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mal understanding, which takes cog- much more so in one which was nisance of all natural science, and must supposing the theory of disease to be be employed in all metaphysical rea- the true one-rather a question in soning, whether analytic or construc- medical science, or at most in psychotive, as it is of matter itself. What logy, than one having any practical Coleridge alleges as a quality of the bearing on morality or religion. Our “pure reason,” that it often presents Lord did not come to enlighten mana contradiction to the understanding, kind in matters of science. He left of which he gives this instance- untouched the false systems which he " BEFORE Abraham was, I AM"-
found prevailing in astronomy and the
other departments of knowledge conis really and truly a quality of spirit, nected with external nature-and the as was long ago maintained by the pe- same in what concerned man himself. netrating Jesuit, who gave a regular Neither in metaphysics, nor physiointellectual form to the obscure spi-logy, nor psychology, the border land ritual intuitions of Ignatius Loyola. which lies between the two, did he
Must we not suppose, then, that the vouchsafe any instructions to his fol. Apostles, partakers in the ideas of
lowers. Nay, of that world of spirits their times, were enlightened only to which lies beyond the grave, the sothe extent of the age in which they lemn reality, the sublime character, lived, and were partakers also in its the awful importance of which he enignorance and its errors ; and that this forced with such surpassing power, ignorance and these errors were re- and to prepare mankind for which was moved in those matters only which ap- the object of his whole mission-of his pertained to the work confided to death as well as of his life-of this spithem; that though made wise in all ritual world how much has he reveal. that was necessary to the success of ed? Of detail, absolutely nothing : a their sacred mission, and the salvation few pregnant hints and suggestive paof man-in all that concerned the rables-a few awful figures-a few transcendant character and wonderful burning words, admirably well adapted mission of their divine Master, and the to influence man's moral conduct, but glad message which he can to preach, not at all to satisfy his curiosity, or they shared, to the very last, in the enable his intellect to construct any popular notions, the narrow views, and systematic scheme. We observe our the prejudices of their countrymen on Lord even checks a natural but an illmany subjects? We find that, even timed curiosity on subjects which after the coming of the Holy Spirit seeined intimately connected with the on Pentecost, it required a vision from mission on which he was sending his heaven to correct Peter's narrow views Apostles, and a full revelation upoti of the extent of the Gospel dispensa- which would, it might a priori be suption, and induce him to preach Christ posed, have inspired them with addiunto the Gentiles.--Acts, x. 28–34. tional ardour, and contributed to their Nay, even after this, the Apostle Paul, success; and this because, in his fulas he himself relates (Gal. ii. 11-14), ness of knowledge, both of the course had to withstand him to his face at of future events, as marked down in Antioch,“ because he was to be blam. the divine counsels, and of the constied,” and “walked not uprightly ac- tution of the human mind, he foresaw cording to the truth of the Gospel,” that such knowledge was not good for but, for fear of the Jewish converts, them. “It is not for you to know the used
“ dissimulation” in departing times or the seasons which the Father from and declining to eat with the hath put [kept] in his own power."Gentile converts. Again, we find the Acts, i. 7. We can now appreciate Apostle Jude quoting a passage from the profound wisdom of this reserve. the book of Enoch (Jude, 14), a trans- Had the Apostles been informed that lation of which is now before the more than eighteen centuries must world; and the apocryphal, and even elapse before the Lord should come absurd character of which, is admitted again to restore the kingdom of Israel, by all scholars. And, if they were and crown his faithful followers, what permitted to continue thus long ig- effect would such information have had norant, in matters which appear, at upon their burning faith? Where least in some measure, connected would have been the ardour which led with the work of their mission, how them and their successors to pour out
their blood with joy for the hope that But if, in lieu of thus permitting was set before them? Man ever stands them to learn and hold essential truths, in need of things that are near, as in a form suited to their degree of culpowerful motives to influence him. ture, our Lord had taught his disciples, Remoteness, whether of time, or place, imbued as they were with the notions or causality, like the actual effect of of their age and nation, that the despace upon attraction, weakens, and clarations of the possessed regarding ultimately annihilates, the motive in- their own demoniacal character, were Auence of all things upon him. And the results of previous associations ; so it must be pre-eminently in the that the appearances supposed to arise effect of man's impressions of the rela. from the actual indwelling of one or tion which exists between the invisible more individual devils, were the efand the visible. His impressions can- fects of general laws operating upon not, indeed, change the nature of that an organisation subjected through sin, relation, or affect its reality ; nor can and the consequent dominion of the the specific nature of that relation it. evil one, to derangement, pain, and self, whether it be direct or indirect, final decay; and were only a portion immediate or mediate, with but one of the bitter inheritance of fallen huor with a thousand intervening stages manity, proceeding from Satan, in the of causality, or instrumental agency, same manner as death proceeds from between the first term of the series