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spectator-frowned - swallowed the things now. We must send for asmixture himself, and walked back com- sistance." posedly to bed.
He ran to the bell, which he rang It was only then a suspicion that the loud and long. It was answered by a bottle's contents might have been poi- policeman. 800 roused the spectator from his deep “Let some one ride, for life and trance of indecision : he rushed from death, to the town, and bring Dr. his bed, grasped the sleeping man's Martin." shoulder, and shook it with a force He rapidly wrote with a pencil some that soon roused him ; and, as soon as few lines on a leaf that he tore from Wharton bad raised himself collected his pocket-book, then handed it to ly on his elbow, and asked why he was the policeman, who immediately withdisturbed, the curate pointed in silence drew. to the open cupboard or crypt; but “ Now sit down ; let me speak to no sooner had the other seen it, than, you, and lose no time," said the dying with a spring like a tiger's, he bound- man. " There was enough of arsenic ed from his bed, seized the curate by in that cup to poison a dozen people, so the throat-and it was well no instru. I need hardly tell you any assistance ment of death offered itself to his hand, must be quite in vain ; and I am glad for there was murder in his rolling of it--I'll disappoint them all. If I
lived now, it would only be to die a "Villanous spy!" he shouted, or felon's death at their next assizes ; for rather howled_“ villain, with an an with that open door, they would bring gel's tongue and a fiend's cunning-is home the murder to me; and I did this your pretended kindness? Oh! murder him. But sit down, and listen that I had something near me sharp to me." enough to send you to the God or His tale was to the following effect, devil, that has put my secret in your though not exactly in the same words; power !"
for Mr. Hamilton said his sentences And he flung the young man from fell short and abrupt, as though he him, clasped his hands on his own hurried to an end; besides which, forehead, and threw himself madly on they were frequently broken in upon the bed. His companion soon reco. by fits of faintness and apparent forvered from the effects of his violence. getfulness, which showed how the poi
"Mr. Wharton," he said, firmly, son's working was rapidly triumphing " the opening of that place has been over the strongholds of life :your own sleeping act; and, more than 6 My brother and I were our fathat, you have swallowed the contents ther's only children, and I was the of a bottle that was in it ; you know younger. The best education that better than I what those contents money could purchase was offered to Were."
us, but I only availed myself of it ; Wharton slowly turned his face for my brother was soon told that the round to the speaker, and in a very heir of a large fortune had no need of few moments the traces of demoniac book-learning to help him in spending fary seemed to have merged into pal. bis money. He believed this ; he grew lor and prostration.
up a narrow-minded man, full of men"Is that so ?” he said. “ But it is tal prejudice and bodily hypochondri. -it is; my heart is sinking, and tells acism. My father died, and his strictly me you have spoken the truth. That entailed property came to my brother, is indeed strange. But you may edge upon whom I found myself dependent the moral of a sermon with this night's for a provision in the world. This scene. I shall not hear it, however. should not have been, but all my faIt is one comfort that I swallowed it ther's disposable money had been lost all, though. Better have all over in on race-courses, and there was noa few hours, than to lie here a day or thing except the land, an acre of which two, or three, be gazed at by stupid I could not call mine. But my broclowns, with a coroner's order to stare ther's penurious habits soon enabled at me. I offered you some rudeness; him to pay off whatever incumbrances I hope you forgive me.”
were on the property, and to swell his "I do, I do," said the curate, rent-roll hy new purchases. I told eagerly; "but we must talk of other him of my wish to take up some professional career, and asked him for the it; better that she died then than have necessary supply of money, to enable lived to hear that the man she loved me to do so; but I believe my com- went out of the world like a poisoned pany had become useful to him, for he hound, with the guilt of detected and raised objections to every plan I had bungling murder on his head. Enough formed. In terms of soothing mystery of her-she is at peace. he spoke to me of the success he would " But my brother took what he insure me in good time; of his own deemed was a more exquisite revenge determination never to marry, and of on me. He married the daughter of his gradually decaying health. So, an humble farmer. I cared little for like a fool, I remained ; a sort of male that. I met him by chance, and I saw nurse to his bodily ailments, and a his miserable soul quail before me, David to charm away the gloom of and he was glad to give me a large his mental evil spirit.
