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and primitive use ; though, even here, the endowing wind with the quality of touch-i.e., making it the medium of touch, as light is of vision-shows the inseparable connexion in the Hindoo intellect between the wind and the nervous system. But, in the fol lowing and many similar passages from the hymns in the Rig-Vedu, the most venerable probably of all existing writings, if we except, perhaps, the book of Job, containing the ritual of a worship instituted before idolatry, in the strict and grosser sense of that word, arose among mankind; and probably, not long after, or even before the separation of nations on the plains of Shinar, we have this same WAYOO endowed with life and worshippedan invisible spirit, whose presence, heralded by Æolian murmurs, is wooed by the sacrificer to partake of the juice of the moonplant:
too, to find it ere long applied to those sudden appearances in, and utterances from, the human frame, which, foreign to its daily movements and its familiar voice, were deemed the result and the evidence of the presence of a spirit, different from that which made its habitual tabernacle in the tenement of clay. Accordingly, although the Sanscrit, in its copiousness, possesses another term for pure spirit, abstracted alike from all notion of individuality and of corporeal contact, and applied also to the human soul, as the manifestation of that universal spirit in a state of isolation and false individualization, like the air of the atmosphere isolated and quasi-individualized in an earthen vessel_namely, the word atma, or, in its crude form, atmun [a term, by the way, which also signifies wind, and which seems closely related to the Greek atuos-breath, vapour, derived from a root which signifies to breathe]; yet this term, except where, by a condescension to popular notions, used in its secondary sense of the human soul
From this most ancient deification of the element into a moving power, the brush of whose wing was visible on the waving grass and the bending corn, which it swept in its passage ; and whose voice, wild and mournful, was heard rushing at intervals through the otherwise silent solitude, like some solemn sacrificial chant, or the swell of choral anthem from some far-off fane-but whose form was ever invi. sible - of whom no man could tell whence it cometh, or whither it goeth, We are prepared for seeing it gradually become, as the mysupa of the Greeks, and the spiritus or breathing of the Latins, and the os of the Hebrews and Arabs, the figurative representa. tive of, and eventually the very name for spirit itself, that wonderful and analogous agent, which speaketh forth from the invisible, and, itself unseen, produces such sensible effects upon the material universe. We are prepared,
rence to spirit regarded as a subject for metaphysical inquiry, or abstract contemplation-spirit self-subsisting, eternal, infinite, universal, and quies. cent—than for a spirit in any way limited or individualized, or witnessed in active operation upon organised living beings. For, although the whole of the vital functions are alleged to be performed through a power derived from this universal atma, which exists pervadingly in every living being, and in which all living beings exist, as ves. sels of many shapes and sizes exist in the atmosphere which both fills and surrounds them; though, to use the language of St. Paul, in it they live, and move, and have their being ; yet it is always represented as something, though close and most intimately present, still ever aloof from us; the witness of all things, itself unseen; unmoved and immoveable in our motions; untouched, untarnished by our actions. In a word, it corresponds to the idea of a pure, all-comprehending intelligence, infinite, absolute, universaltranscending alike all bodily existence, all ideas of action and motion, and all true individuality; a subject of speculation to the philosopher, of con
templation to the sage, of erperience guage of the present day, to denote all or realization to the yogee, or mystic, forms of disease depending upon disarwho, withdrawing himself from exter- rangement of, or injury to, the nernal things, and calling in his mind, by vous and cerebral systems. Thus, resolute effort, from the five windows hemiplegy is termed pukshu-wayoo_i.e., of the senses, where it sits looking the half-wind or half-spirit: palsy is forth on the outer world, and gather called kumpu-wayoo, the trembling wind ing it up, and concentrating it in the or trembling spirit : dnyanu-wayoo, the innermost recess of his own being, there knowledge-wind or knowledge-spirit, de. beholds this spiritual sun arise within notes that kind of delirium which and around him, plunges himself into makes the patient chatter volubly on its luminous depths, and thus becomes learned or abstruse matters; and dhuco universal, co-luminous, and co-spi- noor-wayoo, the bow-wind or bow-spirit, ritual with it. Such, so universal, so designates that affection of the nerves devoid of personality, of action, and of or the spine, which bends the patient motion, is the idea of spirit conveyed double like a bow, which literally bous by the word atma. On the other hand, him down; the very « spirit of infir. whenever spirit is contemplated, if we mity,” which “ boued together" the mav so speak, less spiritually, and less woman whom our Lord loosed from universally ; as locally limited in shape this bondage of Satan on the Sabbathor space; as possessing, therefore, the day (Luke, xiii. 11). These several attribute of motion; as connected with wayoos, winds, or spirits, are, we see, the ideas of rushing, of filling, of agi. named from their effects on the hutating the human frame-then it is man frame and functions: they are, Wayoo, the personified element of in a word, diseases personified, and wind, that, like the Greek mosoua, is designated from their peculiar sympemployed to convey this idea. Thus toms and results. we find it used in the incantations ad. Have we not here the very key to dressed to evil spirits: we find it also the employment of the correlative employed in the very singular cere- Greek Tupana in a precisely similar mony of pranuprutishta—i.e., the con- manner in the Gospels, in accordance secration, or, more literally, the life with the popular language of the day ; infusion into idols destined for wor- the popular ideas of the Jews followship; the curious rituals of which ing, apparently, the same train of might suggest profound reflections to thought, the same mystic or personifythoughtful men, on some of the dis- ing process as those of the Hindoos ? putes which divide and embitter the We discern the correspondence clearly Christian world. We find it used in in the case of the woman who had the a variety of connexions to indicate a spirit of infirmity--the dhunoor-wayoo, motive spirit in the human body--& the “ bow-spirit," or bow-wind, which nervous spirit it may be-different bent her together like a bow. We from the sublime, quiescent, eternal also see that the affection which made atma; different also from the human the patient deaf and dumb, is termed mind or intellect; maintaining by a a deaf and dumb spirit (Mark, ix. 25); dynamic opposition with this mind, the that which made him blind and dumb, balance of healthy, normal life, and in is named a blind and dumb spirit certain peculiar states—spiritual states (Matt. xii. 22). Is not "unclean shall we say, or nervous states ?-ob spirit,” then, a popular term, origi. taining an ascendancy and mastery nating in the same figurative and perover this regulating mind itself. We sonifying process, to designate a form find it also, like waren, employed in of madness which led the sufferer to reference to those convulsive trem- exhibit acts and habits of self-neglect, blings and other manifestations, which uncleanness, and abandoning of clothes : are looked upon as the result of a spin such as all persons to whom the datura ritual possession. But, what is of stramonium, or thorn-apple, is adminismost importance, and more imme- tered, as it constantly is in India for diately germane to our subject, this the purpose of inducing stupefaction, same word wayoo (wind or spirit] is and thereby facilitating robbery, in. employed in all standard or medical variably exhibit while under its inworks, and even in the popular lan- influence ?* Of the daimoniac in the
* From a case of poisoning by camphor, detailed in the Medical Times of Ist April, last, p. 451, it would seem that this drug produces similar effects. It is
country of the Gadarenes, who is called, in Mark, v. 2, "a man with 'an unclean spirit,” Luke says, (viii. 27),
There met him out of the city a certain man who had devils (daimonia) long time, and wore no clothes." And on his cure he is described (Luke, viii. 35) as sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind”—and in Mark, v. 15, as “sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind." And very remarkable is what we read of Saul, of whom it is said, I Sam. xix. 9, 10:" The evil spirit from the Lord was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with bis javelin in his hand : and Saul sought to smite David, even to the wall, with his javelin”-an evident description of madness—and of whom it is further related, that, after having sent two sets of messengers to take David, who were seized with a conta. gious spirit of prophecy, “ when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying" (1 Sam. xix. 20)-he him. self went to Naioth in Ramah, where Samuel and the prophets were" And the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah.” And now let us remark what he does in his prophetic fury-" And he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night.” - Sam. xix, 23, 24.
In the Old Testament we find the same act attributed, under different points of view, to God and to Satan. Thus we read, in 2 Sam. xxiv. 1" And again the anger OF THE LORD was kindled against Israel, and HE moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Juda." While, in 1 Chron. xxi. 1, on the contrary, we read of the very same fact And SATAN stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel." Are we not justified, then, upon the same principle of interpretation, to which we must have recourse, in order to harmonize these and similar passages, in concluding, that the very same state which is described in the first passage of Samuel, by the phrase, " The evil spirit from the Lord was
upon Saul," is meant also in the last passage by the words—“And the Spirit of God was upon him ;" and that the prophesying here attributed to him was a delirious raving-like the dnyanu-wayoo, or delirious knowledgespirit of the Hindoo physicians-since in the latter instance, as in the former, his actions were those of one deranged?
