two matchlock men, under two chiefs, all of whom were made prisoners. Thus have we killed about six chiefs and one hundred men, taken two, and about seventy or eighty prisoners of no note.
“17th January.-Decided to change all my operations ; ordered my magazine to be formed at Shahpoor ; sent cavalry to Lehree and Poolajee, also to Ooch, to wait for infantry to come up and provisions.
"18th January.-No news of Hunter and commissaries—wbat are they about? am inclined to believe I have the enemy on the south side of the hills.
" 19th January.-Infantry will be up to-morrow. Resolved to leave the blockade of the valley of the Zeyague, and the gorges of two other valleys, to Jacob. Ordered him, with four guns, to Lehree and Poolajee. Ordered the camel-corps, and 400 cavalry, and two guns, to Zurranee from Ooch, to which I march to-morrow, with head-quarters, as the most central. Suspect the robbers are in force at Tonge, and will make for the pass at Gundooee. If they do, Salter, with his two guns, camel-corps, and cavalry will block them. The camel-corps carry 500 infantry, of which 200 are volunteers from the 13th Light Infantry, regular old soldiers of Jellalabad, and the other 300 stanch sepoys, of Meeanee and Dubba most of them. If, however, the enemy bas already gained the pass, which want of provisions prevented my occupying sooner, still he only goes further into the cul-de-sac. I have ordered Wallee Mahommed to march from Poolajee on Tonge, and so sweep the foot of the hills--he will be a feeler for the enemy, with us on his right flank all the way. Having swept all the south of the hills of cattle and enemies, he will probably be desperate, and defend the pass of Gundooee. It is very strong, but I have ordered Ahmed Khan Muzzy to march up the Zeyague, simultaneously with Wallee's march on Tonge, and Salter's on Zurranee ; so he will be taken by this column in reverse at Koombee. Ali Moorad will also be at Gundooee. I think I will first shell them well with my four mortars, then let drive Ali Moorad and Wallee Mohammed on each flank, and if that won't settle Beja Khan's stomach, we must try what our own troops will do. I shall carry it somehow, I suppose, with or without bloodshed. I reckon they will have 6,000 men upon it; I dare say I sball have
as many, of which 2,000 will be good troops. I hope we shall bully them out. I should not like to finish my career by being knocked on the head by a robber, or crushed by a rolling rock.
“20th January. Stores and troops all arriving, reached Ooch that night. Here Beja Khan is in a sort of punch-bowl at Tonge-the entrance a hole-only one man at a time. This place celebrated in their history. Armies have been defeated here for want of water ; but I took care to bring with me one hundred leather bags to carry water, and all the apparatus for sinking wells and drawing water, and men skilled in this matter, so I can supply more men with water than are needed to stop up the hole, for if only one can go in, only one can come out. I have four mortars-perhaps I may chuck in a few shells over the precipice. However, my grub is not up, so let them eat their's inside. I have ordered Wallee to march from Poolajee upon Tonge, and sent a squadron of cavalry to Kullchat, to meet him, and observe Tonge.
"21st.-Wallee Chandia did his job; he fell in with a party of Boogtees of sixteen; they fired, and he killed six, besides catching 150 goats. I sent a squadron of horse to communicate with him, but when his people came away to report to me, the cavalry had not met with him. Tonge had been abandoned yesterday by Beja Khan ; his men were leaving him fast, and going to Belooch Khan of Lehree, who pretends to be our friend. I have sent Wallee back to Jacob, with orders to Jacob to handle Belooch Khan very roughly, and even arrest and send him prisoner to me.
"22nd. Ooch ; sent on four guns and all the cavalry, together with camel-corps, to Sooree Kushta, yesterday; also the well-diggers and four days' provisions followed, and will reach to-morrow morning.
“23d.-Ooch; the 2nd Europeans arrived to-day—700 bayonets—I think one of the finest bodies I ever saw, and in good order. Had a despatch from Colonel Geddes, from Sooree Kushta; no enemy; road, heavy sand; water, bad and scarce. I don't mind this ; I know the desert; the well-diggers will soon get it good; it is not bad, only a taste from sulphur ; boiling will put it all right, and we shall have plenty. Where you can find one well in these deserts, you are sure of as much water as you please, for it is all right where one can can fill one hundred, with only brave diggers. I was prepared for this. I begin to know these deserts-I have had enough of them. Provisions all up for fifteen days. Arrived a little knocked up; but the worst is all over. Plenty of wild bush, which camels eat, and like much; also tufts of don-grass, which the horses do well on. Take care, Beja; I suspect you and the Boogtees mean to fight at Gundooee, or near it. I was an awk. ward customer hitherto. Tu l'as voulu, George Dandin, tu l'as voulu. What is it? It is your own fault, John Robber, it's your own fault.
