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the Index Expurgatorius exist? How mated less by the "genius loci”—the long the monasteries and convents, and
spirit of improvisation—than possessed the religious corporations ?”
by the demon of plagiarism, we should
rather be thankful that, in passing We now close these works, and through the domains of literature, he commend them to the public. In has arrayed himself in so moderate a each there is much to entertain ; and share of plunder. Should we not be each traveller, in his way, has afforded grateful for the abstinence that saved us instruction. Of Mr. Geale's little us in Florence from a canto of Dante, tome, we have already said that it is or a novel of Boccaccio, and that carwritten with taste and feeling, making ried him unfeloniously through Ferlittle pretensions, and yet showing the rara without rifling one page from scholar and the man of observation. Tasso or Ariosto ? Mr. Whiteside's volumes aim higher, But to be serious, this extension of and challenge a stricter scrutiny. the principle of Communism in liteThey have merits, which call for high rature is neither decent nor hopraise, with faults, to which we cannot nest, and Mr. Whiteside must know readily accord pardon. Lively, for- that it is not. The rules of litecible, humorous, and caustic, his style rary appropriation are well known. is constantly careless, obscure, abrupt, To illustrate a sentiment, or fortify a and even coarse. A capital guide, position, short quotations are always but an indifferent describer, he points allowable; they who write best, use out what you are to see and under- them most sparingly, simply because stand, yet conveys to you but an they feel they can say things as well inadequate impression. 'He is scho- as others; but neither writers or larly, yet not elegant, erudite without readers will tolerate numerous or enthusiasm, and å book-maker, in the lengthened extracts from books within worst sense of that term. This is a the reach of all the world. He who monster grievance, and deserves grave lards his own leanness with the fat of reprehension. In the three volumes others, shews not the capacity of his he has published, we venture to assert, mind for thought, but of his fingers one-third, at least, will be found to con- for filching; and the motley pages of sist of the works of others. To what ex- a plagiarist, like the parti-coloured tent this is justifiable, nay, laudable, we patches of a beggar's coat, may eke have already stated. But how will he out its dimensions, but betokens not justify inserting whole pages from Eus- wealth but poverty. Let us then entace, and Matthews, De Stael, Addi. treat Mr. Whiteside, if his book son, Hobhouse, Bell, and Sir James reach a second edition, as we think Clarke ? How will he justify the it well deserves, to cut out his quotaintroduction not only of well-known tions with as liberal a hand as he put poems of Manzoni, but even a whole them in. Let the scissors once more scene from the “Promessi Sposi” of do its work, and the two volumes will that author, with the English trans- be an improved edition. We promise lation appended, though every Italian him a place for it in every library. scholar is familiar with the original, Abounding in information of every and every boarding-school miss has kind, discursive as well as minute, nobeen thumbing the Betrothed,” since thing is left untouched, every subject Mr. Bentley made it a five-shilling mat- is explored, and the whole is one of ter for all circulating libraries? Per- the most valuable accessions to our haps, after all, we are unreasonably stock of continental knowledge, which querulous, and that considering Mr. has for years been given to the Whiteside, while in Italy, was ani- public.
PYTHONIC AND DEMONIAC POSSESSIONS IN INDIA AND JUDEA.
