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ered, by the popular sense of devil other word which would have marked given to the term daimon, as used in its distinction from diabolos. the passages we have been discussing. As for the “three unclean spirits

Now, as St. Paul uses the term dai- like frogs,” that are called “the spimon in this Gentile or Pagan sense, in rits of daimons" in Rev. xvi. 13, 14, special connexion with the idol-worship they must denote wicked doctrines or of the old Pagan world which prevail. principles, and not individuals ; for ed in his own time, and, in 1 Tim. iv. how could one personal spirit come 1, in reference to the revived Pagan out of the mouth of another ? Com. notions of subordinate mediators, fore- mentators are, we believe, agreed upon told by the Spirit for the apostasy of this point, that the going forth of these the latter times; so the author of the three spirits “out of the mouth of the Revelations applies it in precisely a dragon, and out of the mouth of the similar sense, in connexion with the beast, and out of the mouth of the idol-worship of this corrupt and Pa- false prophet," symbolizes the simulganized Christianity. In this sense taneous rise and spread of three diffeonly can we, consistently with the rent forms of evil principle over the truth of prophecy, and the facts of ec- earth. This interpretation we shall clesiastical history, understand the vindicate upon grounds not before word daimonia, as used in Rev. ix. 20 brought forward, which will place the -"And the rest of the men-yet re- passage in a new, and, we trust, a pented not of the work of their hands, fuller light. that they should worship devils (dai- If it should be asked why they are mons), and idols of gold and silver,” designated“ unclean spirits" nupata, &c. For this passage occurs in the like frogs—the spirits of daimons, workdescription of events which follow the ing miracles, we would point to the sounding of the sixth angel's trumpet, part which they enact on the propheand refers, according to the opinion of tic scroll. They “go forth unto the all commentators, to the judgments in- kings of the earth and of the whole flicted upon the corrupted nations of world, to gather them to the battle of Christendom, more especially, per- that great day of God Almighty." haps, the Eastern churches, by the in- Now if, as we have shown, or, as we vasions of the Arabian, Turkish, and hope to show before we conclude this

Tartar hordes, symbolized, in the pro. paper, the term daimon, everywhere phecy, by the loosing of the four an- in the New Testament, except in the gels, which are bound in the great mouth of the Apostle of the Gentiles, river Euphrates, which were prepared by whom it is used in a Gentile or for an hour, and a day, and a month, Pagan sense, and in that passage of and a year, for to slay the third part Revelations, which, referring to a Pa. of men.” Now, none of the Christians gan condition of apostate Christendom, of the Eastern, the African, or the to a worship of daimoniac mediators, Spanish Churches, upon whom this and of idols or images, employs the judgment principally fell

, or indeed of term in the same Pagan sense and conany Christian Church whatever, since nexion, if everywhere else it indicates the first preaching of the Gospel, have the phenomena of some species of luever been guilty of worshipping devils nacy, madness, epilepsy, or other disor infernal spirits. But a very large ease, manifested by convulsive action portion of Christendom, both East and and mental derangement (as we, from West, fell into the worship of daimons association, to this day, say “he is or intermediate beings — namely, of possessed,” to express extravagant and angels, and deified or canonized men unaccountable conduct)—if the phrase and women, and conjoined with this “unclean spirit,” constantly used as the use and worship, or veneration, of synonymous with daimon, is, as we images, or idols of gold and silver, &c. have seen above, but another nameThis, therefore, must be the sin here among the Jews as among the Hinimputed to them, since the other never doos-for affections either of a luna. existed. Here, therefore, also, as in tic, an epileptic, or an hysteric type, 1 Tim. iv. 1, and 1 Cor. x. 20, 21, from the abandonment of clothes, and daimon means something very different other acts and habits of an uncleanly from devil in our sense, and had better and repulsive character, which persons have been rendered by demon, or some thus affected commonly exhibit ; and if the prophet mean to designate the called the devil (diabolos), and Satan, sudden rise, and contagious, and, as it which deceiveth the whole world; he were, convulsionary, propagation of was cast out into the earth, and his wild principles and doctrines, whether angels [not daimons] were cast out of political phrenzy, or social madness, with him." or spiritual delusion, circulating from But there is one other important city to city, from throne to throne, passage that must not be passed over, with electric speed and galvanic ac- and which, being apparently the strongtion, literally convulsing the world, est, we have reserved to the last. St. producing in a few days the revolutions James says— Epistle ii. 19_" The and changes which centuries of syste- devils [daimons] also believe, and matic effort in man's regular progress tremble." This, it cannot be denied, were necessary to accomplish, and seems, at first sight, very much opboding the catastrophe of universal posed to the views we have been prowar and confusion upon earth, may we posing ; and yet, it is but a seeming not recognise a most just and appro- opposition, which, upon consideration, priate picture, of such a startling entirely disappears, or rather is changed phase in the world's history, in the into a confirmation. For is not the striking words which he employs, withapostle here alluding to the very belief out supposing that any personal fallen and confessions made by the daimoniacs angel is at all designated ? And, fur- and pythonic spirits, both to our Lord ther, have we not, apparently, some and to St. Paul, as formerly noticed, reason to fear, from the signs in the and doubtless to the other apostles heaven and upon the earth, that the also, when sent forth to heal the sick exodus of these three-spirits of dai. and cast out daimons? And does not the mons—these three contagious and con- trembling, spoken of by St. James, revulsing phrenzies—has already com- fer to that convulsive tremor and menced in these our days ?