“ 24th.-Ooch ; wait for supplies. Tonge is not what was said to be, but is strong. Guns can go in.
“25th.-Zooree Řushta; marched twenty-one miles through heavy sand; nearly twelve hours' march. Send Lieutenant-Colonel Geddes and Mr. M'Murdo to-morrow to examine Zurranee. Orders not to fight unless attacked. Halt there.
“ 26th. The arrivals are tired with the heavy march of yesterday, and we must wait to let provisions come up. I have twelve days in camp, but that is not enough. I do not like to have less than a month's provisions in hand. The necessity of secrecy prevented my making much preparation, and we have had great difficulty; to this is added, that to provision an army in the desert is no joke. However, all goes on well. The surprise of Ooch and Shahpoor produced the effect I wanted-terror; so none of our convoys are annoyed. I shall occupy all the wells also. I am vexing Beja Khan to the heart in every way.
* 27th.-Zurranee, 28 miles; a dreadful march; all deep heavy sand-everything knocked up in the shape of animals; but the soldiers all spirits, especially the Europeans. The cold weather, which braces us up, kills these poor natives. It has really been trifling, yet three have died of it. The mid-day is very hot. We have the passes called Tallee and Jummuch. The first there! I have tried to draw three little warriors of my army with their spears; that is the entrance, perpendicular rocks; it could be turned by a thirty miles' march. Well, we went through without a shot. The other is five miles off, through a much higher range, but not steep, and could be turned easily ; but not being defended, I have both, and am encamped between them. So far, all is right. Simpson will be at Tomb in two days, and thus I have driven the robbers east, and occupy from Tomb to Zurranee and Zurree Kushta, in the plains of Mutt, or Muth, about thirty miles across the Boog. tee country, driving Jackranees and Doomkees upon the Boogtees, who have not much to eat, and do not like to let them in upon them; for barbarians of all ages and nations are hot-tempered and jealous, as I have ever observed. I think I noticed this in my book on colonization, where I said, we think nothing of driving one
tribe back upon another, though they are more jealous of such invasion than more civilized nations. Well, I am turning this to good account. There has been a dearth among the Boogtees and Murrees, and I have offered help to the last, while I drive in two other tribes upon the first. I think I am driving them to desperation.
" 28th January.-Halt here in this valley between the two passes. The situation is dangerous; but I know my enemy, and I hold the passes. Sent off a cossid to Simpson, to tell him to march, as the passes are mine, and no enemy in his front.
"29th.-Received an answer from Simpson; he is hard by, halting, and will make Deyrah to-morrow.
• 30th.--Ruminated all day yesterday. I made a short march to the east, and up the valley; I suspected the enemy were there; we found lots of tracks of cattle, and one camp-follower, freshly murdered; poor fellow, he went one mile beyond our posts, to cut grass, and they caught him, and, of course, murdered him, and will many more, for no orders or examples will prevent these men wandering thus. M‘Murdo's horse-keeper, coming through the pass between the camps, was also murdered ; M‘Murdo had passed just before-a narrow escape. Well, I marched about five miles, and my conjecture was correct. We came upon the site of a large camp ; I imagine not less than a thousand people had occupied it; there were fires lighted still, and two litters for carrying women on, also a camel; either they had fled the day before, or had seen our march from the rocks. Well, I ruminate, and chew the cud; and as I thought, it came into my head, that our advance has left men in the hills, who have killed three or four of the people going along our line of communication, so I shall this night send back among the hills a force of about 300 infantry; and I will order a squadron of cavalry from Zurranee, to skirt the hills, and both meet at Tonge, just to give a search. At eleven to-night Jack marches, determined to do all that man can do to succeed ; and woe to the robbers if they are met.
“ 31st.–Jack is come back ; he could meet no robbers, but he has captured 2,000 head of cattle from them ; this is as good-it starves them. He proves me right in saying these fellows are lurking behind, as to the amount of about one hundred ; I was sure they could not carry off all their cattle, and here we have it. We have now taken about 6,000 head of cattle from them, and a vast quantity of grain ; this will be a sickener, at all events. I have turned out a good robber, * at all hazards, but I have not done yet. I mean to keep my word, when I told them I would play a rough game; I have not done yet; I must have a lot of prisoners if possible. I have sent M‘Murdo with a troop of cavalry to meet Simpson, and take possession of Deyrah. I think he will find grain there, laid up for their winter consumption. I go on patiently, but unrelenting
** 1st February, 1845.—The rascally camel men have, to the tune of six hundred, refused to bring up provisions past Shahpoor, and I am fairly put to my trumps ! Well, exertion must increase; I will use the camel corps, and dismount half the cavalry, if need be. I will eat Red Rover sooner than Ainch before these robber tribes. We will advance somehow when I have fortified the Pass of Tallee; that is the key of all our operations; while I hold this pass, I can enter the hills, and come out as I please. I communicate with my cavalry, and our provisions come safely; my position is safe, but very critical, because I may fail in my object if I make a blunder. I am now drawn up north and south, across all the Boogtee and Doomkee and Jackramee valleys; their territory runs east and west ; I command full thirty miles ; singly men may pass, or in small parties ; but I command the vales, and have captured full 6,000 of their cattle-I thus drive them in masses on neutral territory, and without food.
