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ered, by the popular sense of devil other word which would have marked given to the term daimon, as used in its distinction from diabolos. the passages we have been discussing. As for the “three unclean spirits
Now, as St. Paul uses the term dai- like frogs," that are called “the spimon in this Gentile or Pagan sense, in rits of daimons" in Rev. xvi. 13, 14, special connexion with the idol-worship they must denote wicked doctrines or of the old Pagan world which prevail. principles, and not individuals ; for ed in his own time, and, in 1 Tim. iv. how could one personal spirit come 1, in reference to the revived Pagan out of the mouth of another ? Com. notions of subordinate mediators, fore- mentators are, we believe, agreed upon told by the Spirit for the apostasy of this point, that the going forth of these the latter times; so the author of the three spirits “out of the mouth of the Revelations applies it in precisely a dragon, and out of the mouth of the similar sense, in connexion with the beast, and out of the mouth of the idol-worship of this corrupt and Pa. false prophet,” symbolizes the simulganized Christianity. In this sense taneous rise and spread of three diffeonly can we, consistently with the rent forms of evil principle over the truth of prophecy, and the facts of ec- earth. This interpretation we shall clesiastical history, understand the vindicate upon grounds not before word daimonia, as used in Rev. ix. 20 brought forward, which will place the
_" And the rest of the men-yet re- passage in a new, and, we trust, a pented not of the work of their hands, fuller light. that they should worship devils [dai If it should be asked why they are mons], and idols of gold and silver," designated “unclean spirits" -TYULATU, &c. For this passage occurs in the like frogs—the spirits of daimons, workdescription of events which follow the ing miracles, we would point to the sounding of the sixth angel's trumpet, part which they enact on the propheand refers, according to the opinion of tic scroll. They “ go forth unto the all commentators, to the judgments in- kings of the earth and of the whole flicted upon the corrupted nations of world, to gather them to the battle of Christendom, more especially, per- that great day of God Almighty." baps, the Eastern churches, by the in. Now if, as we have shown, or, as we vasions of the Arabian, Turkish, and hope to show before we conclude this Tartar hordes, symbolized, in the pro- paper, the term daimon, everywhere phecy, by the loosing of “the four an. in the New Testament, except in the gels, which are bound in the great mouth of the Apostle of the Gentiles, river Euphrates, which were prepared by whom it is used in a Gentile or for an hour, and a day, and a month, Pagan sense, and in that passage of and a year, for to slay the third part Revelations, which, referring to a Pa. of men.” Now, none of the Christians gan condition of apostate Christendom, of the Eastern, the African, or the to a worship of daimoniac mediators, Spanish Churches, upon whom this and of idols or images, employs the judgment principally fell, or indeed of term in the same Pagan sense and conany Christian Church whatever, since nexion, if everywhere else it indicates the first preaching of the Gospel, have the phenomena of some species of lu. ever been guilty of worshipping devils nacy, madness, epilepsy, or other disor infernal spirits. But a very large ease, manifested by convulsive action portion of Christendom, both East and and mental derangement (as we, from West, fell into the worship of daimons association, to this day, say “he is or intermediate beings — namely, of possessed,” to express extravagant and angels, and deified or canonized men unaccountable conduct_if the phrase and women, and conjoined with this “unclean spirit," constantly used as the use and worship, or veneration, of synonymous with daimon, is, as we images, or idols of gold and silver, &c. have seen above, but another nameThis, therefore, must be the sin here among the Jews as among the Hinimputed to them, since the other never doos-for affections either of a lunaexisted. Here, therefore, also, as in tic, an epileptic, or an hysteric type, I Tim. iv. 1, and 1 Cor. x. 20, 21, from the abandonment of clothes, and daimon means something very different other acts and habits of an uncleanly from devil in our sense, and had better and repulsive character, which persons have been rendered by demon, or some thus affected commonly exhibit ; and
if the prophet mean to designate the sudden rise, and contagious, and, as it were, convulsionary, propagation of wild principles and doctrines, whether of political phrenzy, or social madness, or spiritual delusion, circulating from city to city, from throne to throne, with electric speed and galvanic ac. tion, literally convulsing the world, producing in a few days the revolutions and changes which centuries of syste. matic effort in man's regular progress were necessary to accomplish, and boding the catastrophe of universal war and confusion upon earth, may we not recognise a most just and appropriate picture, of such a startling phase in the world's history, in the striking words which he employs, without supposing that any personal fallen angel is at all designated ? And, further, have we not, apparently, some reason to fear, from the signs in the heaven and upon the earth, that the exodus of these three-spirits of dai. mons—these three contagious and convulsing phrenzies-has already com. menced in these our days ?