sum of money to get rid of me. To “ There was a lady, daughter of me it was only useful at that time, to one who lived not far from my bro. carry me away from the place, and, if ther's demesne. She was young and possible, from thought too. I left the beautiful. I was intimate at the house, country, and went abroad. I mingled and, to a mind like mine, nothing deeply in every scene of peril, excite. could be more grateful than the com ment, and fiery pleasure that I could panionship of a strong passion. In meet. Oh! that I had grasped the fine, I loved her, and she returned my soldier's honest sword, and died on love with all the strength of a first feel some hard-fought breach, like a man ing in a warm, young heart. Her fa. of honour, rather than have lived to mily made no objection to my address. perish thus ; praying for the poisoned es, except from my want of means; death of a demi-suicide, to save me and I was driven to my brother to sue, from the gallows. like a beggar, for what I always “Shortly after hearing of her death. thought should have been my right. I was told by a chance companion in I told him my object and my reason Paris, that my brother's wife had died for this fresh and urgent appeal. He some years before, in giving birth to laughed at me, and sneeringly desired a son, who was alive, but an orphan; me to drive the foolish fancy out of for his father too was no more, having, my head. He went farther-he threat they told me, shortened his life by the ened me; farther still--for mistaking medicines he used so plentifully to my calmness for cowardice, he struck prolong it. It was not long until I me. It was only once, however ; for returned to Ireland, and presented myI smote him to my feet, and trampled self to my brother's executors. I on him again and again. I then quit worked all the depths and windings of ted the place, and took up my abode hypocrisy to gain their good opinion, in the house of a distant tenant. I in which I succeeded, and was apbrooded in silence over my wrongs pointed my nephew's guardian. He and my prospects; and thence I can always feared and hated me: had it trace one of the sullen springs thatbeen otherwise, perhaps I might have swelled the dark stream which has proved as firm a friend as I have done carried me on to murder. I returned, a fatal enemy. But it was not fated and visited the house of the woman I to be so. I resolved on his murder. loved, but found it empty, nor was I I studied the action and quality of long in ascertaining the cause. A poison. I dosed him with small quancase of aggravated seduction had oc- ties of arsenic, to break down his concurred in the neighbourhood, and mystitution, and I succeeded. I invented brother, with the assistance of one or the heart disease, too-a part of which two others, whom his money had plan was the forged letter you may rebought, trumped up a well-spun tale member I showed you. I took him of which I was the hero, and had it from place to place, and resolved that a forwarded to the family of my love. sudden death should end his imaginary They departed, I could not discover disorder. This house offered: its hauntwhither; until about five years ago, ed reputation - its neighbourhood I heard that she died abroad, and un- gradually thinning-all was in its famarried, in the prime of her days, hervour. There was thespa-water, too, and affection still my own. I am glad of I might enjoy the credit of consulting the boy's health, while I was only using the zealous pastor, who told the dying it as the vehicle for my deadly agent man of the criminal on the cross, and I intended to have turned your inti. of the Almghty's power-strong even macy to profitable account; but no in the case which seems most hopeless. more of that. How often have I en. But his words fell apparently unheedcouraged the boy in his lonely walks ed, because the fainting-fits were bebeside the deep river in the glen, coming more frequent and prolonged; hoping that a tortured frame and in addition to which convulsive twitchbroken health might have driven hini ings of limb and face proved the deadly to suicide, and thus have saved me working of the strong poison. The from that deed which I longed to do, surgeon soon arrived, and used the but dreaded ; however, in that hope means in his power with skill and enerI was disappointed. Then, towards gy on an object now almost passive, the end, I feared to use arsenic, for I for he made no opposition to the emknew its symptoms, and how easily it ployment of any remedy. The sympwas detected, so I changed my hand to toms went on, unchecked by art—the another poison; and, in fine, I dealt heavy dead-sleep settled down on him, the last blow with prussic acid, that after the convulsions had spent their was open to little objection. Had I suc- force and frequency; and, without a ceeded, and had I lived, I should have groan, without a murmur, the