« 2nd February. I have sent Ali Akbar to hunt for camels in Kutch, and he will get me them-at least I hope so; if not, I can still dismount the cavalry, and our government camels are not quite done up; I shall wait; I am sure my operations are becoming felt.
“ 3rd.—I knew I was right-I have some intelligence that Beja and all his men are at Mundo, a plain twenty miles in advance, dying of hunger; inany expire daily ; come, I will wait; let them fast; in four days the pass will be secure, and then i am at you, Beja, and mean to give you a bellyfull. Agh! there are his women, and be hanged to them ; I must get them and the children out of the way, even though he escapes. Good news just come-Malet, with Ali Morad's offer to bring
* Sir C. Napier is descended from the Scotts of Thirlestane. His enthusiasm here shows that the old border-blood is still hot in him.
in Beja, if I will have him. Answer, "Yes, on condition that he and his whole tribe come and lay down their arms at my feet, and become prisoners of war, and go to the left bank of the Indus, and inhabit the spot given to them by his highness, Ali Moorad.' The prince is confident they will accept these terms; if they do, I shall be the happiest man in Scinde for a week! No more bloodshed, and this mountain of danger gloriously and usefully ended; for I think I shall be able to tame all these devils, and turn them into cultivators of the soil of Scinde; and the frontiers will not be disturbed again for fifty years, if the governor of Seinde has a grain of sense in him.
“ 4th.-Letter from Malet, the Ameer; says he is sure of Beja; I am not, just because his boasting higbness says it; I would not give a — for the word of a barbarian, unless knocked out of his mouth by such sharp and sudden kicks on the stern, that half his tongue came with the sentence. No, no, my dear Ali Moorad, yesterday you asked six days to get an answer; I gave this, but now you want eight; so I shall urge my march upon your friend two days sooner, which is remarkable, as Teague said of the planrty step which cost his mother a dollar ! These two more days to settle a plain question, looks as if Ali was secretly giving Beja provisions. By the L-d! 'I will look sharp, and if I detect him, I will pull Mallet and John Curling out of his camp, and send a volley of grape shot into his bighness's tent. This danger has just occurred to my mind; I will keep cavalry in his front, or these barbarians will dupe me yet. I doubt whether he dare play me such a prank. By Jupiter Ammon, if he does, I will blow him and his myrmidons to atoms! not a mother's son of them shall reach Kyrpoor. He dare not; yet he is such an ass there is no knowing what he will do. Well, I keep him in such a position that no earthly power can save him, if he plays me false.
“ 5th.-Dismounted half the camel corps, and sent them to bring up provision, but to make a night march in Tonge first. I think they may catch some cattle and men trying to get water; fortification of pass going on.
“6th.-Simpson is doleful, but all right. I have twelve days' provisions come up, and will march on the 8th, and have resolved to abandon this pass, and keep skirting in plains till I reach Door Khushta, from which I understand there is a good road to Deyrah. I shall then cut this pass altogether, by which I save a cavalry post, and have 200 more horsemen at my disposal, and still have no defile in my rear.
“7th.–March to-morrow; all my arrangements made. My rear-guard will abandon this pass the 9th. The halt here has been very useful. But my line must be kept across their territories :
“ From A B I get to cd; I also leave Zurrannee, which now takes two hundred cavalry and one hundred foot. I could not sooner make the move; I had not prog, nor had I the knowledge of a rout in advance to Deyrah.”
This journal, unfortunately, here concludes ; but the campaign continued for about a month longer, within which time he forced the robbers to take refuge within the rocks of Trukkhee, which rise hundreds of feet perpendicular, with only three clefts, a few feet wide, to give entrance. There by prodigious marches he shut them up, and after a time they all surrendered, one tribe alone escaping. He then carried these robbers with their families down to the south of Scinde, and there made them build houses and cultivate land; which done, he settled them as proprietors of what their forced labour had created, and they remain peaceful, successful, and contented tillers of the earth.
Napier was now at liberty to pursue his course of beneficent government, and