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and skill of England, at present at least, bid defiance to the no excises of Ireland. If Ireland cannot meet English manufactures in her own markets, notwithstanding her advantages at home, how can she meet England to any great extent at foreign markets, without those advantages. New fabrics require new capitals, new establishments, and new exertions.
of woollen yarn,
year of the greatest export of woollens from Ireland, viz. 1783, we find, the quantity of wool, woollen, and worsted yarn exported, greatly decreased, and that the whole quantity of wool exported,
2063 stones, rolbs. and the whole quantity
and until Ireland becomes a country of thepherds, and prefers sheep-walks to tillage, and depopulation to population, she cannot import much less. She has grown rich, and more populous; her demand for woollens has increased, and is likely to increase much more : Great Britain, therefore, has little to apprehend; but the consumer in Ireland must pay whatever additional
expence is thrown on woollens imported; he must pay the extraordinary expence of sinuggling, or whatever duty may be laid.
Equal duties must be low; if high, they would be protecting or prohibitory duties against England. It is obvious, that whatever they are, they must fall on the consumer in Ireland, who must have these articles in
As to the system of no duties in either country, if that should be proposed; Ireland will dread the extinction of some of her present manufactures of woollen. She will recollect the effect of the Methuen treaty with Portugal, by which British woollens were introduced, and the Portuguese manu
factures of wool, which had been established above twenty years before, were crushed; for although that treaty, on the face of it, appears simple, and the principles of it not reciprocal", its object was as now stated; it was understood fo at the time, and it succeeded. The conduct, however, of Portugal was not impolitic. It was not possible for her to carry her woollen manufacture to any great extent, or nearly to supply her people and colonies. She got a great advantage, as to her wines, by the treaty ; and her people were supplied cheaper with the necessary article, woollens.
Ireland, perhaps had better be content to remain as she is : her duties on her imports, which are 5 per cent. on the custom rate, and 5 per cent, more on the rate for import excise, give advantage to her own manufactures. Her import duties consist of cuftoms payable like the British, and also of an
British woollens were not to be admitted on better ternis than those of other countries, although the wines of Portugal were to pay in England lower duties than any other wices.
excise, called import excise, which is bon. dable until the goods are taken out for consumption, when it is to be paid, and has therefore got the name of excise. Draperies, however, from Britain, do not pay the import excise, only the custom.
The manufactures of wool certainly have increased, and are increasing; under their present circumstances; and a sufficient quantity is manufactured,to Thew that extraordinary measures are not necessary. The clamouron this subject has been nearly confined to Dublin, the most improper place for the manufaclure, and where it is much to be wished it may not flourish; where a disposition has appeared rather to riot and insult the Legislature, than to cultivate, with in, dustry, the benefits of an enlarged and free
The seat of expence and licens tiousness is not a fit place for the principal branch of the woollen manufacture, or for any other, except flight fabrics, which depend upon changable fashion, and must be under the eye of the shopkeeper.
A good deal has been already said, relarive to woollens, which applies to the general requisition from Ireland, that the manufactures of both countries shall be liable to equal duties, on import into each other. The British duties, when compared with the Irish, will not, by any means, give toanindifferent person the impression of fairness and equality, or even of utility; they have, however, in truth, little or no effect, except to cause uneasiness, to irritate, and seemingly to justify the idea of protecting duties. Whilft fimilar British commodities command the markets of Ireland, from their superior quality and cheapness, though charged with the Irish duties, what chance of sale have the same articles of Irish manufacture at British markets, even without a duty? An alteration, therefore, would benefit Ireland, or prejudice Britain, much less than is imagined. This argument, perhaps, it will be said, may answer for the year 1785.
may not apply to the probable future state of manufactures in Ireland, in 1800 that the progress of manufactures in the two countries, one of which pays taxes, to the amount of fourteen millions, and the other