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and primitive use ; though, even here, too, to find it ere long applied to those the endowing wind with the quality of sudden appearances in, and utterances touch—i.e., making it the medium of from, the human frame, which, foreign touch, as light is of vision-shows the to its daily movements and its familiar inseparable connexion in the Hindoo voice, were deemed the result and the intellect between the wind and the evidence of the presence of a spirit, nervous system. But, in the fol- different from that which made its halowing and many similar passages from bitual tabernacle in the tenement of the hymns in the Rig-Vedu, the most clay. Accordingly, although the Sansvenerable probably of all existing crit, in its copiousness, possesses anwritings, if we except, perhaps, the other term for pure spirit, abstracted book of Job, containing the ritual of a alike from all notion of individuality worship instituted before idolatry, in and of corporeal contact, and applied the strict and grosser sense of that also to the human soul, as the manifesword, arose among mankind; and pro- tation of that universal spirit in a state bably, not long after, or even before of isolation and false individualization, the separation of nations on the plains like the air of the atmosphere isolated of Shinar, we have this same Waroo and quasi-individualized in an earthen endowed with life and worshipped- vessel_namely, the word atma, or, in an invisible spirit, whose presence,

its crude form, atmun [a term, by the heralded by Æolian murmurs, is wooed way, which also signifies wind, and by the sacrificer to partake of the juice which seems closely related to the of the moonplant:

Greek atuos-- breath, vapour, derived

from a root which signifies to breathe]; " WAYUva yahi durshunte-me soma urunkritaha, yet this term, except where, by a conTesham pahi shroodhee huvum !"

descension to popular notions, used in " Come, oh WAYOO ! (living wind)—these moonplants, diligently prepared, await thy pre

its secondary sense of the human soul sence : drink thou thereof : hearken to our or self, seems more employed in refeinvitation !"

rence to spirit regarded as a subject " WAYOO tuvu pruprinchutee dhena : jigati da

for metaphysical inquiry, or abstract shooshe ooroochee somu pituye."

contemplation-spirit self-subsisting, " Oh! WAYOO [living wiņd), thy voice resound- eternal, infinite, universal, and quies.

eth the praises ; it advanceth to the house of cent_than for a spirit in any way the sacrificer, to quaff the juice of tke moon

limited or individualized, or witnessed

in active operation upon organised livFrom this most ancient deification ing beings. For, although the whole of the element into a moving, power, of the vital functions are alleged to be the brush of whose wing was visible on performed through a power derived the waving grass and the bending corn, from this universal atma, which exists which it swept in its passage ; and pervadingly in every living being, and whose voice, wild and mournful, was in which all living beings exist, as ves. heard rushing at intervals through the sels of many shapes and sizes exist in otherwise silent solitude, like some the atmosphere which both fills and solemn sacrificial chant, or the swell surrounds them; though, to use the of choral anthem from some far-off language of St. Paul, in it they live, fane-but whose form was ever invi. and move, and have their being ; yet sible—of whom no man could tell it is always represented as something, whence it cometh, or whither it goeth, though close and most intimately prewe are prepared for seeing it gra- sent, still ever aloof from us; the witdually become, as the troupea of the ness of all things, itself unseen; un. Greeks, and the spiritus or breathing of moved and immoveable in our motions; the Latins, and the ob of the IIebrews untouched, untarnished by our actions. and Arabs, the figurative representa. In a word, it corresponds to the idea tive of, and eventually the very name of a pure, all-comprehending intellifor spirit itself, that wonderful and gence, infinite, absolute, universalanalogous agent, which speaketh forth transcending alike all

bodily existence, from the invisible, and, itself unseen, all ideas of action and motion, and all produces such sensible effects upon the true individuality; a subject of spematerial universe. We are prepared, culation to the philosopher, of con


Sunhitu of the Rig-Vedu, hymn ii. verses 1 and 3.