It is a curious point, that nowhere in the New Testament, nowhere, in deed, in the whole Bible, is there indi. cated any connexion or resemblance between Satan, the diabolos, or proper devil-who is called “the wicked one," “ the dragon," and “the serpent"and these daimons, such as would lead us to conclude them personal wicked spirits, similar to him in his moral nature, and obedient to his will; or to infer any relation whatever to exist between them, other than that by which they, in common with death, and sick. ness, and infirmity, and all other human misery, and even serpents and scorpions, and the unwilling subjection of the creature to vanity and the bon. dage of corruption, and the groaning and travailing of the whole creation, are represented as a result and a portion of his permitted power upon earth. Never are they termed his ministers. Whenever the fallen spirits who obey the behests of Satan are alluded to, they are called “his angels." Thus, in Matt. xxv. 41, we read, “ Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil (diabolos] and his angels.” So also in Rev. xii, 7, “ And the dragon fought, and his angels ;" and v. 9, “ And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent,
called the devil (diabolos), and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world; he was cast out into the earth, and his angels (not daimons) were cast out with him."
But there is one other important passage that must not be passed over, and which, being apparently the strong. est, we have reserved to the last. St. James says – Epistle ii. 19_“The devils [daimons] also believe, and tremble.” This, it cannot be denied, seems, at first sight, very much opposed to the views we have been proposing ; and yet, it is but a seeming opposition, which, upon consideration, entirely disappears, or rather is changed into a confirmation. For is not the apostle here alluding to the very belief and confessions made by the daimoniacs and pythonic spirits, both to our Lord and to St. Paul, as formerly noticed, and doubtless to the other apostles also, when sent forth to heal the sick and cast out daimons? And does not the trembling, spoken of by St. James, re. fer to that convulsive tremor and shuddering which was the unfailing indication and accompaniment of a paroxysm of the daimoniac disorder, which, it will be found, is the characteristic symptom of the approach of the afflatus to the Hindoo Pythonics of the present day, and which is the common symptom attending the accese sion of epileptic, hysteric, and similar convulsive seizures ? The history of the convulsionaries, and of the first quakers [tremblers], show the invariable connexion that exists between convulsive action of the body, and splritual exaltation of whatever kind, whether hysteric, enthusiastic, or what the Jews considered daimoniac. After having witnessed the phenomena of Hindoo possession, and looking to the sense in which these words daimon and daimoniac are so invariably employed in the Gospels, we believe the foregoing to be the true sense_or, at least, a very probable explanation-of the passage. And should this interpretation appear strange, as, doubtless, from its novelty it may, we would pray those who doubt its correctness to look into the church history of the first ages, to mark the importance attached_a3 in the case of SS. Gervasius and Protanius before alluded to-to the trembling, and convulsions, and horrified cries of the daimoniacs at the
sight, or touch, or approach of relics, for the testing of which they were retained as a sort of spiritual alembic-to note the degree of conclusive proof which this shuddering testimony was supposed to afford ; and then to say, is not this the terrified credence, the believing and trembling of the daimons, to which St. James refers ? Was the apostle alluding to what passes in the world of spirits among the fallen angels, of which our Lord himself never vouchsafes a hint, and to which, were they even revealed to himself, St. James could hardly refer as an argument calculated to influence forcibly those he was ad. dressing? Or was he not, rather, re. ferring to the fearful cries, and the confessions made amid tremblings and convulsions of the frame, by parties under the daimoniac paroxysm, which they had all, probably, frequently witnessed ; and which they, as well as he, in common with their times, believed to proceed from tabernacling daimons ?
We find this very mode of speech, this treating the acts of the possessed, as if performed immediately, and al. most visibly, by the daimons them selves, in many other portions of the New Testament. Thus, in the account of the Gadarene daimoniac al. ready quoted, Mark, v. 10, we read, “ He (the possessed] besought him much that he would not send them [the daimons] out of the country.” But immediately afterwards, v. 12, the man is lost sight of altogether, and the dai mons are introduced as the sole actors. “ All the devils (daimons] besought him, saying, Send us into the swine.” And so, also, in Matt. viii. 31. “So the devils (daimons] besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of swine." If we may, and must understand the entreaty here nakedly described as one made by the daimons, to mean an entreaty preferred in the personality, indeed, of daimons, but through the bodily form and organs of possessed man, may we not with equal justice, must we not upon consistent prin ciples of interpretation, understand the belief of the daimons alluded to by St. James, to be a belief, expressed, indeed, in like manner, in the personality of daimons, but through the frame and mouth of possessed man also, the very addition of trembling, or convulsive shuddering, being an emphatic cha
racteristic of that condition; and the revelations of this condition - when man's own consciousness, turned back from and blinded to the relations of the outer world, and losing, or bewildered as to his own true identity, may only be the more awakened to an in. tuitive and perhaps painful perception of the reality ofdeity, and the awfulbeauty of holiness—the revelations of such a condition constituting, possibly, as we before suggested, as true, nay, more true and unexceptionable testimonies to the truth of the divine existence, than utterances proceeding from the angels of him who is the father of lies spirits irreparably lost, and therefore irretrievably wicked; whose sole and eternal thought and feeling towards God and his beloved, must be hopeless hatred; whose eternal word, denial; whose eternal action, the endeavour to destroy his works, and mar the purposes of his love?