shuddering which was the unfailing It is a curious point, that nowhere indication and accompaniment of a in the New Testament, nowhere, in paroxysm of the daimoniac disorder, deed, in the whole Bible, is there indi. which, it will be found, is the characcated any connexion or resemblance teristic symptom of the approach of between Satan, the diabolos, or proper the afflatus to the Hindoo Pythonics devil_who is called “the wicked one," of the present day, and which is the “ the dragon," and “the serpent”- common symptom attending the accesand these daimons, such as would lead sion of epileptic, hysteric, and similar us to conclude them personal wicked convulsive seizures? The history of spirits, similar to him in his moral na- the convulsionaries, and of the first ture, and obedient to his will; or to quakers (tremblers], show the invariinfer any relation whatever to exist able connexion that exists between between them, other than that by which convulsive action of the body, and spithey, in common with death, and sick. ritual exaltation of whatever kind, ness, and infirmity, and all other hu- whether hysteric, enthusiastic, or what man misery, and even serpents and the Jews considered daimoniac. After scorpions, and the unwilling subjection having witnessed the phenomena of of the creature to vanity and the bon- Hindoo possession, and looking to the dage of corruption, and the groaning sense in which these words daimon and and travailing of the whole creation, daimoniac are so invariably employed are represented as a result and a por- in the Gospels, we believe the foregotion of his permitted power upon earth. ing to be the true sense-or, at least, Never are they termed his ministers. a very probable explanation-of the Whenever the fallen spirits who obey passage. And should this interpretathe behests of Satan are alluded to, tion appear strange, as, doubtless, from they are called “his angels.” Thus, its novelty it may, we would pray those in Matt. xxv. 41, we read, “ Depart who doubt its correctness to look into from me, ye cursed, into everlasting the church history of the first ages, fire, prepared for the devil (diabolos] to mark the importance attached_as and his angels." So also in Rey. in the case of SS. Gervasius and xii. 7, “ And the dragon fought, and Protanius before alluded to-to the his angels ;" and v. 9, " And the great trembling, and convulsions, and horridragon was cast out, that old serpent, fied cries of the daimoniacs at the

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sight, or touch, or approach of relics, for racteristic of that condition; and the the testing of which they were retained revelations of this condition - when as a sort of spiritual alembic-to note man's own consciousness, turned back the degree of conclusive proof which from and blinded to the relations of this shuddering testimony was supposed the outer world, and losing, or bewilto afford ; and then to say, is not this dered as to his own true identity, may the terrified credence, the believing only be the more awakened to an in. and trembling of the daimons, to which tuitive and perhaps painful perception St. James refers? Was the apostle of the reality of deity, and the awful beaualluding to what passes in the world of ty of holiness—the revelations of such spirits among the fallen angels, of which a condition constituting, possibly, as we our Lord himself never vouchsafes a before suggested, as true, nay, moretrue hint, and to which, were they even and unexceptionable testimonies to the revealed to himself, St. James could truth of the divine existence, than uthardly refer as an argument calculated terances proceeding from the angels to influence forcibly those he was ad- of him who is the father of lies dressing? Or was he not, rather, re- spirits irreparably lost, and therefore ferring to the fearful cries, and the irretrievably wicked; whose sole and confessions made amid tremblings and eternal thought and feeling towards convulsions of the frame, by parties God and his beloved, must be hopeless under the daimoniac paroxysm, which hatred; whose eternal word, denial ; they had all, probably, frequently wit- whose eternal action, the endeavour to nessed; and which they, as well as he, destroy his works, and mar the purin common with their times, believed

poses of his love? to proceed from tabernacling daimons ? But we do not wish, nor is it requi

We find this very mode of speech, site, to press this point of critical inthis treating the acts of the possessed, terpretation any further. as if performed immediately, and al- profoundly impressed with the marked most visibly, by the daimons them. distinction, which is everywhere preselves, in many other portions of the served in the original of the New New Testament. Thus, in the ac- Testament—as we imagine every Greek count of the Gadarene daimoniac al. scholar must be between the two ready quoted, Mark, v. 10, we read, terms, diabolos and daimon.