templation to the sage, of experience guage of the present day, to denote all or realization to the yogee, or mystic, forms of disease depending upon disarwho, withdrawing himself from exter- rangement of, or injury to, the nernal things, and calling in his mind, by vous and cerebral systems. Thus, resolute effort, from the five windows hemiplegy is termed pukshu-wayoo_i.e., of the senses, where it sits looking the half-wind or half-spirit: palsy is forth on the outer world, and gather called kumpu-wayoo, the trembling wind ing it up, and concentrating it in the or trembling spirit: dnyanu-wayoo, the innermost recess of his own being, there knowledge-wind or knowledge-spirit

, de. beholds this spiritual sun arise within notes that kind of delirium which and around him, plunges himself into makes the patient chatter volubly on its luminous depths, and thus becomes learned or abstruse matters; and dhuco universal, co-luminous, and co-spi- noor-wayoo, the bow-wind or bow-spirit, ritual with it. Such, so universal, so designates that affection of the nerves devoid of personality, of action, and of or the spine, which bends the patient motion, is the idea of spirit conveyed double like a bow, which literally bous by the word atma. On the other hand, him down ; the very “spirit of infir. whenever spirit is contemplated, if we mity,” which " bowed together" the may so speak, less spiritually, and less woman whom our Lord loosed from universally ; as locally limited in shape this bondage of Satan on the Sabbathor space; as possessing, therefore, the day (Luke, xii. 11). These several attribute of motion; as connected with wayoos, winds, or spirits, are, we see, the ideas of rushing, of filling, of agi- named from their effects on the hutating the human frame—then it is man frame and functions: they are, WAyoo, the personified element of in a word, diseases personified, and wind, that, like the Greek Tysopa, is designated from their peculiar sympemployed to convey this idea. Thus toms and results. we find it used in the incantations ad- Have we not here the very key to dressed to evil spirits: we find it also the employment of the correlative employed in the very singular cere- Greek πνευματα in a precisely similar mony of pranuprutishtai.e., the con- manner in the Gospels, in accordance secration, or, more literally, the life with the popular language of the day; infusion into idols destined for wor- the popular ideas of the Jews followship; the curious rituals of which ing, apparently, the same train of might suggest profound reflections to thought, the same mystic or personifythoughtful men, on some of the dis- ing process as those of the Hindoos ? putes which divide and embitter the We discern the correspondence clearly Christian world. We find it used in in the case of the woman who had the a variety of connexions to indicate a spirit of infirmity—the dhunoor-mayon, motive spirit in the human body-a the “bow-spirit,or bow-wind, which nervous spirit it may be—different bent her together like a bow. We from the sublime, quiescent, eternal also see that the affection which made atma ; different also from the human the patient deaf and dumb, is termed mind or intellect; maintaining by, a a deaf and dumb spirit (Mark, ix. 25); dynamic opposition with this mind, the that which made him blind and dumb, balance of healthy, normal life, and in is named a blind and dumb spirit certain peculiar states-spiritual states (Matt. xii. 22). Is not - unclean shall we say, or nervous states?-ob- spirit,” then, a popular term, origi. taining an ascendancy and mastery nating in the same figurative and perover this regulating mind itself. We sonifying process, to designate a form find it also, like waren, employed in of madness which led the sufferer to reference to those convulsive trem- exhibit acts and habits of self-neglect, blings and other manifestations, which uncleanness, and abandoning of clothes: are looked upon as the result of a spi. such as all persons to whom the datura ritual possession. But, what is of stramonium, or thorn-apple, is adminis. most importance, and more imme

tered, as it constantly is in India for diately germane to our subject, this the purpose of inducing stupefaction, same word wayoo (wind or spirit] is and thereby facilitating robbery, inemployed in all standard or medical variably exhibit while under its inworks, and even in the popular lan- influence ?* Of the daimoniac in the

