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that, of course, should depend upon a rent, the land and he are quits. When the circumstances of the farmer and the lease refers to land already imof the country. It is a subject which proved, the nature of the tenure is not falls more within the province of our
altered: the lessee in such instances cotemporary, “ The Agricultural and
runs less risk, and bas less toil than on Industrial Journal,” than of ours. It
a highly improvable farın; but he pays should be sufficient to repay fully the
rent in proportion, and looks alone to
the fourteen or nineteen years' possesoutlay of the tenant on the land. In sion for a redemption of all outlays." England, wherever leases are given, seven or fourteen years is the usual period. This would be altogether too
We give this extract merely in conshort for Ireland. In Scotland, where
firmation of our view of the manner, no farmer holds but on lease, nine
and, as it occurs to us, the only man. teen years is the usual term.
ner in which the tenant can be amply cannot forbear quoting the following collision or conflict of interest with
secured in its investment, without any passage on this subject, from a recent number of that excellent publication, the landlord. We by no means advoChambers' Edinburgh Journal. When
cate, in its full extent, the spirit of the will we see such apublication emanat
Scotch system. We would be sorry ing from Ireland ? It would be in the
to see the relation of landlord and te. hands of every farmer in the country
nant, in this country, reduced to the who could read, in a twelvemonth, it cold, commercial calculation which is
here described. We believe that there his attention were but called to it, and if he were not preoccupied by the vile kind in that relation, which it is all
exist moral elements of a much higher stimulants of political excitement, with which he is so industriously sup
important should be developed to the plied :
uttermost; and that in the connexion
of landlord and tenant, there is pre“ No Scotch farmer starting with a
sented a field for the exercise of numnew lease, grudges that he has to pay
berless duties, charities, and amenities, a somewhat higher rent than formerly.
which should never be cast aside. It This may seem paradoxical; and yet is in their full, free, and uncontrolled there is nothing unreasonable in it. A exercise, when the proprietors of the lease for nineteen years is understood soil shall be placed in a position to fulfil to clear all scores. For the first few
them, and when the intelligence, indeyears, nearly all is paying out; for the
pendence, and good feeling of the telatter years, nearly all is coming in
nantry, will enable them to resist all the cost of working the land being much more than covered by the large crops
incentives to sedition and to crime, that which are produced. It is very inte
we see the greatest hope for the country. resting to observe the patience with
Few things would, perhaps, more which a Scotch farmer will wait for promote the social improvement of returns. For years, you will see him the country, than to introduce the with his men toiling to eradicate huge practice of selling estates in small lots, stones from the ground, blasting rocks, as might readily be done in sales under digging open ditches, draining with tiles, the courts, and thus laying the foundalevelling rude heaps, ploughing, liming, tion for a small proprietary of the and otherwise improving the farm. At
middle class, who would thereby be first the crops are poor; then they begin to look a little better ; about the
enlisted, by their interest and their eighth or ninth year they are abundant. sympathies, in the cause of order and Now comes the period of repayment. conservatism. Such a change should, Ten years of heavy crops, with little of course, be effected gradually. It is outgoings, set all to rights. At the end not to be expected that the men who of the nineteenth year the land does not now sit five months of the year idle, with owe the farmer a penny. Such, in usual their field undrained before their door, circumstances being the case, the far
and their gates swinging off their mer has no pretension to consider the land as his, or to say, “I have a claim
hinges, would all at once, by the mere for making the property what it is. ownership of a small parcel of land, True, he made a garden out of a wil.