We see “ He (the possessed] besought him in the former everywhere indicated a much that he would not send THEM being, whose nature is morally wicked; [the daimons] out of the country.” But in the latter we see denoted-when immediately afterwards, v. 12, the man not applied by St. Paul, in the Greek is lost sight of altogether, and the dai- sense, to the mediate divinities wormons are introduced as the sole actors. shipped by the Gentiles, or by him All the devils (daimons] besought and the author of Revelations, to him, saying, Send us into the swine.” a similar worship revived in corAnd so, also, in Matt. viii. 31. “So rupted Christendom - that state of the devils [daimons] besought him, man's altered consciousness, when he saying, If thou cast us out, suffer us is said expressly to be beside himself, to go away into the herd of swine." and an intelligence different from his If we may, and must understand the sane and ordinary self seems to direct entreaty here nakedly described as one his words and actions—a state which made by the daimons, to mean an the heathens (as the modern Turks) entreaty preferred in the persona- looked upon as having something dility, indeed, of daimons, but through vine, or, as Plato would express it, the bodily form and organs of pos- something daimoniacal in it; which sessed man, may we not with equal jus- the Jews, like the modern Hindoos, in tice, must we not upon consistent prin. one phase of their pythonic systemciples of interpretation, understand the for in the other they resemble the belief of the daimons alluded to by St. Greeks and Romans-supposed to reJames, to be a belief, expressed, indeed, sult from the indwelling of an evil in like manner, in the personality of spirit; but which medical men of the daimons, but through the frame and present day would pronounce to be mouth of possessed man also, the very epilepsy or lunacy, and which the exaddition of trembling, or convulsive press language of the Gospels themshuddering, being an emphatic cha- selves warrants them in doing so. For,

as already remarked, we have the boy states of madness to result from a who, in Matt. xvii. 15, is said to be foreign spirit predominating over the “sore vexed,” and whom, in Mark, proper intelligence of the patient, ix. 20, “the spirit tare,” and out of always use daimon, and its synonyms, whom the daimon, after having been “wicked spirit” and “unclean spirit,” rebuked by Jesus, departed, Matt. in this restricted sense, that is, in asxvii. 18—this same boy is, in Matt. sociation with human madness or xvii. 15, called by his father, expressly, derangement, or disease of a convula "lunatic," or person afflicted with sive character ; that wherever they an affection depending on lunar influ- designate an evil spirit by these ence, and immediately afterwards is terms, they designate them, not as in described as being “cured.” Again, their own essence, or abstracted from we find the two ideas of the daimon body, but as manifested in their effects and madness identified in John, x. 20— in the sphere of living humanity—in • He hath a daimon, and is mad.” And the tremor and the palsy, the gnashthe difficulty of this language, which ing and the foam, the convulsive may to a European appear strange, action, the frantic gestures, the wild and to present, as one, two utterly words, the terrible expression, the updifferent ideas, receives its full solution turned eye, the death-like coma, the in the East, where the identification altered consciousness, and, occasion. between daimon-action and madness- ally, perhaps, the awakened vision, or and, indeed, all cerebral, nervous, and exalted faculties, of man beside himanomalous disease - is rooted in the self. popular mind, and has for centuries Our interpretation of the passage in maintained the schools of medical ex. St. James's Epistle is in accordance orcism presided over by the Bhuktus. with this view, that he refers to the And lest any one should contend that confessions made by daimonized man." this distinction between the two terms, The same with our explanation of which our translation has confounded, the three spirits of daimons in the is not one of character, as we main- Revelations--that they refer to three tain, but merely of dignity and de- forms of epidemic phrenzy or delusion, gree; that diabolos, or “ the calum

whether political, social, or spiritual

, niator,” is a title limited to the devil, in its immediate character, which, i. e., to the fallen archangel—the au- propagated like a contagious madness thor of evil and of death, the father on living man, shall hurry him [if of lies, and the accuser of man-- they be not already doing so] into the whereas daimon is used to denote any great and final war, which shall consubordinate evil spirit, we would point stitute the catastrophe of his tragic to the passage in St. John, vi. 70, history on earth. where our Lord, imputing moral guilt The several passages of St. Paul, to Judas, calls him a devil—“ Have I on the other hand, all of which, exnot chosen you twelve, and one of you cept one, refer expressly to the reliis a devil,” in which not daimon, but gious ideas prevalent among the Genthis very word, diabolos, or “calum- tiles, and connected with their idol niator," is used; whereas, as above worship, and that one, to a future observed, when the Jews impute mad- departure or apostasy from the Chris, ness to our Lord, it is a daimon which tian faith, which shall be characterised they allege him to have. With the by, among other things, a return to reality of this distinction, and that it Gentile doctrines upon daimoniac inis intentionally preserved throughout tercession and worship, we are led, by our Lord himself, and probably by from a comparison of texts, and a conSt. John also, we feel strongly im- sideration of the profound harmony of pressed; that even those of the dis- the apostle's ideas, to explain on anciples, who followed the current be- other principle, which equally excludes lief among the Jews, and believed these