RESUMING our examination of the with these bodily cures - to language employed in the Gospels, in prince of daimons,” an exorcist power, reference to the daimoniac possessions through whom these daimoniac affecof Judea, we must point it out tions or paroxysms were supposed to as a very remarkable circumstance, be expelled-of whom more hereafter; and one deserving of great weight, and twice in reference to St. John the that nowhere in the gospels does our Baptist's having, and seven times in Lord himself use the term daimon, or reference to our Lord himself having any of its derivatives, in our sense of a daimon, where it is clear, from the devil. Wherever a spiritual being, context, daimon has the same sense as morally wicked, is spoken of in the the Mahratta pishachu, alluded to in gospels, it is either Satan, or the wicked our former paper, and referred to one, or diabolos, the proper word for madness; for we read, in John, x. 20, devil, that is used. This latter word “ And many of them said, he hath a occurs fifteen times in the evangelical devil [daimon), and is mad; why narratives; it is applied nine times to hear ye him ?” Here we have the the tempter of our Lord in the wilder- sense in which the Jews understood ness; once, to the enemy who steals having a daimon, precisely that of the the good seed; once, to the enemy Hindoo of this day. For, as we said who sows the tares; once, to the in our former paper, in reference to spirit that animated the wicked Jews, the application of the term pishachu, "Ye are of your father the devil;" and its derivatives, “The ideas of once, in the condemnation of the lunacy and of devil-action, are, there. wicked at the general judgment, to fore, one ; to have a devil, is to be
the fire prepared for the devil and mad; all forms of lunacy are forms of his angels;" once, to the devil, who demoniacal possession." This is clearly put it into the heart of Judas to betray a very different sense from the notion Jesus ; once to Judas himself, where attached to our word devil, or the it is used without the definite article, Greek diabolos, which is applied to and is properly translated “ a devil;" the cases of moral evil, as above nothe first fourteen of these cases re- ticed. In no one instance in the gospels ferring to the wicked spirit, who is the is the word daimon, or any of its deritempter of mankind, and the last to a vatives, so applied. man morally evil. Now, although the It is true that our Lord, when the words “daimon,” its neuter form, "dai- Pharisees said he cast out devils monion,” and the participle "daimoni- [daimonia] by Beelzebub, the prince zomenos,” which is translated, “pos- of devils (daimonia], uses the phrase, sessed by devils,” or “tormented by “ How can Satan cast out Satan?" devils," occur no less than sixty-three But here Satan is evidently used, not times in the gospels, in no one of these as daimon was by the Jews, to denote cases are the terms applied in a purely an individual possessing power, but moral sense. In forty-eight instances, to indicate the great head of the kingthey are applied to those cases of pos- dom of evil upon earth, his works, and session, which, in common with other his dominion over man; and thus diseases, our Lord healed-a term re- used, it would justly apply to these peatedly applied to them; twice to cases of bodily torture and mental the case of Magdalen, in connexion derangemen whatever their intrinsic with "evil spirits and infirmities,” nature, as one branch of his work of and evidently referring to cases of evil. For, it should never be forphysical suffering or weakness like the gotten, in considering this subject, rest; four times still in connexion that our Lord speaks of all disease
* Vide DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE for September.
alike, nay, of all physical evil, as moral evil which he introduced into “the bondage of Satan,” as the universe; or contains a brief and power of the enemy." Thus, of the
vivid glance into the past records of * woman which had a spirit of infir- the spiritual world, such as is supposed mity eighteen years, and was bowed to be veiled under the bold figure together, and could in nowise lift up which the Hebrew prophet applies to herself,” and whom, addressing in the prince of Babylon:-"How art these words, “Woman, thou art loosed thou fallen from heaven, O Lncifer, from thy infirmity, he laid his hands
son of the morning! for thou hast on her, and immediately she was made said in thine heart, I will ascend unto straight;" whereupon “ the ruler of heaven, I will exalt my throne above the synagogue answered with indigna- the stars of God: I will ascend above tion, because that Jesus had healed the heights of the clouds ; I will be on the sabbath day"--of this case of like the Most High.”—Is. xiv. 12-14, infirmity, some form, evidently, of From this contemplation, however, of spinal, muscular, or nervous disease, the fall of Satan's dominion, our Lord which our Lord thus healed, he says, immediately turns to warn his disanswering his adversaries and con- ciples that this subjection of the spifuting them, as it is very remarkable
rits (Theate] constitutes no proper he always does, upon their own prin. object of rejoicing to them, because ciples and ideas, without either im- this power of healing (for such it evipugning or admitting these principles, dently was) had in it nothing intrinbut using them by some application, sically moral; it was a sanative power either literal or figurative, as the rea- bestowed by him; it was an exercise diest instruments for inculcating moral of faith, which might indeed more truth, “ Thou hypocrite, doth not mountains, and yet be devoid of that each one of you, on the sabbath, loose charity, without which it was but as his ox or his ass from the stall, and a sounding brass and a tinkling cymlead him away to watering? And bal ; it was shared by the traitor, ought not this woman, being a daugh- Judas. The true ground for their joy ter of Abraham, whom Satan hath is added—“ But rather rejoice bebound, lo, these eighteen years, be cause your names
are written in loosed from this bond on the sabbath heaven;" because ye are chosen to be day?”—Luke, xüi. 15, 16.
