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the Index Expurgatorius exist? How long the monasteries and convents, and the religious corporations ?”
We now close these works, and commend them to the public. In each there is much to entertain ; and each traveller, in his way, has afforded us instruction. Of Mr. Geale's little tome, we have already said that it is written with taste and feeling, making little pretensions, and yet showing the scholar and the man of observation. Mr. Whiteside's volumes aim higher, and challenge a stricter scrutiny. They have merits, which call for high praise, with faults, to which we cannot readily accord pardon. Lively, for cible, humorous, and caustic, his style is constantly careless, obscure, abrupt, anıl even coarse. A capital guide, but an indifferent describer, he points out what you are to see and under stand, yet conveys to you but an inadequate impression. He is scholarly, yet not elegant, erudite without enthusiasm, and a book-maker, in the worst sense of that term. This is a monster grievance, and deserves grave reprehension. In the three volumes he has published, we venture to assert, one-third, at least, will be found to consist of the works of others. To what extent this is justifiable, nay, laudable, we have already stated. But how will he justify inserting whole pages from Eustace, and Matthews, De Stael, Addi. son, Hobhouse, Bell, and Sir James Clarke? How will he justify the introduction not only of well-known poems of Manzoni, but even a whole scene from the “ Promessi Sposi” of that author, with the English translation appended, though every Italian scholar is familiar with the original, and every boarding school miss has been thumbing the “Betrothed,” since Mr. Bentley made it a five-shilling matter for all circulating libraries? Perhaps, after all, we are unreasonably querulous, and that considering Mr. Whiteside, while in Italy, was ani.
mated less by the “ genius loci”_the spirit of improvisation_than possessed by the demon of plagiarism, we should rather be thankful that, in passing through the domains of literature, he has arrayed himself in so moderate a share of plunder. Should we not be grateful for the abstinence that saved us in Florence from a canto of Dante, or a novel of Boccaccio, and that carried him unfeloniously through Ferrara without rifling one page from Tasso or Ariosto ?
But to be serious, this extension of the principle of Communism in literature is neither decent nor honest, and Mr. Whiteside must know that it is not. The rules of literary appropriation are well known. To illustrate a sentiment, or fortify a position, short quotations are always allowable ; they who write best, use them most sparingly, simply because they feel they can say things as well as others; but neither writers or readers will tolerate numerous or lengthened extracts from books within the reach of all the world. He who lards his own leanness with the fat of others, shews not the capacity of his mind for thought, but of his fingers for filching; and the motley pages of a plagiarist, like the parti-coloured patches of a beggar's coat, may eke out its dimensions, but betokens not wealth but poverty. Let us then entreat Mr. Whiteside, if his book reach a second edition, as we think it well deserves, to cut out his quotations with as liberal a hand as he put them in. Let the scissors once more do its work, and the two volumes will be an improved edition. We promise him a place for it in every library. Abounding in information of every kind, discursive as well as minute, nothing is left untouched, every subject is explored, and the whole is one of the most valuable accessions to our stock of continental knowledge, which has for years been given to the public.
PYTHONIC AND DEMONIAC POSSESSIONS IN INDIA AND JUDEA.*
RESUMING our examination of the language employed in the Gospels, in reference to the daimoniac possessions of Judea, we must point it out as a very remarkable circumstance, and one deserving of great weight, that nowhere in the gospels does our Lord himself use the term daimon, or any of its derivatives, in our sense of devil. Wherever a spiritual being, morally wicked, is spoken of in the gospels, it is either Satan, or the wicked one, or diabolos, the proper word for devil, that is used. This latter word occurs fifteen times in the evangelical narratives; it is applied nine times to the tempter of our Lord in the wilder, ness; once, to the enemy who steals the good seed ; once, to the enemy who sows the tares; once, to the spirit that animated the wicked Jews, "Ye are of your father the devil;” once, in the condemnation of the wicked at the general judgment, to “the fire prepared for the devil and his angels;" once, to the devil, who put it into the heart of Judas to betray Jesus ; once to Judas himself, where it is used without the definite article, and is properly translated “ a devil;" the first fourteen of these cases referring to the wicked spirit, who is the tempter of mankind, and the last to a man morally evil. Now, although the words “daimon,” its neuter form, "dai. monion," and the participle daimoni. zomenos," which is translated, “possessed by devils,” or “tormented by devils," occur no less than sixty-three times in the gospels, in no one of these cases are the terms applied in a purely moral sense. In forty-eight instances, they are applied to those cases of pos. session, which, in common with other diseases, our Lord healed--a term repeatedly applied to them; twice to the case of Magdalen, in connexion with " evil spirits and infirmities,” and evidently referring to cases of physical suffering or weakness like the rest; four times-still in connexion
with these bodily cures - to "the prince of daimons," an exorcist power, through whom these daimoniac affections or paroxysms were supposed to be expelled-of whom more hereafter; and twice in reference to St. John the Baptist's having, and seven times in reference to our Lord himself having a daimon, where it is clear, from the context, daimon has the same sense as the Mahratta pishachu, alluded to in our former paper, and referred to madness; for we read, in John, x. 20, “And many of them said, he hath a devil [daimon], and is mad; why hear ye him?" Here we have the sense in which the Jews understood having a daimon, precisely that of the Hindoo of this day. For, as we said in our former paper, in reference to the application of the term pishachu, and its derivatives, “The ideas of lunacy and of devil-action, are, there. fore, one; to have a devil, is to be mad; all forms of lunacy are forms of demoniacal possession.” This is clearly a very different sense from the notion attached to our word devil, or the Greek diabolos, which is applied to the cases of moral evil, as above noticed. In no one instance in the gospels is the word daimon, or any of its deri.. vatives, so applied.