him, through a causality too mysteand the last, the invisible moral cause rious, too universal, and too remote and the visible physical effect, render from man's apprehension, for them to it one jot less true, less solemn, less understand, and requiring an equally terrible in its results to man. But universal and mysterious, and, to them, man's impressions of the greater or incomprehensible power, to arrest its lesser length of this series of interven- devastations, and restore its ruins ;ing causalities and agencies, must ma- if, in his cures, he had acted in acterially affect the influence which this cordance with the information thus relation shall have upon his own con- given, and, omitting all condescension duct as a motive of action. For, con- to their prejudices, or to the illusions stituted as he is to be vividly affected of the diseased, proceeded to unfold only by that which is near to look the occult page of knowledge, which upon the remote, indeed, almost with connects moral with physical evil, to as much indifference as though it had illumine the lines of transition from no existence—he may come to regard sin to disease, and explain the mediate a causality, which, though most in- agencies through which the Sinless tensely real, has to pass through many One could cause the blind to see, the intervening links, the necessary con- lame to walk, the dead to arise, and nexion between which he cannot dis- the lunatic and epileptic to sit clothed cern or appreciate, as vague, and inde- in their right mind; — if, moreover, finite, doubtful in its operation, and he had informed his disciples that the undeserving of his regard.
knowledge manifested by these parties Now, the influence of Satan, and of his person and dignity—when not consequently of sin in man's miseries derived from public rumour - proa great and important truth-was clear ceeded not, as they supposed, from an enough to the eyes of the disciples, when indwelling foreign spirit, but from manifested in the form of one or more that awakening of a higher spiritual of his subject devils entering into and insight within dual man himself, which torturing the bodies of their fellow- is often the result of a weakening or men, and perverting their reason. derangement of the bodily life, wheThe evidence of Christ's divine mis- ther through fasting, contemplation, sion - another great and important disease, or the near approach of truth-was clear and convincing, when death, and is a special concomitant of binding the strong man, as it were, peculiar abnormal and reversed conbefore their eyes, he cast out the af- ditions of being ; and that utterances ficting daimons by his mere word. made in such a state of awakened The testimony to his personal divinity spiritual vision, which may have a cerwas powerful and immediate, when tain irresistible force upon it, to recogthe departing spirits cried out, and nsie the divine beauty of holiness confessed, through the mouths of the when placed in its presence, constitute possessed, that he was the Son of God. as powerful testimonies to the truth
as the imagined cries of devils, whose some instances, deafness, recur for tendency must ever be rather to de- a short period at the new or full ceive man, and to deny their Lord. moon, or the springs, and then pass Had such been our Lord's proceeding away. (upon the hypothesis of this being the We can understand clearly enough, true view of the subject), what would therefore, this dependence of physical have been its effect upon the disciples disease upon a physical cause like luand the Jewish people? Could they nar influence, found by observation to have comprehended—would they have be thus powerful; but it is difficult to believed-would they have glorified imagine how the entrance of a wicked their Master, as in their own simple spirit into the body of a man, should view they were enabled to do? This be at all dependent on the age of the question, we think, must be answered
Indeed this case alone, where in the negative; and if so, it would an affection expressly declared to de afford a full explanation of the eco- pend on lunar influence, and the re. nomy observed by our Lord in the in
currence of which is stated to have struction of his followers, whose moral been habitual, from childhood upwards, perceptions he came to purify, and is at the same time called a daimon whose faith and courage he raised to and a spirit, is sufficient to make us the most heroic elevation ; but whom pause and reflect before we determine he found and left in ignorance on all too literally the true significance of matters of mere science, or curious these popular terms, as employed in and unprofitable inquiry; and many the Gospels, more especially when we of whose prejudices and weaknesses, find a parallel phraseology existing at even in religious questions, he left to the present day in the East, among : be gradually dispelled by the indirect people at nearly the same stage of and remote, but ultimately unfailing, civilization as the Jews of Herod's operation of the great principles which day, regarding similar physical affeche laid down for their guidance. tions. And hence it is that we have
The language of Scripture itself deemed it requisite to throw out the necessarily suggests these questions to foregoing suggestions, for the purpose a reflective mind; for the absolute of showing the profound wisdom and identity of some of these possessions harmony of our Lord's conduct in rewith lunacy and long-standing disease, gard to these daimoniacs, on the ground recurring in periodical paroxysms, is of a purely physical theory. For it is there set forth in express words. In of this very lunatic, this sufferer from Matthew, xvii. 15, we have a certain the moon's physical influences, that we man addressing the Lord thus: read_" And Jesus rebuked the devil “ Lord have mercy on my son, for he (daimon), and he departed out of hin, is A LUNATIC, and sore vexed : for oft- and the child was cured from that times he falleth into the fire, and oft hour.” In Mark, ix, 17, which, from into the water."