his intending by the word 'daimon a

* This word represents far more justly the participle darovigopesvos, employed in the original Gospels, than the phrase" possessed by devils,” used in our translation. There is nothing in the Greek term at all corresponding with, or suggesting the idea of “possession," strictly speaking,

disembodied wicked spirit-namely, in ciated with the healing of the sick, the that sense in which the Greeks them- lame, and the blind. And, whatever selves--with whose philosophy and the belief of the Jews, which, we never theosophic poetry he was manifestly questioned, was similar to that of the conversant, and whom, be it remem- Hindoos of this day, and whatever the bered, he is addressing, whether still belief and language of the disciples heathens like the Athenians, or recent thereon, so remarkable a reserve and Gentile converts like the Corinthians distinction in the language of our and Colossians-understood the term, Lord himself, should not be wholly that of a divine numen, superior to overlooked. man and lower than the one supreme But, although we are desirous of es. God, the Hypsistos and Agathos-in tablishing, what we are convinced is a word, a secondary protecting power,

the truth, and will one day be recogor angelic mediator. And this Gen- nized as such, that the demoniac pos. tile explanation of St. Paul's language sessions in the Gospels, those among the affords a key to that passage in Reve. Hindoos, and the exhibitions of peculiar lations, where the word daimon is ap- forms of mania, epilepsy, hysteria, cho. plied in a precisely similar connexion, rea, &c. among ourselves, are absolutely to the same Gentile daimon-worship identical phenomena, between which no and idolatry revived, in another form, true line of distinction can be drawn, we in the corrupted Christian Church. by no means wish, nor do we feel our.

Yet, having thus done justice to selves competent, to pronounce on the very profound distinctions, in the lan- real character of the phenomena thus guage even of the apostles, and shown identified. On the one hand, the pyfrom parallelisms of thought and ex- thonic spirits of the heathen nations, pression current in the East, and from whether Greek or Hindoo, and the the deductions of a higher synthetic Jewish daimoniacs, may be simply epicriticism, that passages, the most ap- leptics, or the victims of other physical parently opposed to the physical im- disease, viewed through the media of port of the word daimon, as distin- those mythic, or superstitious notions, guished from the moral, and the view which prevailed in Greece and Syria, of possession which it will suggest, and which still prevail in Hindostan. can be interpreted in the most perfect On the other, those perversions of the harmony with it, we do not desire to human reason, or consciousness, which press this point further. For, admitting modern European medicine, influenced that our interpretations were wholly perhaps by the rationalistic tendency wrong, and that the popular sense of of all modern science, pronounces to devil were the true one in every one be mere results of the destruction of these instances, in the Epistles and or derangement of physical parts or Revelations, it would only show, what functions, may, for aught we know, we have already allowed, that the dis- depend, even immediately, on causes ciples themselves, or the greater num- far more spiritual than medulla, and ber of them, regarded these pheno nerve, and blood—may arise, even acmena like the rest of their country- cording to the laws of material causamen, as resulting from the actual tion, as Bayle has well shewn, from indwelling of foreign evil spirits. the disorder introduced into these What we mainly contend is, that our finer portions of our organisation, by Lord himself never applies the word spiritual beings, armed with profound daimon to a morally evil spirit; for knowledge, and moving in the minutest which, as we have seen, he ever employs vehicles. They may, in a word, be either “ Satan,” diabolos,or “the real demoniac possessions in the most wicked one;" but to cases of epilepsy literal sense. And, truly, a close oband madness, or of some similar phy- servation of the intrinsically evil chasical ailment or mental aberration racter often exhibited by parties suf. cases placed in juxtaposition with fering under such afflictions-of the “diseases," “ sicknesses,” and “infir- apparently immodest, as well as the mities;" which, like them, were brought malignant tendencies which they someto our Lord to be healed; which ac. times evince_tendencies quite opposed cordingly he “healed" and “ cured;" to the natural and sane dispositions and the casting out of which, in the of the sufferers—may well have led commission given his disciples, is asso- thoughtful observers to recognize, in

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