* From a case of poisoning by camphor, detailed in the Medical Times of Ist April, last, p. 451, it would seem that this drug produces similar effects. It is



country of the Gadarenes, who is call- upon Saul,” is meant also in the last ed, in Mark, v. 2, “a man with an passage by the words—" And the Spiunclean spirit,” Luke says, (viii. 27), rit of God was upon him ;” and that “ There met him out of the city a cer- the prophesying here attributed to tain man who had devils (daimonia) him was a delirious raving-like the long time, and wore no clothes.' And dnyanu-wayoo, or delirious knowledge. on his cure he is described (Luke, viii. spirit of the Hindoo physicians—since 35) as "sitting at the feet of Jesus, in the latter instance, as in the former, clothed, and in his right mind" — and in his actions were those of one deranged? Mark, v. 15, as “sitting, and clothed, And is not the phrase " wicked spiand in his right mind.And very re- rit” applied, on similar principles, to markable is what we read of Saul, of the more violent, and apparently more whom it is said, 1 Sam. xix. 9, 10:- malevolent forms of madness? A spi. “ The evil spirit from the Lord was rit, from its very nature, could not upon Saul, as he sat in his house with possibly be blindit is called blind, his javelin in his hand : and Saul or deaf, or dumb, because the husought to smite David, even to the man body which it affects becomes wall, with his javelin”-an evident de- On the same grounds we may scription of madness—and of whom it safely conclude these twopatu, or spiis further related, that, after having rits, whether we consider them as sent two sets of messengers to take winds attacking the nerves and brain David, who were seized with a conta- -as nervous spirits—or as gious spirit of prophecy, “when they and cerebral affections—are in the saw the company of the prophets pro- other cases called "unclean," and phesying” (1 Sam. xix. 20)--he him- - wicked,” not because they (whatever self went to Naioth in Ramah, where they may be) are themselves of a naSamuel and the prophets were—“And ture morally impure or malignant, but the Spirit of God was upon him also, because the human patients, in whom and he went on, and prophesied, until they appear, exhibit these characters he came to Naioth in Ramah,” And in their outward actions, while under now let us remark what he does in his their influence. prophetic fury—“And he stripped off We believe the foregoing offers a his clothes also, and prophesied before true explanation of the language of the Samuel in like manner, and lay down Gospels regarding these affections. naked all that day and all that night.” This figurative language may be the - Sam. xix, 23, 24.

result of popular superstition alone. In the Old Testament we find the It may, on the other hand, have ori. same act attributed, under different ginated accidentally, as it were, from points of view, to God and to Satan. those notions on physiology which conThus we read, in 2 Sam. xxiv. 1- nected the nerves with the element of “ And again the anger of the LORD wind, and therefore, through the mewas kindled against Israel, and He dium of language, with the idea of moved David against them to say, Go spirit. The use of the same terms number Israel and Juda.” While, in to denote physical conditions, which 1 Chron. xxi. I, on the contrary, we were applied to spiritual powers, may read of the very same fact—' And have first engendered the idea of the Satan stood up against Israel, and influence of the latter on the former, provoked David to number Israel.” and led to those personifications of disAre we not justified, then, upon the ease ; and thus language will have first same principle of interpretation, to helped to create superstition, which it which we must have recourse, in order certainly has tended to confirm and to harmonize these and similar pas- keep alive. But it seems to us more sages, in concluding, that the very probable, that the connexion between same state which is described in the the nerves, the wind, and spirit was not first passage of Samuel, by the phrase, wholly accidental--that these notions “ The evil spirit from the Lord was did not arise out of the fortuitous

there stated of the patient, who had swallowed two drachms of camphor, that " after some gambols he went into his own room, whence he came out very soon, stripped entirely naked, dancing, and seeking to leap out of a window." Had the immediate cause been unknown, would not the Jews have deemed this man possessed of an unclean spirit ?