a comparison of the context, evidently The phrase, he is a lunatic, is express- refers to the same case, the father de ed in the original by a single verb, scribes his son thus-"Master, I have osanuksta, literally, he is moon-affected, brought unto thee my son, which hath or he labours under a disease depending a dumb spirit : and wheresoever be on the moon, i.e., recurring, or aggra- taketh him, he teareth him, and he vated, at the lunar periods. We know foameth and gnasheth with his teeth, that this is actually the case with mad- and pineth away.”
In the 20th ness; hence the very name lunacy; and, verse it is said "Straightway the at least in tropical countries, with many spirit tare him, and he fell on the other types of cerebral and nervous dis- ground, and wallowed foaming." The ease. The intermittent fever of India, two next verses are remarkable, as as most of our Oriental readers know
indicating the long duration of the to their cost, always recurs, or is very visitation, and the symptoms of the much aggravated, at the springs; and paroxysm-"And he asked his father, so powerful is lunar influence in those How long is it ago since this came unto latitudes, that long after the fever it- him ? And he said, OF A CHILD. And self has been cured, some of its accom. ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire and panying symptoms, such as a nervous into the water, to destroy him." This tremor, pains in the head, side, is the case which Hammond alleges to feet, weakness of vision, and even, in contain a description of epilepsy, and
which Newcome also pronounces that Thy faith hath made thee whole." of an epileptic at the lunar pe- In Matt. ix. 28, before curing the riods.
blind men, he asks them, “ Believe ye With regard to the declaration of that I am able to do this?" In the our Lord, in reference to this same same way, we read, in Acts, xiv. 9, of lunatic, that “ This kind goeth not St. Paul, when curing the cripple at out but by prayer and fasting,” it Lystra, that “steadfastly beholding must be connected with what precedes him, and perceiving that he had faith it. When the disciples inquired, to be healed," he then " said, with a "Why could we not cast him out ?" loud voice, Stand upright on thy feet. Jesus said to them, “Because of your And he leaped and walked.” Our unbelief." It was, therefore, not from Lord, indeed, goes so far as to say, in any effect the fasting and prayer had Mark, ix. 23, addressing the father of immediately on the daimon itself, that the lunatic child,
“ All things are they were required to resort to them, possible to him that believeth.” And, but to increase that faith which was on the other hand, so fatal is this necessary in themselves, in order to want of faith, in the party to be beneperform the cure. The whole of the fited by the conquest of material evil, Bible shows us that, whenever any and all cure of disease is such, that we work was to be performed, in which read, in Mark, vi. 5, 6, our Lord himthe spiritual required to be more than self “could there do no mighty work." usually awakened and exalted in man, “And he marvelled because of their and on which the blessing of heaven, unbelief." In like manner, it would the union of the divine with the human appear from our Lord's own words, will, was more especially sought, then that had not Martha believed, Lazarus prayer and fasting were the means re- had not been raised from the dead sorted to, in order to deaden the “Said I not unto thee, that if thou bodily life, to quicken the spiritual, wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the and to obtain that benediction, which glory of God ?"—John, xi. 40. And, sanctified and accomplished the pur- if any one should doubt this power of pose of man by making it that of faith over matter to be a literal truth, God. The direction of our Lord, and ask, how is it possible for the therefore, would only be an applica- moral condition of one man's mind, to tion to this case of two principles, exert a command over physical disease which we find everywhere maintained in another? [supposing these daimoniac in Scripture, especially in the New cases to be purely physical]—we Testament-viz., the omnipotence of would reply by asking, how could the faith over nature and matter; and moral condition of Peter's mind exert the necessity of crucifying the flesh; a command over the waves, and reof bating our own life, and of main- verse the laws of gravitation so long taining an incessant communion, by as faith prevailed; but the moment prayer, with the source of a higher this gave way to fear, then how belife, in order to raise our wills to a came he again the slave of matter, union with the divine will, and thus so that he began to sink, and cried to awaken within us that spiritual out, “Lord, save me, or I perish," power which triumphs over the mate. meriting that reproach of his Lord, rial; that wonderful faith, which St. “O thou of little faith, wherefore didst John calls “the victory that over- thou doubt?"-Matt. xiv. 31. cometh the world,” and of which our There we pause for the present. Lord emphatically declares, that it The field of thought and language can move mountains, and transplant which we have to investigate is a wide trees into the sea. Faith, indeed, not one, and may not be lightly hurried only in him who works, but in those over: and the special limits to which who benefit by the miracle, appears the requirements of periodical publieverywhere absolutely necessary to cation confine us, will only allow us to this victory over matter. In Matt. ix. accomplish a portion of the survey. 22, our Lord tells the woman who Its completion must be reserved for touched the hem of his garment, another number.