It is true that our Lord, when the Pharisees said he cast out devils [daimonia] by Beelzebub, the prince of devils (daimonia), uses the phrase, “ How can Satan cast out Satan?" But here Satan is evidently used, not as daimon was by the Jews, to denote an individual possessing power, but to indicate the great head of the king.. dom of evil upon earth, his works, and his dominion over man; and thus used, it would justly apply to these cases of bodily torture and mental derangement, whatever their intrinsic nature, as one branch of his work of evil. For, it should never be forgotten, in considering this subject, that our Lord speaks of all disease
* Vidc DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE for September.
alike, nav, of all physical evil, as moral evil which he introduced into ** the bondage of Satan," as “the the universe; or contains a brief and power of the enemy." Thus, of the vivid glance into the past records of 6 woman which had a spirit of infir the spiritual world, such as is supposed mity eighteen years, and was bowed to be veiled under the bold figure together, and could in nowise lift up which the Hebrew prophet applies to herself,” and whom, addressing in the prince of Babylon:-“How art these words, “Woman, thou art loosed thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, from thy infirmity, he laid his hands son of the morning! for thou hast on her, and immediately she was made said in thine heart, I will ascend unto straight;" whereupon “the ruler of heaven, I will exalt my throne above the synagogue answered with indigna- the stars of God: I will ascend above tion, because that Jesus had healed the heights of the clouds; I will be on the sabbath day"-of this case of like the Most High."_Is. xiv. 12–14. infirmity, some form, evidently, of From this contemplation, however, of spinal, muscular, or nervous disease, the fall of Satan's dominion, our Lord which our Lord thus healed, he says, immediately turns to warn his disanswering his adversaries and con- ciples that this subjection of the spifuting them, as it is very remarkable rits (wwuare constitutes no proper he always does, upon their own prin- object of rejoicing to them, because ciples and ideas, without either im- this power of healing (for such it evipugning or admitting these principles, dently was) had in it nothing intrinbut using them by some application, sically moral; it was a sanative power either literal or figurative, as the rea- bestowed by him; it was an exercise diest instruments for inculcating moral of faith, which might indeed more truth, “ Thou hypocrite, doth not mountains, and yet be devoid of that each one of you, on the sabbath, loose charity, without which it was but as his ox or his ass from the stall, and a sounding brass and a tinkling cymlead him away to watering? And bal; it was shared by the traitor, ought not this woman, being a daugh- Judas. The true ground for their joy ter of Abraham, whom Satan hath is added—“ But rather rejoice bebound, lo, these eighteen years, because your names are written in loosed from this bond on the sabbath heaven;" because ye are chosen to be day?”—Luke, xiii. 15, 16.