exhibit the industry and intelligence derness; but he has been more than
which has made the peasant proprietary paid for it. If he has been a sagacious of Lombardy, Switzerland, and the farmer, and not engaged to pay too high Low Countries so prosperous. Agricultural knowledge must first be dif. cious influence. But it is impossible fused, and then a habit of industry ; to let our attention rest, even for a and both can be accomplished, and can moment, on the miseries of the coun. only be accomplished, through the try, without being arrested by that landlords of Ireland. It is for them, which is its chief curse-absenteeism. by the judicious management of their The importance which we have atown estates ; by employing qualified tached to the efficient discharge of the agriculturists ; by imposing conditions duties of proprietorship--the rank in of management in their leases, where- which we have placed those " imperfect ever the good feeling subsisting between obligations” of which Dr. Longfield them and their tenantry will allow of has spoken—the conviction which we it (it is the universal practice in the have expressed that it is through the Lothians, and in the best cultivated landlords of Ireland alone that the counties of England); by agricultural country can be saved, and the extent schools and premiums; by liberal to which we have gone in advocating wages, and giving their people an op- legal measures for putting the proprieportunity and encouragement to better tors of the soil in a position to distheir condition, to disseminate these charge those duties-duties upon the qualities. The desire of bettering their faith of which the soil itself is entrustcondition will spread among the people ed to them by the state-will prepare as the power of doing so is afforded our readers to expect that we will adthem. “ The power of bettering vocate with all the zeal which our themselves by the public works,” says humble opportunities offer, any wellSir John MacNeill,“ has created the considered measure, which may either strongest desire for improvement. It enforce the residence of those proprieis visible in their cottages ; they have tors, or appropriate a certain amount attempted and succeeded in making of their income to compensate to some them better and more comfortable; extent for the wrongs which is occathey are better clothed themselves, sioned by their absence. We will reand their children are better clothed. vert to this subject again, when, by There is nothing like listlessness or taking it singly, we will be enabled to carelessness: an Irishman is the most give it the attention which it demands. active fellow possible, if remunerated The estates of many of these absentees for his work; there is no idleness was conferred on the express condition among them, if they can turn their work of residence. So long ago as the reign to a fair remuneration.” If concurrently of Richard the Second, a law was passwith the growth of this spirit, which, ed enacting "that all manner of perwe again repeat, it is for the landlords sons whatsoever, who have any lands of Ireland, and for them alone, to deve- or tenements, offices or other living, lop, the opportunity be presented, by the ecclesiastical or temporal, within Iresale of small properties, of forming a land, shall reside or dwell on the same." race of yeomen in Ireland, we would In the reign of Henry the Eighth, the have in such a body, a stedfast founda- estates of absentee proprietors were tion for social improvement, and a declared to be forfeited, and the prosure barrier against anarchy and revo. perties of the Duke of Norfolk and lution. There is no security for good other absentees were seized by the conduct like having something to lose. crown, and conferred on persons who “ Pay that boy something, that I may undertook to reside on them. In the be able to fine him," was the exclama- reign of James the First, all the protion of an irritated manager towards perties of
absentees were vested in the the elder Kean, when he was a super- crown. Taxes on absentees have fre. numerary at the theatre. The prin- quently been imposed, and at this mo. ciple applies universally.
ient the income tax of 7d. in the pound One great difficulty in writing on is imposed on absentee Irish fundhold. Irish affairs, or Irish interests, con- ers. There are but two difficulties in the sists in this, that the evils of Ireland, consideration--first, as to the measure social, moral, physical, and political, which would be most efficient; and seare so various and so complex, that condly, as to the class of persons who are no one article, or no one volume, can to be regarded as absentees, whether a ever embrace them all, much less il- person having an estate in Tipperary, lustrate the full extent of their perni- and residing in Tyrone, or one having
an estate in Kilkenny and residing in us hear what Sir Robert Kane says Shropshire, is to be considered as an upon this subject, we quote from an absentee; or whether the term should article by him, on the size of farms, in be limited to those persons who, with the “Agricultural and Industrial Jourout any claim of property in any other nal” for July :part of the kingdom, choose, for purposes of comfort or enjoyment, to live “ It is a very reasonable estimate to away from their properties. It is im- allow that five pounds per head will possible to deny that many absentee land them in the new world, and we will estates—as that of Lord Lansdowne, put the more remote colonies out of the Lord Devon, Lord Stanley, and many question : then what are they to do when others, are well managed ; and we
there? You must recollect that other cannot shut our eyes to the many and countries will not let you inundate them great advantages which are derived nience ; they must have some way of
with Irish paupers for your own conve. from the identification of interest with subsisting until they find work and can the various parts of the kingdom which provide for themselves ; that will take the possession of large estates in both
five pounds more; for you must not naturally gives rise to. Perhaps the drown them, or starve them, mode by which the evils of non-resi- let them die of fever bred in confined dence could best be obviated, and at ship-holds, under the name of emigrathe same time the advantages of a
tion. There is, therefore, required for common feeling between the proprie. ang emigration that is not an inhumanity
and a crime, ten pounds sterling per tors of English and Irish estates pre
head; and for the number which your served, would be by a measure au
large farm-system requires you to rethorizing, or obliging, if necessary, move* you must pay thirty-three millions the English proprietors to cut off sterling Practically impossible not only the entail of their Irish estates in from want of money, but from want of favour of their second or other son; ships also. One-tenth of that emigrabut such a measure would need great tion would double the price of passage. consideration, and it is altogether im
The thing simply becomes physically im. possible for us to discuss it now. We possible. will take an early opportunity of re
“Emigration is excellent for clearing suming the subject.