VOL. XXXII.NO. CLXXXIX.
HAROLD, THE LAST OF THE SAXON KINGS. *
It is a real pleasure in these days, of the old novel. But genius will alwhen the shelves of the circulating ways, as long as the world lasts, have libraries are crowded with hot-pressed power to sway the minds of men ; and volumes scarcely worth their binding it is impossible for even the most un- when book-making has become a enlightened and superficial of readers, trade in which every tyro dabbles- to peruse the pages of any one of Sir when pens and printers are working Bulwer Lytton's productions, without away, like the very devil, for no other being attracted by an irresistible charm ostensible purpose than that of pro- -the charm of pure and classic beauty ducing what, after a few weeks of -of deep and romantic interest-with ephemeral existence, speedily passes which he manages to invest the driest into obliviong-it is pleasant, and very details of history, or the most ordirefreshing to our jaded nerves and nary incidents of life, and which he weary eyes, to hail the work of a man
weaves, like a golden tissue, into his of genius ; to linger over the bright web of fiction. Who is there that and beautiful images which his pen has hung over the dazzling eloquence can call into existence; to revel in the and deep pathos of “Rienzi" — who brilliant fancies, rich with poetie co- is there that has wept over the es. louring, and in the splendour with quisite tenderness of " Night and which he has contrived to invest the Morning," or the mournful beauty of ancient records of the dim and dreamy “ Zanoni”—who that has lingered over past, to secure to ourselves a tempo. the pages of “ Pelham," where the rary oblivion of the dull incidents and deeper pathos of tragedy is gracefully weary transactions of the unpoetic mingled with the most playful humour present.
--and not felt the breathing, the inde. We have not lived in this world scribable charm, with which this great long enough to remember the sen. artist invests whatever subject he sation which the announcement of a touches ? Like the orator of whom our new poem by Lord Byron, or a new own sweet poet has written :novel by the author of Waverley, used to produce ; but it has been described " He rules, like a wizard, the world of the heart, to us by those who have. We, how. To call up its sunshine, or draw down its showers." ever, do remember—for it is not very long since—the state of pleasant ex- In laying the scene of a story so far citement into which this capital was back in the ages of antiquity, every au. plunged, when it became known to the thor has many and formidable difficulreading public that the arrival of a new ties to contend with; even the know. historical novel by the author of " The ledge and learning of antiquaries can Last of the Barons" was daily expect bring very little to bear upon times 50 ed. We were glad of it; not that we remote. The memorials which are left bad any reason to fear that an old in the ancient chronicles and old lepopular favourite was likely to be dis- gends, are so very vague and unsatisplaced, but we were not without factory, that we have about as clear some degree of apprehension that the and accurate an idea of what our own taste of the age had become so vitiated ancestors did and said, of their social by feeding upon those quaint conceits, and domestic life, eight centuries ago, with which the dishes served up for as we have at this moment of the preits intellectual entertainment are now cise nature of the conversation which so highly seasoned, as to have had its is going on in the moon.
We have, relish impaired for the deeper interest, it is true, a few records of their the more healthy and invigorating tone chivalry, their feudal system, their
* “ Harold, the last of the Saxon Kings." By the Author of "Rienzi," " The last of the Barons," &c. London: R. Bentley. 1848.