And is not the phrase "wicked spirit" applied, on similar principles, to the more violent, and apparently more malevolent forms of madness? A spi. rit, from its very nature, could not possibly be blind-it is called blind, or deaf, or dumb, because the human body which it affects becomes so. On the same grounds we may safely conclude these traumatu, or spi. rits, whether we consider them as winds attacking the nerves and brain -as nervous spirits-oras nervous and cerebral affections -- are in the other cases called “unclean," and "wicked," not because they (whatever they may be) are themselves of a nature morally impure or malignant, but because the human patients, in whom they appear, exhibit these characters in their outward actions, while under their influence.
We believe the foregoing offers a true explanation of the language of the Gospels regarding these affections. This figurative language may be the result of popular superstition alone. It may, on the other hand, have ori. ginated accidentally, as it were, from those notions on physiology which con. nected the nerves with the element of wind, and therefore, through the medium of language, with the idea of spirit. The use of the same terms to denote physical conditions, which were applied to spiritual powers, may have first engendered the idea of the influence of the latter on the former, and led to those personifications of disease ; and thus language will have first helped to create superstition, which it certainly has tended to confirm and keep alive. But it seems to us more probable, that the connexion between the nerves, the wind, and spirit was not wholly accidental- that these notions did not arise out of the fortuitous employment of a common term for three different objects of thought; but that this community of name was itself the result, and a true representative of the ideas and belief, in times when the spiritual, the medical, and the natural, were intimately connect. ed; when, according to Le Croix, in his “Paganism," the first germs of civilization were sown simultaneously in many countries, by bands of priestphysicians, the Rosicrusians, and Paracelsi, and mesmerisers of remote anti quity ; who, worshippers and searchers of nature, employed their knowledge in healing and instructing mankind, with all the prestige of a thaumaturgic power.
there stated of the patient, who had swallowed two drachms of camphor, that "after some gambols he went into his own room, whence he came out very soon, stripped entirely naked, dancing, and seeking to leap out of a window.” Had the immediate cause been unknown, would not the Jews have deemed this man possessed of an unclean spirit ?
At such a period, both to the priest, who himself worshipped and searched out her secrets, and to the rude tribes whom he healed and whom he taught, all nature was alive. A living spirit, of evil or of good, was imprisoned in every metal, in every chemical compound, and in every drug. To them the wind was not merely a representa. tive of, but was actually, as in the Vedu, a living spirit; and every blast, and gust, and vapour, and exhalation nay, every fever and fit of sickness, was a spiritual power, a living wind, a spirit, entering into the nervous tubes and cerebral cells of man's system, and oppressing his own vital spirit tabernacled there. As a consequence of such a belief, the whole practice of medicine by these priest-physicians was a species of religious exorcism; and the remnants of such a system existed in Syria at the time of our Lord, as it exists at this day all over the East, and even in some of the po. pular superstitions still prevalent in Europe.
In whichsoever way this figurative language arose, however, it may still be concurrent with, and a true representative of certain facts in the spi. ritual world. For although we would show that there is an adequate expla. nation for this language, without ad. mitting, as a necessary consequence, from its use, the reality of these sup. posed possessions in their literal sense, we are by no means desirous of excluding their possibility, or of drawing, at present, any conclusion on this point one way or the other. And we most fully admit that they, in common with all the sufferings of man, and all the groaning and travailing of creation,
must, in some true sense, and through some form of mediation, whether instant or remote, be the effects of that dominion, which the author of evil, through the fall of man from his first righteousness, and from the lordship over all God's works, which was his original heritage, has been permitted to obtain in the realms of nature. Our Lord, indeed, though he carefully warns us against judging every natural misfortune to flow immediately and necessarily, and in an exact retributive proportion, from the personal sin of the sufferer or his parents; as in the case of the man born blind-John ix. 3_of those Galileans whose blood Herod mingled with their sacrifices, and of those on whom the tower of Siloam fell-Luke, xiii. 2-4; yet, in more than one passage, seems to indicate, as before observed, that all disease is, in some measure, the work of Satan; and that sin brings man more under the temporal and scourging power of this enemy of our race. Thus, on the one hand, he alleges the spirit of infirmity which bent the woman down, to be a bondage of Satan ; on the other, he says to the paralytic whom he heals at the well, 5Behold thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee.”—John, v. 14 — thus apparently implying that a connexion does exist betwixt the commission of sin and the subjection to physical evil. And this same idea seems to be in the mind of St. Paul, when he says, “ To deliver such an one to Satan, for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus."-1 Cor. v. 5. And again, speaking of Hymeneus and Alexander, “whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.”—1 Timothy, i. 20.