my followers-to learn and proclaim And with this view perfectly con- my message of truth to the world—to sorts our Lord's language on another imitate my example—to carry, my remarkable occasion, when
cross--to glorify God by your lives seventy returned again with joy, say- and in your death. ing, Lord, even the devils (daimonia] The whole argument used by our are subject unto us through thy Lord in his reply to the Pharisees, as
"And he said unto them, s completed by a collation of the three beheld Satan as lightning fall from first evangelists, may be thus expressheaven. Behold, I give unto you ed:-“You allege that I cast out the power to tread on serpents and scor- powers of darkness, manifest in these pions, and over all the power of the visitations, by a league with, or by the enemy.”—Luke, x. 18,19. Here, even authority of Beelzebub, the prince of the malignant instincts and energies these powers. But how can evil overof nature are set down by our Lord as come evil, or one member of the Saportions of Satan's dominion ; and he tanic kingdom expel another? Every deems this power conferred upon his kingdom and house divided against disciples over venomous reptiles, itself is brought to desolation. If Sa. through faith in him and a union of tan rise up against himself and cast out their wills with his, to constitute, Satan, he is divided against himself
, equally with the subjection of the how shallthen his kingdom stand? And daimonia, a part of that downfall if I, by Beelzebub, cast out daimonia, of Satan's empire, which he depicts by whom do your children cast them with such vivid brevity, in the vision out? Therefore they shall be your of his lightning-like fall from heaven : judges. But if I, with the finger of which it may be doubted whether and the spirit of God, cast out daimoit is figurative, or prophetic of some nia, then the kingdom of God is come future final decadence of the rebel unto you ; for as these visitations upon archangel, and the extinction of the man indicate the presence of evil and
the dominion of Satan, their cure observed, prefers employing, an anevinces the presence and the power of cient, recognised, and orthodox name a greater than Satan—the presence for the chief of the fallen angels, the and the power of God. For no one
author of evil and of death in the uni. can enter into a strong man's house, verse? Or, is it a name borrowed and spoil his goods, except he first from some petty neighbouring system bind the strong man, and then he will of idolatry, pythonic superstition, or spoil his house. Satan cannot cast demonology, with which parties among out or spoil Satan : evil cannot van- the Jews themselves, had, to some quish evil. The power, therefore, by extent, become infected, and to which which I have bound and spoiled Satan,
the attributes of Satan had thus beand expelled his powers, and healed come ultimately transferred by the his victims, and loosed his captives more orthodox ?
We have strong from their bondage, cannot be evil, ground for supposing the latter to be cannot be from Satan: it must be good the case. In the first place, the very and holy-it must be from God.” name “ Lord of Flies" bears this suThe argument is most perfect and ir- perstitious impress, and, what is rerefragable, whether we suppose, with markable, corresponds exactly with the Jews of that day, that living wick- the great devil-fly, Daruj Nesosh of ed spirits tabernacled in, and tormented the Magian system, who, in the Ven. the sufferers whom Jesus healed and didad Sade, the most important among restored to their right mind ; or, that the sacred books of the Parsees, is dethey were cases of cerebral disease, scribed as tormenting man, and whom purely physical in their nature-yet, Hormuzd, the good principle, or deity, Îike all physical disease, a portion of is represented as instructing the prothe triumph obtained in the realms of phet Zertusht, or Zoroaster, to drive nature, by the principle of evil, away, by a succession of ablutions, through the sin and fall of man. from one part of the body to another,
But there is another point to be re- and ultimately to expel from the toes marked in the answer of our Lord. to the regions of torment. He asks “If I, by Beelzebub, cast “When the pure water has reached out daimonia, by whom do your chil- the crown of his head, the Daruj New dren cast them out?”
sosh shall go to the back of the head; First, then, it appears from this, when the pure water shall go to the as we have elsewhere said, that the back of the head, this devil shall go to Jews had the power of casting out the front; when the pure water has daimonia, either by the process hand- reached the front, the devil shall go ed down from the days of Solomon, to the right ear; when the pure
water who was so great a natural philoso- has reached the right ear, the devil pher, and wrote so many books, now shall go to the left ear, and in this lost, "of trees, from the cedar-tree manner he shall be driven about till that is in Lebanon, even unto the he reaches the toes, and then be driven hyssop that springeth out of the wall, out in the form of a fly."* of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping But, independently of this analogy things, and of fishes” (1 Kings, iv. 33), in the name and character, we have or by some other means.
only to turn to 2 Kings, chap. i., to Secondly–who is this Beelzebub- be convinced of the true origin of this « LORD OF FLIES," as his name this Beelzebub. We read there, in denotes-introduced by the three first verses 2 and 3, that when Ahaziah fell evangelists in this dialogue, and in one down through a lattice in his upper other passage evidently referring to chamber in Samaria, and was sick, he it, “ If they have called the master sent messengers, and said unto them, of the house Beelzebub” (Matt. x. “Go, enquire of Baal-zebub the god of 25), but no where else mentioned Ekron, whether I shall recover of this in the New Testament? Is this, like disease;" and, thereupon, the prophet Satan, “the adversary,” which term, Elijah is sent to meet and reproach in laying down the foregoing princi- the messengers with these words :ple of judgment, our Lord, it will be “ Is it not because there is not a God
* Lecture on the Vendidad Sade, by Dr. Wilson ; vide also the preface to Richardson's Persian Dictionary; and the Zend-Avesta, as translated by Anquetil du Perron, for a full account of this exorcism of the Devil-fly.
