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instance, where he is called the son of Isis."-p. 417. Nevertheless, as it will better suit his hypothesis, M. Bunsen will assume him to have been the son of Typhon and Nephthys! He has thus contrived to obtain two triads, Osiris, Isis, and their son Harueris, and Typhon, Nephthys, and Anubis; one of which triads is a repetition of the other. In the end, then, the children of Nutpe are reduced to two_" the great goddess" and “the great god.” Now, we will only remark that the assertion here made by our author, that the monuments represent Harueris as the son of Osiris, is unsupported by a single proof. The fact is the very reverse. The monuments agree with Plutarch in making him his brother. In the “ Book of the Dead,” (ch, lxix. col. 2) we find this sentence-"He is Osiris, the eldest of the five deities begotten by his father Seb.” In “ Wilkinson's Manners and Customs,” plate 38, there is a representation of the five children of Seb in a cartouche-viz., Osiris, Harueris, Typhon, Isis, and Nephthys, so arranged. In the “Book of the Dead,” ch. cxxxiv. col. 2, we read of the destruction of the Apopi, or gigantic serpent, by the male chil dren of Seb; whence it follows that there were two of these, besides Typhon or Suth, who is here named as identical with, or at least allied to, the Apopi; and a little after we have this series of deities,“ Seb, Nutpe, Osiris, Horus, Isis, and Nephthys.” The only Horus that could be named in this place in the series, was Harueris, i. e., as the name signifies, " the elder Horus," who is a distinct mythological person from Harsiasis, the son of Isis and Osiris. The distinction between these deities has been generally recog. nised by those who have written on the subject; and it is very little to our author's credit that he should have confounded them, and then built so much on their assumed identity.
We must now pass to a question which, to many of our readers, will be far more interesting than any which we have yet treated of. How far do the chronological views of the three authors, whose works are before us, accord with the statements of the Bible? Assuming that the dates which
are inserted in the margin of many editions of the Bible, are fairly deduced from the statements in the text (and it is beyond dispute that they are So, within a few years more or less, the Hebrew, from which the translation is made, being of course regarded as authentic,) it is easy to answer the proposed question. M. Bunsen rejects altogether the chronology deduced from the Bible, as far as relates to its earlier periods. At the very second page of his preface, after affirming that " there is in the Old Testament no connected chronology prior to So. lomon,” he is pleased to say—“ All that now passes for a system of ancient chronology, beyond that fixed point, is the melancholy legacy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries"-of the labours of Ussher and Blayney“a compound of intentional deceit and utter misconception of the principles of historical research.” He considers the difference between the Hebrew and the Septuagint as not worth discussion, placing the origin of mankind many thousands—perhaps myriadsof years before even the Septuagint date of the Deluge. Mr. Sharpe and Mr. Osburn only treat of Egyptian history, and accordingly they do not come into collision with scriptural dates prior to the call of Abraham, or rather the migration of Jacob and his family to Egypt ; but as to the interval between that event and the Exodus, neither of them adopts the computation of the margin of our Bibles.
Our readers have probably observed that there are three statements in the Bible respecting this interval. It is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.* It is said that Moses, who conducted the Israelites out of Egypt, was the grandson of Kohath, who migrated to it ;t and again it is said that the seventy souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, I had multiplied, when they left it, to six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. Now, of the three writers before us, each seizes upon a different one of these statements, and confines himself to it alone; while the maligned framers of the received chronology looked to them all, and, more
over, to the comment upon the first (which is worded in rather an ambi. guous manner) given by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Galatians (ii. 17), in accordance with the translation of the Septuagint. They made the whole sojourning of Abraham and his descendants, in Egypt and Canaan, four hundred and thirty years; and, as the sojourning in Canaan is easily computed to have been two hundred and fifteen years, they estimated that in Egypt at the same number. M. Bunsen considers the equality of these two intervals to be a positive proof that one at least is fictitious; but the framers of the received chronology believed that he who could foresee distant events, and predict their times, might arrange those times according to a plan of his own; and that the equality of intervals might indicate previous design, as well as subsequent forgery. They considered, too, that the increase of population in a critical period might not be regulated by the same laws as in ordinary periods. The children of Israel, settling in a dis. trict, where, it is evident from the narrative, they were, from whatever cause, the sole, or almost the sole, inhabitants; favoured by the govern ment, as they were till shortly before the Exodus—and considering it a religious duty to multiply their race, would do so with much greater rapidity than in any cases which have come within the observation of modern statists. The males would begin to have children in early youth, and continue to have them up to old age ; so that, while the grandson of one of the immi. grants was the leader of those who went out from Egypt, he might, with out any difficulty, have under his command the descendants of the same immigrant, or of his companions, of the twelfth generation. It is not to be supposed, again, that the men of Jacob's family contined themselves to single wives, or to women of their own race. They had no doubt, like Jacob himself, children by their female slaves, who were probably numerous; nor is it improbable, that, as in an instance recorded in the after history,* the male slave was occasionally allowed to marry the daughter. Taking all this into account, and that they were
under the influence of a special blessing from heaven, we cannot think that thirteen or fourteen years is too short an interval for them to double their numbers in ; and this would afford them ample time to attain the number which has been recorded, even before the persecution began.