my followers—to learn and proclaim And with this view perfectly con. my message of truth to the world—to sorts our Lord's language on another imitate my example-to carry my remarkable occasion, when “ the cross—to glorify God by your lives seventy returned again with joy, say- and in your death. ing, Lord, even the devils (daimonia] The whole argument used by our are subject unto us through thy Lord in his reply to the Pharisees, as name. And he said unto them, I completed by a collation of the three beheld Satan as lightning fall from first evangelists, may be thus expressheaven. Behold, I give unto you ed :-“ You allege that I cast out the power to tread on serpents and scor- powers of darkness, manifest in these pions, and over all the power of the visitations, by a league with, or by the enemy."_Luke, x. 18,19. Here, even authority of Beelzebub, the prince of the malignant instincts and energies these powers. But how can evil overof nature are set down by our Lord as come evil, or one member of the Saportions of Satan's dominion; and he tanic kingdom expel another? Every deems this power conferred upon his kingdom and house divided against disciples over venomous reptiles, itself is brought to desolation. If Sathrough faith in him and a union of tan rise up against himself and cast out their wills with his to constitute, Satan, he is divided against himself, equally with the subjection of the how shall then his kingdom stand? And daimonia, a part of that downfall if I, by Beelzebub, cast out daimonia, of Satan's empire, which he depicts by whom do your children cast them with such vivid brevity, in the vision out? Therefore they shall be your of his lightning-like fall from heaven: judges. But if I, with the finger of which it may be doubted whether and the spirit of God, cast out daimoit is figurative, or prophetic of some nia, then the kingdom of God is come future final decadence of the rebel unto you; for as these visitations upon archangel, and the extinction of the man indicate the presence of evil and
the dominion of Satan, their cure evinces the presence and the power of a greater than Satan—the presence and the power of God. For no one can enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man, and then he will spoil his house. Satan cannot cast out or spoil Satan: evil cannot vanquish evil. The power, therefore, by which I have bound and spoiled Satan, and expelled his powers, and healed his victims, and loosed his captives from their bondage, cannot be evil, cannot be from Satan: it must be good and holy-it must be from God." The argument is most perfect and irrefragable, whether we suppose, with the Jews of that day, that living wicked spirits tabernacled in, and tormented the sufferers whom Jesus healed and restored to their right mind ; or, that they were cases of cerebral disease, purely physical in their nature-yet, like all physical disease, a portion of the triumph obtained in the realms of nature, by the principle of evil, through the sin and fall of man.
But there is another point to be remarked in the answer of our Lord. He asks “If I, by Beelzebub, cast out daimonia, by whom do your chil. dren cast them out?”
First, then, it appears from this, as we have elsewhere said, that the Jews had the power of casting out daimonia, either by the process hand. ed down from the days of Solomon, who was so great a natural philosopher, and wrote so many books, now lost, "of trees, from the cedar-tree that is in Lebanon, even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall, of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes” (1 Kings, iv. 33), or by some other means.
Secondly -- who is this Beelzebub this “ LORD OF Flies," as his name denotes-introduced by the three first evangelists in this dialogue, and in one other passage evidently referring to it, “If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub” (Matt. x. 25), but no where else mentioned in the New Testament? Is this, like Satan, “the adversary,” which term, in laying down the foregoing principle of judgment, our Lord, it will be
observed, prefers employing, an ancient, recognised, and orthodox name for the chief of the fallen angels, the author of evil and of death in the universe? Or, is it a name borrowed from some petty neighbouring system of idolatry, pythonic superstition, or demonology, with which parties among the Jews themselves, had, to some extent, become infected, and to which the attributes of Satan had thus become ultimately transferred by the more orthodox? We have strong ground for supposing the latter to be the case. In the first place, the very name “Lord of Flies" bears this superstitious impress, and, what is remarkable, corresponds exactly with the great devil-fly, Daruj Nesosh of the Magian system, who, in the Ven. didad Sade, the most important among the sacred books of the Parsees, is described as tormenting man, and whom Hormuzd, the good principle, or deity, is represented as instructing the prophet Zertusht, or Zoroaster, to drive away, by a succession of ablutions, from one part of the body to another, and ultimately to expel from the toes to the regions of torment.