employment of a common term for must, in some true sense, and through three different objects of thought; but some form of mediation, whether inthat this community of name was it- stant or remote, be the effects of that self the result, and a true representa- dominion, which the author of evil, tive of the ideas and belief, in times through the fall of man from his first when the spiritual, the medical, and righteousness, and from the lordship the natural, were intimately connect- over all God's works, which was his ed ; when, according to Le Croix, in original heritage, has been permitted his “Paganism," the first germs of to obtain in the realms of nature. civilization were sown simultaneously Our Lord, indeed, though he carefully in many countries, by bands of priest- warns us against judging every natural physicians, the Rosicrusians, and Para- misfortune to flow immediately and celsi, and mesmerisers of remote anti- necessarily, and in an exact retribuquity ; who, worshippers and searchers tive proportion, from the personal sin of nature, employed their knowledge of the sufferer or his parents ; as in in healing and instructing mankind, the case of the man born blind John with all the prestige of a thaumaturgic ix. 3—of those Galileans whose blood power.

Herod mingled with their sacrifices, At such a period, both to the priest, and of those on whom the tower of who himself worshipped and searched Siloam fell—Luke, xii. 2-4; yet, in out her secrets, and to the rude tribes more than one passage, seems to indiwhom he healed and whom he taught, cate, as before observed, that all disall nature was alive. A living spirit, ease is, in some measure, the work of of evil or of good, was imprisoned in Satan ; and that sin brings man more every metal, in every chemical com- under the temporal and scourging pound, and in every drug. To them power of this enemy of our race. the wind was not merely a representa- Thus, on the one hand, he alleges the tive of, but was actually, as in the spirit of infirmity which bent the woVedu, a living spirit; and every blast, man down, to be a bondage of Satan; and gust, and vapour, and exhalation on the other, he says to the paralytic nay, every fever and fit of sickness, whom he heals at the well, -Behold was a spiritual power, a living wind, thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a spirit, entering into the nervous a worse thing come unto thee."-John, tubes and cerebral cells of man's sys- v. 14 -- thus apparently implying tem, and oppressing his own vital spirit that a connexion does exist betwist tabernacled there. As a consequence the commission of sin and the subjecof such a belief, the whole practice of tion to physical evil. And this same medicine by these priest - physicians idea seems to be in the mind of St. was a species of religious exorcism ; Paul, when he says, “ To deliver such and the remnants of such a system an one to Satan, for the destruction of existed in Syria at the time of our the flesh, that the spirit may be saved Lord, as it exists at this day all over in the day of the Lord Jesus."-1 Cor. the East, and even in some of the po- v. 5. And again, speaking of Hymepular superstitions still prevalent in neus and Alexander, “whom I have Europe.

delivered unto Satan, that they may In whichsoever way this figurative learn not to blaspheme."-1 Timothy, language arose, however, it may still i. 20. be concurrent with, and a true repre- So far for our Lord's language in sentative of certain facts in the spi. the Gospels. Let us now consider the ritual world. For although we would phraseology of the other portions of show that there is an adequate expla- the New Testament. For, although nation for this language, without ad- the modes of expression used by the mitting, as a necessary consequence, disciples cannot affect the argument from its use, the reality of these sup- drawn from the distinction observable posed possessions in their literal sense, in our Lord's own language, they still we are by no means desirous of ex- merit an examination. Now, although cluding their possibility, or of drawing, we find in the Epistles the terms daiat present, any conclusion on this point mones and daimonia, the respective one way or the other. And we most plurals of daimon and daimonion, in fully admit that they, in common with the phrases which have been transall the sufferings of man, and all the lated " sacrifice to devils," “ fellowgroaning and travailing of creation, ehip with devils," the cup of devils,"


“ the table of devils" (1 Cor. x. 20, 21) the sea, for the devil (diabolos] is come