But we do not wish, nor is it requisite, to press this point of critical interpretation any further. We are profoundly impressed with the marked distinction, which is everywhere preserved in the original of the New Testament-as we imagine every Greek scholar must be — between the two terms, diabolos and daimon. We see in the former everywhere indicated a being, whose nature is morally wicked; in the latter we see denoted-when not applied by St. Paul, in the Greek sense, to the mediate divinities wor. shipped by the Gentiles, or by him and the author of Revelations, to a similar worship revived in corrupted Christendom - that state of man's altered consciousness, when he is said expressly to be beside himself, and an intelligence different from his sane and ordinary self seems to direct his words and actions-a state which the heathens (as the modern Turks) looked upon as having something divine, or, as Plato would express it, something daimoniacal in it; which the Jews, like the modern Hindoos, in one phase of their pythonic system for in the other they resemble the Greeks and Romans-supposed to result from the indwelling of an evil spirit; but which medical men of the present day would pronounce to be epilepsy or lunacy, and which the express language of the Gospels themselves warrants them in doing so. For,
as already remarked, we have the boy who, in Matt. xvii. 15, is said to be “sore vexed," and whom, in Mark, ix. 20, “ the spirit tare," and out of whom the daimon, after having been rebuked by Jesus, departed, Matt. xvii. 18—this same boy is, in Matt. xvii. 15, called by his father, expressly, a " lunatic," or person afflicted with an affection depending on lunar influ. ence, and immediately afterwards is described as being “cured." Again, we find the two ideas of the daimon and madness identified in John, x. 20 “ He hath a daimon, and is mad.” And the difficulty of this language, which may to a European appear strange, and to present, as one, two utterly different ideas, receives its full solution in the East, where the identification between daimon-action and madnessand, indeed, all cerebral, nervous, and anomalous disease - is rooted in the popular mind, and has for centuries maintained the schools of medical ex. orcism presided over by the Bhuktus. And lest any one should contend that this distinction between the two terms, which our translation has confounded, is not one of character, as we maintain, but merely of dignity and degree; that diabolos, or “the calumniator," is a title limited to the devil, i. e., to the fallen archangel—the au. thor of evil and of death, the father of lies, and the accuser of man-whereas daimon is used to denote any subordinate evil spirit, we would point to the passage in St. John, vi. 70, where our Lord, imputing moral guilt to Judas, calls him a devil_" Have I not chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil,” in which not daimon, but this very word, diabolos, or “calumniator," is used; whereas, as above observed, when the Jews impute madness to our Lord, it is a daimon which they allege him to have. With the reality of this distinction, and that it is intentionally preserved throughout by our Lord himself, and probably by St. John also, we feel strongly impressed; that even those of the disciples, who followed the current belief among the Jews, and believed these
states of madness to result from : foreign spirit predominating over the proper intelligence of the patient, always use daimon, and its synonyms, "wicked spirit" and "unclean spirit,” in this restricted sense, that is, in as. sociation with human madness or derangement, or disease of a convul. sive character ; that wherever they designate an evil spirit by these terms, they designate them, not as in their own essence, or abstracted from body, but as manifested in their effects in the sphere of living humanity-in the tremor and the palsy, the gnashing and the foam, the convulsive action, the frantic gestures, the wild words, the terrible expression, the upturned eye, the death-like coma, the altered consciousness, and, occasion. ally, perhaps, the awakened vision, or exalted faculties, of man beside himself.
Our interpretation of the passage in St. James's Epistle is in accordance with this view, that he refers to the confessions made by daimonized man."
The same with our explanation of the three spirits of daimons in the Revelations--that they refer to three forms of epidemic phrenzy or delusion, whether political, social, or spiritual, in its immediate character, which, propagated like a contagious madness on living man, shall hurry him [if they be not already doing so] into the great and final war, which shall constitute the catastrophe of his tragic history on earth.