“When the pure water has reached the crown of his head, the Daruj Ne. sosh shall go to the back of the head; when the pure water shall go to the back of the head, this devil shall go to the front; when the pure water has reached the front, the devil shall go to the right ear; when the pure water has reached the right ear, the devil shall go to the left ear, and in this manner he shall be driven about till he reaches the toes, and then be driven out in the form of a fly."*
But, independently of this analogy in the name and character, we have only to turn to 2 Kings, chap. i., to be convinced of the true origin of this Beelzebub. We read there, in verses 2 and 3, that when Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber in Samaria, and was sick, he sent messengers, and said unto them, “Go, enquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover of this disease;" and, thereupon, the prophet Elijah is sent to meet and reproach the messengers with these words :“Is it not because there is not a God
* Lecture on the Vendidad Sade, by Dr. Wilson ; vide also the preface to Richardson's Persian Dictionary; and the Zend-Avesta, as translated by Anquetil du Perron, for a full account of this exorcism of the Devil-fly.
in Israel, that ye go to enquire of of the Jews, to the case of relapsed Baal-zebub the god of Ekron?" From maniacs, as affording a striking exemthis it appears, that at Ekron there plification of the moral condition of was an oracular or pythonic shrine, the Jews in their now relapsed and dedicated to this Baal-zebub, which, impenitent state. The very phrase in the Hebrew, is essentially the same Type TU Tele Tonga, which is rendered name as Beelzebub, and that even the “wicked spirits" in this and similar Jews themselves occasionally sent to passages, is in others translated "evil consult it. Now we have to observe, spirits," as, for example, in Acts, xix, that at all the analogous pythonic 12, 13, 15, 16; and the original word shrines which exist in India, the ora. is undoubtedly equally applicable to cular and the sanatory go hand in physical, or to moral evil. hand ; and exorcism of persons sup. But we must further remark, as the posed to be possessed, is reduced to a sense of the word Treuch, or “ spirit," system. And it is a very singular in these narratives of the Gospel mifact, for the correctness of which we racles, is very important, that the lancan vouch from our own knowledge, guage of the Hindoos-that ancient that in the oracular and exorcist people, who preserve, still fresh and shrines of Kanoba, whom we take to be unchanged amidst a modernized world, a perfect counterpart to the Ekronite so much of the manners and ideas of Baal-zebub, as well as to the Egyptian the highest antiquity, and thus afford Kanobos, the supposed daimons, i.e., a living commentary on many points, the epileptic, hysteric, and nervous that were otherwise obscure in Holy paroxysms, are frequently expelled Writ, and other ancient records by other parties, alleging themselves throws a great additional light upon to be, for the time, possessed by, and this particular subject. We noticed, to wield the power and authority of in our former paper, the close conVetalu, the prince of Hindoo devils. nexion in the mind, as well as in the Is it not extremely probable, that speech of the Hindoo, between wind, something of the same kind was done spirit, and nerve, or nervous æther; a at the exorcist seances of those vaga connexion so intimate, that the same bond Jewish perierchomenoi above al word, which at one time denotes the luded to, in forms and words borrow- plastic element, at another signifies a ed from the rites of the Ekron deity, living and moving intelligence; and, which probably live at this day in in a third application, expresses a disHindostan? And if this be so, does eased or excited condition of the nerves not our Lord's answer to the Phari. or the brain. This connexion, which sees convey, not only a noble vindi- is so perceptible in the terms wara and cation of the divine character of his waren, current in the vernacular dia. own cures, by the moral inconsistency lect of the Mahrattas, who, according involved in their accusation, but, also, to the opinion of Professor Orlebar, a silent reproof of the superstitious are the most legitimate representatives, notions current regarding Beelzebub, both in language and sentiment, of the and the supposed expulsion of demons ancient Hindoos, is to be traced also through such a demoniac power ? in Sanscrit, the classic language of the
To complete this branch of the sub- Bramhins, of all ancient languages ject, on the terminology of the Gospel which still exist, perhaps the most annarratives, we may observe that the cient-certainly the most wonderful terms “wicked spirit” and “unclean for its scientific structure, and its ex. spirit,” are everywhere therein used, quisite synthetic beauty. In this lanas convertible with daimon, invariably guage, Wayoo is the radical and comapplied to cases of physical suffering mon term for the elemental wind, as in and derangement, and never to those the following verse, taken from the of moral evil; for wherever this last Hindoo Law-giver Menu's account of is clearly intended, if the words Satan the creation (Menu, cap. i. v. 76):or diabolos, be not used, it is ó royngos,
" Akashat too vikoorvanat survogundhuvulth: the wicked one, which is employed.
shoochë: Bulvan jaynte WAYOCII: su vui sporshugooo
mutuh." spirit,” quoted above from Matt. xij. 43, is no exception to this remark, if " From ether then operating a change, the all-odoar
bearing, pure, the interpretation of Gilpin and New
And powerful Wind is born: and that is held en come be correct; and if it be under dowed with the quality of touch." tood to refer, in the popular language This is an example of its most simple