in Israel, that ye go to enquire of of the Jews, to the case of relapsed Baal-zebub the god of Ekron?” From maniacs, as affording a striking exemthis it appears, that at Ekron there plification of the moral condition of was an oracular or pythonic shrine, the Jews in their now relapsed and dedicated to this Baal-zebub, which, impenitent state. The very phrase in the Hebrew, is essentially the same πνευματα τα πονηρα, which is rendered name as Beelzebub, and that even the “ wicked spirits” in this and similar Jews themselves occasionally sent to passages, is in others translated "evil consult it. Now we have to observe, spirits,” as, for example, in Acts, xix. that at all the analogous pythonic 12, 13, 15, 16; and the original word shrines which exist in India, the ora- is undoubtedly equally applicable to cular and the sanatory go hand in physical, or to moral evil. hand; and exorcism of persons sup
But we must further remark, as the posed to be possessed, is reduced to a sense of the word zveupce, or “ spirit,” system. And it is a very singular in these narratives of the Gospel mifact, for the correctness of which we racles, is very important, that the lancan vouch from our own knowledge, guage of the Hindoos—that ancient that in the oracular and exorcist people, who preserve, still fresh and shrines of Kanoba, whom we take to be unchanged amidst a modernized world, a perfect counterpart to the Ekronite so much of the manners and ideas of Baal-zebub, as well as to the Egyptian the highest antiquity, and thus afford Kanobos, the supposed daimons, i.e., a living commentary on many points, the epileptic, hysteric, and nervous that were otherwise obscure in Holy paroxysms, are frequently expelled Writ, and other ancient records by other parties, alleging themselves throws a great additional light upon to be, for the time, possessed by, and this particular subject. We noticed, to wield the power and authority of in our former paper, the close conVetalu, the prince of Hindoo devils. nexion in the mind, as well as in the Is it not extremely probable, that speech of the Hindoo, between wind, something of the same kind was done spirit, and nerve, or nervous æther; a at the exorcist seances of those vaga- connexion so intimate, that the same bond Jewish perierchomenoi above al- word, which at one time denotes the luded to, in forms and words borrow- plastic element, at another signifies a ed from the rites of the Ekron deity, living and moving intelligence; and, which probably live at this day in in a third application, expresses a disHindostan? And if this be so, does eased or excited condition of the nerves not our Lord's answer to the Phari- or the brain. This connexion, which sees convey, not only a noble vindi- is so perceptible in the terms wara and cation of the divine character of his waren, current in the vernacular dia. own cures, by the moral inconsistency lect of the Mahrattas, who, according involved in their accusation, but, also, to the opinion of Professor Orlebar, a silent reproof of the superstitious are the most legitimate representatives, notions current regarding Beelzebub, both in language and sentiment, of the and the supposed expulsion of demons ancient Hindoos, is to be traced also through such a demoniac power ? in Sanscrit, the classic language of the
To complete this branch of the sub- Bramhins, of all ancient languages ject, on the terminology of the Gospel which still exist, perhaps the most annarratives, we may observe that the cient–certainly the most wonderful terms “wicked spirit" and "unclean for its scientific structure, and its exspirit,” are everywhere therein used, quisite synthetic beauty. In this lanas convertible with daimon, invariablyguage, Wayoo is the radical and comapplied to cases of physical suffering mon term for the elemental wind, as in and derangement, and never to those the following verse, taken from the of moral evil; for wherever this last Hindoo Law-giver Menu's account of is clearly intended, if the words Satan the creation (Menu, cap. i. v. 76):or diabolos, be not used, it is ó roingos,
“ Akashat too vikoorvanat survugundhuvubuh : the wicked one, which is employed. The passage regarding the “unclean Bulvan jayute WAYOCII: su vui spureugoong spirit,” quoted above from Matt. xii. 43, is no exception to this remark, if
" From ether then operating a change, the all-colourthe interpretation of Gilpin and New.
And powerful Wind is born; and that is held encome be correct; and if it be under- dowed with the quality of touch." stood to refer, in the popular language This is an example of its most simple