man been master of a large fortune, and I died, five or six hours after he had, in would not have trembled, at least I a manner so unconsciously retributive, think not, before the fancied spectres swallowed the fatal drug which he had that are said always to dog the foot- used to break down the life of a relasteps of murderers who escape the jus. tive and fellow-creature. They buried tice of the law. Enough-you have the bodies of uncle and nephew in the my confession; say no more to me same churchyard, though not in the now. Do not mock me with the jar one grave--and since that time decay gon of repentance; as if the few has been the portion of that house of trembling words of a cowardly death. crime and misfortune; nor is it likely bed could wipe off the black sins of a to be otherwise, until utter ruin shall whole life. Speak no more to me." have levelled every stone, and crushed
It is hardly necessary to say, that all traces of its dreaded walls. this injunction was not regarded by They were its last tenants.
“WHAT HAS RELIGION TO DO WITH POLITICS ?"*
How far is the politician, who pro- existing among the individuals composfesses to be a Christian, to be guided ing the great community of mankind. by Christian principles in the dis- " The meaning here attached to the charge of his public duty? Is an ex. term of native personal inequality has pediency admissible by which such
found its explanation in the remarks al. principles are compromised ? Is it
ready made on the formation of national lawful to seek the attainment of the
character. That such inequality must ends of human government, without
result from the infinite variety discern
ible in the degrees of the physical, mostrictly respecting the laws and the
laws and the ral, and intellectual qualities with which maxims which belong to the divine? every human being is endowed by the
These are questions which forcibly Creator at the moment of his birth, is press themselves upon the attention of self-evident, and we affix to it the epithe British legislator, now that the thet native and personal, to distinguish spirit of innovation is abroad, and that it from the inequality of conditions and restless agitators are busied upon pro
classes superinduced by social institujects by which the foundations of our
tions, and by the thousand accidents ancient monarchy may be subverted.
and chances which are variously ascribTo afford a solution of them, is the
ed to fortune, fatality, or Proridence, object of the little work before us--a
according to the creed of each specula
tor on such topics." duodecimo of 143 pages, within which are discussed and unfolded the principles which lead to the establishment
To this great fact of natural inequaof regular government, and which
lity, he traces the possibility and the should never be lost sight of by the le
necessity of government. It may, he gislator or the politician, when it be
says, comes their duty to consider how any
“Be assumed, as an elementary truth, particular form of constituted rule
that no government could have ever may best be ordered or modified, so
been established at all, unless, in the as to produce the greatest amount of
original constitution of human nature, security, happiness, and improvement,
some provision had been made for what in any given state or nation.
may be almost called the instinctive acThe following elementary remarks quiescence of the many in the guidance will afford our readers some notion of of the few." the clearness and caution with which Mr. Morier proceeds to lay a founda
" The necessity of government is the tion for his reasonings upon this im result of the same fact of natural inportant subject :
equality which occupied your attention
in the last letter: for is it not equally “We begin, then, by asserting, that manifest that were it not for the existas the first links of society are formed ence of such inequality among men, one of the domestic ties which bind the mem of the principal motives which first inbers of the same family one with an duced them to congregate in towns, and other, and family with family, so the to submit to the restraints of civil gofirst beginning of the moral influence vernment, and so also one of the most which any governmeut has ever pos important elements of civilization, would sessed over its subjects, must originally never have existed-namely, the want have taken its rise in the same natural and desire of protection against the infact, or rather fundamental, invariablevasion of those whose natural predomilaw of our social nature, which serves nance must always give them the power, as the basis of the natural domestic af- if unrestrained by the force of an acfections, and of the family relations re- knowledged common rule upheld by sulting therefrom-namely, the fact of sufficient authority, to injure and opa native personal inequality or difference, press the rest."