-“ doctrines of devils” (1 Tim. iv. 1) down unto you, having great wrath;" -“the devils believe and tremble" in Rev. xx. 2, "he laid hold on the (James, ii. 19); and in the Revela- dragon, and bound him a thousand tions, in the passages rendered " years ;” in Rev. xx. 10, “and the deship devils” (Rev. ix. 20), and “spi- vil (diabolos] that deceived them was rits of devils” (Rev. xvi. 14)—yet, cast into the lake of fire and brim. even in these portions of the New Tes- stone :” and so in many other passages tament, it is to be remarked that, which it were needless to quote, there whenever the devil—i.e., the wicked being not one where the word daimon, spirit who tempts mankind—is spoken or daimonion, is applied to the devil. of, it is still diabolos, or Satan, or the And, in regard to the above phrases, dragon, or the serpent, or the wicked in which these words have been renone, that is invariably used ; never dered in the plural by devils," upon the daimon, or daimonion. Thus, for examination of the original Greek example, we read in Acts, xiii. 10, passages where they occur, and a care“ Thou child of the devil (diabolos), ful consideration of the context, we and enemy of all righteousness ;" in shall find that they constitute no real Eph. iv. 27,“ neither give place to exception to the position which we the devil" [diabolos] ; in Eph. vi. 11, advance ; and that they were written " that ye may be able to stand against in a sense very different from that the wiles of the devil” (diabolos]; in which attaches to diabolos, and to our 1 Tim. iï. 6, “the condemnation of English word devil. Those among our the devil” (diabolos] ; in 1 Tim. iii. 7, readers who are conversant with the " the snare of the devil" (diabolos] ; biblical commentators, must be aware in 2 Tim. 2-6, “the snare of the de- that the phrase which has been rendervil” (diabolos] ; in James, iv. 7, “re- ed, from 1 Tim. iv. I, “ doctrines of sist the devil” (diabolos]; in Pet. v. devils,” in the original “doctrines of 8, "your adversary the devil" (dia- daimonia," has been very generally unbolos); in 1 John iï. 8, “he that derstood to mean, not doctrines incommitteth sin is of the devil [dia. vented by the enemy of the human bolos] ; for the devil [diabolos] sinneth race_he who is called Satan and diafrom the beginning. For this purpose bolos or by wicked spirits, his ministhe Son of God was manifested, that ters; but doctrines inculcating the he might destroy the works of the de- mediation and worship of daimons, vil" (diabolos.' In 1 John, iii. 10, beings higher than man, but inferior “ in this the children of God are ma- to God, that very “worshipping of nifest, and the children of the devil” angels” denounced in Col. ii. 18[diabolos] : in 1 John, ii. 13, “be- though under a different form; the cause ye have overcome the wicked latter applying, apparently, more es. one;" in Jude ix., " Michael the arch. pecially to the Gnostic doctrine and angel, when contending with the de- worship of the Eons or inferior emanavil [diabolos] ; in Rev. xii. 12, “woe tions of deity ;*_the former, as underto the inhabiters of the earth and of stood by most Protestants, referring

* The second chapter of Colossians is evidently addressed against two forms of error—the bondage of the Jewish ceremonial law, and the vain deceit of human philosophy; and that the peculiar philosophy intended was the Gnostic, seems evident from the studied use of Gnostic terms; for example, “the PLEROMA," or “FULNESS” of Godhead, in v. 9. The allusions to circumcision, the Sabbath, &c. (v. 11 and 16), are plainly directed against Judaizing Christians The ordinances mentioned in v. 21, “ Touch not, taste not, handle not,” would apply, perhaps, equally to the Levitical prohibitions, and to the Gnostic denunciations of marriage and of animal food. The passage regarding the worshipping or religion of angels (gnoria is the phrase used) has received various interpretations. St. Jerome considers it directed against the whole Jewish religion, which, according to Acts, vii. 53, and Gal. iii. 19, was given by angels. Others apply it to the worship which many of the Pagan philosophers paid to angels or daimons by sacrificing to them, as carriers of intelligence between God and man.” But from the use of the word angel here, instead of daimon, as well as from the Gnostic phraseology of parts of the chapter, we have adopted, as the best interpretation, that which applies it more especially to the divine emanations, secondary divinities, or angels of the Gnostics,

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