So far for our Lord's language in the Gospels. Let us now consider the phraseology of the other portions of the New Testament. For, although the modes of expression used by the disciples cannot affect the argument drawn from the distinction observable in our Lord's own language, they still merit an examination. Now, although we find in the Epistles the terms daimones and daimonia, the respective plurals of daimon and daimonion, in the phrases which have been translated “sacrifice to devils,” “ fellow. ship with devils," " the cup of devils,"
“the table of devils" (1 Cor. x. 20, 21) _"doctrines of devils" (1 Tim. iv. 1) -"the devils believe and tremble" (James, ii. 19); and in the Revelations, in the passages rendered "worship devils” (Rev. ix. 20), and “spi. rits of devils” (Rev. xvi. 14-yet, even in these portions of the New Testament, it is to be remarked that, whenever the devil_i.e., the wicked spirit who tempts mankind is spoken of, it is still diabolos, or Satan, or the dragon, or the serpent, or the wicked one, that is invariably used; never the daimon, or daimonion. Thus, for example, we read in Acts, xiii. 10, “Thou child of the devil [diabolos), and enemy of all righteousness ;" in Eph. iv. 27, “neither give place to the devil” (diabolos; in Eph. vi. 11, "that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil” (diabolos]; in 1 Tim. üi. 6, “the condemnation of the devil” (diabolos] ; in 1 Tim. ïï. 7, " the snare of the devil" (diabolos]; in 2 Tim. 2-6, “the snare of the devil" (diabolos); in James, iv. 7, “re sist the devil” (diabolos); in Pet. v. 8, “your adversary the devil" (dia bolos] ; in 1 John i. 8, “ he that committeth sin is of the devil (dia. bolos]; for the devil (diabolos) sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil" (diabolos). In 1 John, iii. 10, " in this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil” (diabolos); in 1 John, ii. 13, "be cause ye have overcome the wicked one ;" in Jude ix., “ Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil” (diabolos] ; in Rev. xii. 12, “woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of
the sea, for the devil (diabolos) is come down unto you, having great wrath ;" in Rev. xx. 2, " he laid hold on the dragon, and bound him a thousand years ;" in Rev. xx. 10, "and the devil [diabolos) that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brim. stone :" and so in many other passages which it were needless to quote, there being not one where the word daimon, or daimonion, is applied to the devil. And, in regard to the above phrases, in which these words have been rendered in the plural by " devils," upon examination of the original Greek passages where they occur, and a careful consideration of the context, we shall find that they constitute no real exception to the position which we advance; and that they were written in a sense very different from that which attaches to diabolos, and to our English word devil. Those among our readers who are conversant with the biblical commentators, must be aware that the phrase which has been rendered, from 1 Tim. iv. 1, " doctrines of devils,” in the original “ doctrines of daimonia,” has been very generally understood to mean, not doctrines invented by the enemy of the human race—he who is called Satan and diabolos-or by wicked spirits, his minis. ters; but doctrines inculcating the mediation and worship of daimons, beings higher than man, but inferior to God, that very “worshipping of angels" denounced in Col. ii. 18though under a different form; the latter applying, apparently, more especially to the Gnostic doctrine and worship of the Eons or inferior emanations of deity;* the former, as understood by most Protestants, referring
* The second chapter of Colossians is evidently addressed against two forms of error-the bondage of the Jewish ceremonial law, and the vain deceit of human philosophy; and that the peculiar philosophy intended was the Gnostic, seems evident from the studied use of Gnostic terms; for example, “the PLEROMA," or "FULNESS" of Godhead, in v. 9. The allusions to circumcision, the Sabbath, &c. (v. 11 and 16), are plainly directed against Judaizing Christians The ordinances mentioned in v. 21,' “ Touch not, taste not, handle not,” would apply, perhaps, equally to the Levitical prohibitions, and to the Gnostic denunciations of marriage and of animal food. The passage regarding the worshipping or religion of angels (Ignorus is the phrase used) has received various interpretations. St. Jerome considers it directed against the whole Jewish religion, which, according to Acts, vii. 53, and Gal. iii. 19, was given by angels. Others apply it to the worship which many of the Pagan philosophers paid “to angels or daimons by sacrificing to them, as carriers of intelligence between God and man.” But from the use of the word angel here, instead of daimon, as well as from the Gnostic phraseology of parts of the chapter, we have adopted, as the best interpretation, that which applies it more especially to the divine emanations, secondary divinities, or angels of the Gnostics,