The several passages of St. Paul, on the other hand, all of which, except one, refer expressly to the religious ideas prevalent among the Gentiles, and connected with their idol worship, and that one, to a future departure or apostasy from the Chris. tian faith, which shall be characterised by, among other things, a return to Gentile doctrines upon daimoniac intercession and worship, we are led, from a comparison of texts, and a consideration of the profound harmony of the apostle's ideas, to explain on another principle, which equally excludes his intending by the word daimon a
* This word represents far more justly the participle duinoySousvos, employed in the original Gospels, than the phrase "possessed by devils,” used in our translation. There is nothing in the Greek term at all corresponding with, or suggesting the idea of “possession," strictly speaking,
disembodied wicked spirit_namely, in ciated with the healing of the sick, the that sense in which the Greeks them- lame, and the blind. And, whatever selves with whose philosophy and the belief of the Jews, which, we never theosophic poetry he was manifestly questioned, was similar to that of the conversant, and whom, be it remem Hindoos of this day, and whatever the bered, he is addressing, whether still belief and language of the disciples heathens like the Athenians, or recent thereon, so remarkable a reserve and Gentile converts like the Corinthians distinction in the language of our and Colossians-understood the term, Lord himself, should not be wholly that of a divine numen, superior to overlooked. man and lower than the one supreme But, although we are desirous of es. God, the Hypsistos and Agathos-in tablishing, what we are convinced is a word, a secondary protecting power, the truth, and will one day be recogor angelic mediator. And this Gen. nized as such, that the demoniac postile explanation of St. Paul's language sessions in the Gospels, those among the affords a key to that passage in Reve. Hindoos, and the exhibitions of peculiar lations, where the word daimon is ap forms of mania, epilepsy, hysteria, choplied in a precisely similar connexion, rea, &c. among ourselves, are absolutely to the same Gentile daimon-worship identical phenomena, between which no and idolatry revived, in another form, true line of distinction can be drawn, we in the corrupted Christian Church. by no means wish, nor do we feel our.
Yet, having thus done justice to selves competent, to pronounce on the very profound distinctions, in the lan real character of the phenomena thus guage even of the apostles, and shown identified. On the one hand, the pyfrom parallelisms of thought and ex. thonic spirits of the heathen nations, pression current in the East, and from whether Greek or Hindoo, and the the deductions of a higher synthetic Jewish daimoniacs, may be simply epicriticism, that passages, the most ap- leptics, or the victims of other physical parently opposed to the physical im disease, viewed through the media of port of the word daimon, as distin- those mythic, or superstitious notions, guished from the moral, and the view which prevailed in Greece and Syria, of possession which it will suggest, and which still prevail in Hindostan. can be interpreted in the most perfect On the other, those perversions of the harmony with it, we do not desire to human reason, or consciousness, which press this point further. For, admitting modern European medicine, influenced that our interpretations were wholly perhaps by the rationalistic tendency wrong, and that the popular sense of of all modern science, pronounces to devil were the true one in every one be mere results of the destruction of these instances, in the Epistles and or derangement of physical parts or Revelations, it would only show, what functions, may, for aught we know, we have already allowed, that the dis. depend, even immediately, on causes ciples themselves, or the greater num. far more spiritual than medulla, and ber of them, regarded these pheno. nerve, and blood-may arise, even acmena like the rest of their country. cording to the laws of material causamen, as resulting from the actual tion, as Bayle has well shewn, from indwelling of foreign evil spirits. the disorder introduced into these What we mainly contend is, that our finer portions of our organisation, by Lord himself never applies the word spiritual beings, armed with profound daimon to a morally evil spirit; for knowledge, and moving in the minutest which, as we have seen, he ever employs vehicles. They may, in a word, be either “ Satan,” “ diabolos," or is the real demoniac possessions in the most wicked one;" but to cases of epilepsy literal sense. And, truly, a close oband madness, or of some similar phy servation of the intrinsically evil chasical ailment or mental aberration racter often exhibited by parties sufcases placed in juxtaposition with fering under such afflictions of the “ diseases," “ sicknesses,” and “infir apparently immodest, as well as the mities;” which, like them, were brought malignant tendencies which they someto our Lord to be healed; which ac times evince-tendencies quite opposed cordingly he “ healed" and “ cured ;” to the natural and sane dispositions and the casting out of which, in the of the sufferers_may well have led commission given his disciples, is asso. thoughtful observers to recognize, in