a particular locality. The promotion of And here we would have brought tralian matronhood is excellent and truly
wild Irish girls to the dignity of Austhis article to a close, except for an moral; the emigration of the pauper article which we lately observed in an children whose parents died during the eminent English journal—the Morning last two frightful years, is also a good Chronicle. That article, after forcibly and a wise step; but for removing the commenting on the miseries of the surplus population of Ireland, it is only country
miseries which, it stated, preserved from being a failure by the were now likely to be fearfully aggra
utter impossibility of its being even
tried.” vated by the prospect of another famine (which may God in his mercy avert, but to the likelihood of which
And, in confirmation of this view, we dare not shut our eyes)—went on
we have also the authority of Mr. Pim, to propose a comprehensive scheme of in his excellent book which we review.
ed in our last number :emigration, as a remedy for our evils :
-“ We can imagine,” the writer said, “ but one method of solving this fear
“But those who look to emigration as ful problem—namely, by, promoting a means of relieving the labour market the emigration of a sufficient number
of its surplus, must anticipate its being of the Irish labouring population, to
conducted on a very extensive scale, as enable the remainder to earn an honest
in this way alone can it effect any sen
sible diminution of the present pressure. livelihood at home."
It would require at least a million of Now, it is right that all men, both
persons to be sent away. How is it posEnglish and Irish, should know that sible to transport such a number at such emigration is impracticable. Let once ? or to provide them with the
* 3,300,000, as Sir R. Kane calculates. There were upwards of 3,000,000 persons employed on public works last summer.
means of subsistence, when they have ground can be properly cultivated, willit reached the port of debarkation? At not, in fact, afford the means of support the legal rate of three passengers for at home to this million of people, either every five tons, it would require more by direct employment, or by its indirect than three thousand vessels of five hun- effects ?” dred tons each. But suppose this difficulty over, and the whole number landed safely in Canada, how great! is the Emigration, then, cannot solve the responsibility which it entails on the problem, for it is impracticable. En. government, that this multitude of peo
couragement of the priests will but ple may be supported, and placed in
strengthen and embolden them in the some way of maintaining themselves by
exercise of their seditious influence. honest industry! It is evidently impracticable to act on so extensive a
Tenant-right, enforced by law, will scale. But suppose them to be removed
foster and keep alive a rankling, never. by degrees, say one-tenth, or 100,000
ending irritation between landlord and every year. Will such emigration have tenant, which must effectually bar the any perceptible effect? It has gene- development of all the mutually benerally been estimated that the population ficial influences of that relation. The increases at the rate of one and one-half evils of Ireland can only be remedied per cent. annually. If this estimate be by a steady discharge of their duties correct, the amount of annual increase in Ireland would be about 120,000, and,
by the proprietors of the soil. We therefore, the population would still go
believe that the measures which we on increasing in spite of this emigration.
have proposed would give to the “ The cost of such an emigration would country a proprietary who would be be enormous. The estimate for cost of in a position to discharge their duties, passage given in the • Digest of Evi. and would raise many a prostrate dence' above referred to, is £30 for estate, with its neglected cultivation each family, or £6 for each individual ; and its beggared tenantry, to the say, in all, £6,000,000, or £600,000 per rank and condition of those more annum. .. Would not the £16,000,000 or
favoured estates, whose fortune it is £20,000,000, which might be required to carry out an effective system of emigra
to be the property of an unencum
bered resident landlord. It is in the tion, prove much more useful if laid out at home? If facilities be afforded, by
full confidence that these measures which this amount may be expended in
would produce this result that we the various works which, in many parts most earnestly recommend their adopof Ireland, are requisite, before the tion.