Now, what are the three views of the length of this period, which our three authors take? Mr. Osburn looks only to the statement in Exodus xii. 40. He assumes that the Israelites sojourned full four hundred and thirty years in Egypt ; which, of course, is quite irreconcilable with the statement that Moses, who went out, was the grandson of Kohath, who came in. Mr. Osburn was, however, constrained to adopt this hypothesis ; for, having followed the Egyptian chronology of Champollion Figeac, and so placed the Exodus at the end of the eighteenth dynasty, he would have brought his earliest kings of Egypt to the time of the Deluge, had he not interpolated these two hundred and fifteen years. They seem, indeed, too few for his purpose. We must remark, by the way, that Mr. Osburn's statement in p. ll, that those dates given by Champollion Figeac "are entirely founded upon astronomical and historical data given by ancient authors, and are, therefore, well entitled to the reader's confidence," is incorrect. M. Bunsen has pointed out very clearly the blunder which this French writer committed, and which led his brother astray, as it has since done Mr.
Mr. Sharpe confines his attention to the statement, that the interval between the immigration of Jacob's family and the Exodus was three generations; and accordingly, he estimates this interval at about a hundred years. Of course, he considers the number of the children of Israel who went out as enormously exaggerated.
M. Bunsen, on the contrary, regards this number as perfectly correct, and fancies that the only true mode of deducing the period of the Israelites sojourning in Egypt is to compute how long it would be, according to the present rate of the increase of population, before seventy persons could multiply to about two millions. We can
not tell the number of centuries that fused, at a considerable pecuniary sahe fixes upon, which will not be stated crifice, to have any connexion with it. before the fourth book; but it is evi. There is a mystery here which we dent that he considers the two hundred cannot unravel. Of course, the triand fifteen years of the received chro fling circumstance that it was the Henology to be but a small fraction of brew Professor at Oxford, who first the true interval. With respect to denounced the ambassador's errors, Abraham, he intimates his opinion could have had no possible weight with pretty clearly that he visited Egypt in the leaders of the Alliance. M. Bunthe period, when chronology had no sen, however, though far from being existence, which preceded 3,643 B.c. what the Evangelical Protestants of This, however, by no means implies the British Isles would consider orthothat Jacob lived at such a remote dox, is by no means to be classed with period ; as he seems to hold that—not the "Friends of Light,” or the “Ger.. two, but-many generations separated man Catholics," or the great majority these two patriarchs. As for the per- of the so-styled Protestants of Gersons mentioned in Genesis before Abra- many, who are infidels with scarcely ham, “it is obvious," he says (in p. any disguise. He professes to hold 181), “to every one,” that they are the kernel of revelation, and we have all mystic" eponyme patriarchs,” of no right to pronounce that he does cities and tribes, among whom the not; though we may be a little chockancestors of Abraham had by turns ed at the hard blows which he gives sojourned!
to the shell, in order to come at this And is this our readers will have kernel. been tempted to ask long before this M. Bunsen draws a broad line of is this the Chevalier Bunsen, “whose distinction between externals and inpraise is in all the churches ;" who ternals. As to the latter he admits took such a prominent part at the great revelation, but not, it would appear, meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in as to the former. He speaks of Moses London; and who is regarded as the having " the law of God in his heart;" main support of “orthodox” Christian- but, as far as he is an historian, he ity in Prussia ? It is even so. For considers him to be merely a credible his appearance on the platform of the witness as to what fell under his own Alliance, we confess ourselves unable observation, and an investigator (Forto account. Those admitted there scher) into the past, whose statements, were, it was said, only such as held the result of investigation, are to be "what are usually understood to be valued by the critical judgments of evangelical views in regard to .... those who came after him, just as those the divine inspiration, authority, and of any other investigator. Thus, acsufficiency, of the Holy Scriptures;" cording to him, the Bible contains a and poor Czerski was excluded for real o revelation respecting divine what appears to us a far less deviation matters" (Offenbarung über die göttlifrom the Exeter Hall standard of chen Dinge_not “divine revelation," Orthodoxy than that of the Prussian as Mr. Cottrell translates the words), Ambassador. In such matters, how mixed up with a historical and chroever, disclaim it as they may, English- nological element, which may or may men are apt to be a little influenced not be true. The writers of the seveby considerations of worldly rank and ral books did as well as they could in respectability. Ignorance of M. Bun- respect to history ; but it did not sen's views could not be pleaded. enter into the divine plan to endue When the Alliance met, his book had them with “magical powers” for the been a year published in German ; the discovery of historical truth. nature of its contents was pretty gene- We by no means adopt this low rally known, from the various reviews view of the historical element in the of it that had appeared in England; Bible; but we are not prepared to and it was also a subject of common denounce the man who does so as an conversation, that the highly-respect infidel ; and to plead a sort of preable publishers, who had in the first scriptio contra infideles, as a reason for instance undertaken to bring out the not examining into the truth of his present translation, had, on becoming statements--nay, we will go farther. acquainted with the author's views in We are not prepared to say that it may respect to Biblical chronology, re- not be possible to strike out a sound mean between these views of our au. thor, and these generally entertained by Protestants in this country, which perhaps err in the other extreme This is not the place for discussing the subject; nor, if it were, would it be proper to enter upon it at the close of an article. We would, however, throw it out for the consideration of our divines, whether there be not some ground for the charge of BiblioJatry, which is brought against the Protestants of the United Kingdom by the continental Christians, almost without exception; and whether there he not grounds for apprehension, lest the overdrawn statements commonly made at popular meetings respecting the Bible-statements which are not warranted by anything in the book itself, and which were never made
dogmatically by any of the early fa-
I LOVE BUT THEE ALONE.