* " What has Religion to do with Politics? The question considered in letters to his son." By David R. Morier. London: J. W. Parker, West-Strand. 1846.
writings, exercise no small influence on public affairs.
We would add, that a perception of this necessity, as a deduction of the reason, from the fact of the observed inequality, must precede any measures for the correction of those abuses, to which, in a state of nature, such inequality must give rise; and that society is the result of a conviction that, by combination under some regular system, the personal security of individuals could alone be guaranteed against the force or the fraud by which they might otherwise be made subservient to individual caprice or convenience.
But the very constitution of society itself engenders another species of inequality, which, for distinction's sake, our author terms “social,” and “which is as necessary to the continuance and stability of government, as the first or native species has been proved necessary to render its first institution possible at all.” High and low, rich and poor, are denominations expressive of this species of inequality, which is, Mr. Morier contends, in the first in stance, “quite independent of, and, in fact, precedes all possible conventional distinctions ; for it is found in every state of society, and under every form of government; and it is as natural_that is, as inherent — in the constitution of all society, as the ine quality, emphatically called natural or personal, is inherent in the human race." Is it not, in fact, a result of the natural inequality, which remains after men have been combined under any settled rule, and with which government only so far interferes as to prevent or counteract its abuses ?
Such, undoubtedly, is the case; and it is no less true, that government itself creates such inequality, whenever the good of the governed is made subordinate to the power or the privi. leges of those who govern ; and this, which our author terms conventional, may be called a vicious or an artificial inequality, because it is not necessari. ly inherent either in the constitution of society, or the nature of man; and as it could not exist if society were well constituted, so it is a proper subject for remedial legislation.
To a neglect of these considerations Mr. Morier traces much of the unsoundness which, at the present day, may be said to characterise the theories of many active and able politi. cians, who, by their speeches or their
“Let the test be applied to the two extreme opinions which now so fearfully divide society in respect to the legitimate source of government, of which one asserts the absolute monarchical principle, the other the sovereignty of the people, each in terms equally ab. stract and uncompromising; and the unsoundness of both will be found to consist essentially in their defective apprehension or neglect of one or other of those two laws respectively. And this their defective apprehension or neglect will be traced to'a selfish regard for the exclusive interests which are involved in the maintenance of either opinion. Thus, the advocates of the monarchical principle, intent only on providing against the invasion of the sovereign's prerogative by the subject, would fain render permanently insurmountable the barriers which separate the various classes of society from each other, and all from the sovereign; heedless that this cannot be done but by laying a fatal constraint on the natural tendency of the human soul, to exert its faculties in an upward and enlarged progression. Misguided by this narrow, because selfish view, they exaggerate the conventional derivation of the law of natural inequality, and resist that of progressive improvement, which was providentially intended to counteract its abuse. On the other hand, the partisans of the doctrine of the absolute sovereignty of the multitude, in their anxiety to secure the liberties of all against the encroachments of the governing power, deny al. together in theory the palpable fact of personal and social inequality. They exaggerate the rights of the mass, in contempt of those of individuals, efface all notions of duty, unless it be that of submitting to the so-called popular will; and while they assert the indefinite pro. gress of the human mind to a state of perfectibility, which they lay claim to as a positive right (as if its attainment were dependent on merely human regulations), they would effectually put a stop to the possibility of all progress, by forbidding the elevation of any one individual above the common level, in order, at all hazards, to preserve intact their favourite principle of equality, quite forgetting that it can be enforced under no system but that of a pure despotism, such as is met with only in combination with the absolute rule of a sultan or a mob."
The popular distinction between " liberty” and “power," Mr. Morier