BY WILLIAM FORSYTH.
No distance e'er can alter me,
No time my heart can move,
My early, only love!
In fancy's flattering tone,
Alone, alone, alone,
Then dearly art thou loved-
The heart most truly moved ;
Thy blushes would disown,
Alone, alone, alone,
That bloom 'neath lovelier skies,
No sunshine like thine eyes ;
Nor time, when years are flown,
Alone of all the world-
MARY MAC ALISTER-A TALE OF THE ANTRIM GLENS.
At the base of the most beautiful hills for many an innocent, many a gallant, of the county of Antrim, lies the vil. and, alas! many a sinful creature, as lage of Cushendall. Useful and they may be sinking in the great deep. magnificent roads have now made Never did it toll with a more dismal common to the trading, travelling, clangour, than in one fearful night of sight-seeing world, what used to be April, 18--, which brought our secluded, almost isolated. Strangers hero to the scenes sketched in this seldom came, except the military sta. humble narrative. Sadly through the tioned there, and travellers passing night, came the hollow roar of the and repassing to the Giant's Cause. wind, mixed with the booming of the way, with weary feet climbing Court breaking wave, while ever and again M.Martin, at the top of the hill of the the harsh clangour of the bell rose high-street, or returning with drags above the tumult. at their carriage-wheels-gliding down When day had struggled through the steep, unmacadamised road, over the heavy clouds, that poured their a rocky surface, as smooth as the sheeted torrents on land and sea, a glassy ice in winter--where children vessel was discerned in the offing: then upon their sledge.creels antici. sometimes it almost disappeared among pated railways-their terminus the mountain waves—then, with bending square, dark tower, that stood at the masts and dripping canvas, rose above foot of the hill, in the midst of pure, each huge, black, surf-crowned mass, whitewashed walls, with its projected and turned, like a stout wrestler, to windows, and embattled summit. meet the next, labouring in the
To the villagers, in their simplicity, trough of the sea, pitched over its it seemed a donjon-keep; yet it was enormous ridges. That vessel strove built by their benevolent landlord, to avoid the shore all day, but with more to awe than to punish. Intend. night came fearful presages of its fate; ed for a temporary prison, it has been still, skilful seamen thought there was seldom used for that purpose, and a chance of escape: and all the watchoftener resounds with the music of ers hoped! At length the die was flute or clarionet, than with the cast; and just with the descent of moans of sorrow.
night, it became apparent that the In one of the spaces of the embattle vessel must go ashore. The sig, ment, is hung the village bell, to warn nal-guns, flashing though the darkness, the people when hours of rest or meal. wrung the hearts, and almost madden. time are at hand. Cheerily, to the ed the courage of many brave fellows; hill-top, far beyond the sound of horn but what could human hardihood or shell, comes the ringing welcome, effect to save the crew ?--the attempt with thoughts of dear voices, the wife's would have been vain. The blackest bright smile, the climbing strife for midnight fury of the tempest had come “ daddy's first," the warm, bright down, and amid the lashing of waves, hearth, the potatoes and milk, the that in their might seemed to shake friendly “shannagh" with the neigh the rocks, whose foundation lay old as bour_for they do love gossip, and sto. earth, neither boat nor swimmer could ries of traditionary lore. In the quiet have lived a moment. One bruised of the sabbath, the church-bell sounds and fainting man was cast ashore, the far- that bell, speaking from man to sole survivor-all the rest had perishman, of God's ordinances; but there ed! In the morning, the ship had dis. seems something supernatural, when appeared ; her materials strewed the at night, as sweeping blasts come swir. beach far and wide: and in an adjacent ling down these valleys, the tower. barn, there were stretched out on the bell tolls, making the waking listener threshing-floor, no fewer than fifteen tremble and pray; for it may be as of the crew. One man had a child in
his arms-a father, even in death! Hollowly and slowly,
The spectacle brought tears to the By that bell's disastrous tongue, Is the melancholy knell of death and burial rung,"