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manufactures of that kingdom, and for repealing the bounties on flax feed imported; and for encouraging the growth thereof in that kingdom. For so long as the kingdoms are distinct and separate, fave by a parliamentary dependence of one crown upon another, we may reasonably conclude that Britain will always be awake to her own interests, and in obedience to these interests, will turn the balance of Irish trade, by either withdrawing her bounties on Irish articles, or diminishing the duties on the same articles from foreign nations. Thus she can always say to the tide of Irish commerce, under the present connection, “ so far fhalt thou go:"—but under an Union, the can never say—“ no further.Her own interests, as well as the terms of the compact, will bar the sentiment. Whereas, under the existing connexion, what was the opinion of Mr. Foster, p. 108. « The Honourable Gentleman,” says he, alluding to Mr. Flood) complains of the report of the English Privy Council, who say that to put Ireland and England on a footing of exact reciprocity as to linens, Ireland ought to give a bounty on the exportation of English linens, because England gives a bounty on the exportation of Irish linens.-CAN ANY THING BE MORE JUST?" Such was the sentence of Mr. Fofter. .“ Yet, (adds he) England makes no such demand, but is ready by this adjustment,” which is precisely applicable to this present measure-" to give additional security to our LINEN TRADE FOR EVER.”

Now, in order to ascertain what is the power of Great Britain at present, over the linen trade of Ireland, we must also mark what is the infuence of her Bounties on that trade; and thus we shall clearly see how to calculate ; first, what must be the effects of the final adjustment of an Union, whereby probably all foreign competition in import, and consequently export with Irish linen, would be prohibited; and next, what must be the effect of success without an Union, when commercial contests must ensue, and “ the


wat * of bounties, wherein Ireland cannot cope with Britain ?"

Effets of an Union on the Linen Trade.

The effects of an Union, in counterading foreign com: petition against Irich trade, may be viewed through the effects of those Bounties, which have already operated on that competition.

The first Bounties on Irith linen exported from Great Britain, took place in 1743, and the export under the bounty was, In the year 1743,

40,907 yards; 1753

1,039,967 1763,

2,588,564 1773)


This increase through bounties has been also aided by duties on the import of foreign Linens, but these duties have certainly operated to the prejudice of the woollen manufa&ures of Great Britain; as foreign powers consequently laid on them reciprocal duties and restrictions. The effect however of those bounties on Irish linens, and of accumulated duties on foreign linens, swelled the import of the former considerably. For

In 1743 there were imported 6,418,375 yards ;

Increase 11,458,242 yards.

That this increase arose from the operation of bounties and duties, will appear obviously from the decrease in the import and export of foreign linens, compared at the same periods. * Mr. Felter's speech.


In 17+3)

Foreign linens imported into London and the outports were,

15,584,504 ells; 1773)


Decrease 9,629,834 Foreign linens exported from London, and the outports were,

9,894,837 ells; 17732 4,385,276

Decrease 5,509,561 But there is now a second period whereby we may afcertain the effects of British connexion and commerce, as we did, in the foregoing period of British bounties and duties, in fan vour of the Irish linen trade.

The Irish linens exported from Great Britain entitled to bounty, were,

In 1743

In 1743,

1773, - 1789,

1792, 1795,

40,907 yards; 2,832,246 -3,587,848 5,598,446 7,482,147

Here then is an increase of exports on Irish linens, from 40 thousand yards, to nearly seven million and a half in 1795.

The imports of Irish linen as we have seen were in 1743, above four millions of yards--in 1773 above 17 millions; but,

30,044,960 yards; -1791,

36,232,888 1794,

38,018,102 · 1797,

39,869,965*-Ireland supplies other countries with about four millions of yards or one-tenth; the other nine depend on British commerce.


In 1789,


( 18 )

That this astonishing increase, from FOUR millions to nearly FORTY, has been the effect of the extended * commerce of Great Britain will obviously appear, since the foreign linens have not decreafed during the second period 1789, as they did during the first from 1743, as has been juft ftated.

The value of foreign linens imported, f.
In 1789,

- 1796,



Thus we see that they increased, which is in itself a proof of the effects of the increased commerce of Great Britain; but on the whole, it may be said that they have preserved their level in the imports. As to the exports, their value was,

& In 1786,

122,731 - 1796,

132,822 Here we behold the same effects from the same causes, and the same arguments are applicable.

The Irilla linens have an advantage over the foreign, to the amount of 25 l. per cent. And to this system of bounty and duty, they first owed their increase; and to the unparalleled extension of British commerce, they now owe their extraordinary augmentation.

The linens imported from Ireland, on an average of the three years preceding January 1798, amounted to 2,600,4211

Whereas the value of foreign linens imported during the fame period, amounted to but 414,719 1.

Of these also there were exported to the amount of 119,2631.

Therefore there were consumed in Great Britain ; but, 299,4562 See Tables D & E.


Whereas there were consumed in Great Britain Irish linens to the amount of about 2,410,421 1. As on the average of three years, about 190,000 l. is exported.

Such is the superiority which the Irish linens have over the foreign in the Britih market; beside on exportation, the Irish linens enter a foreign market, with all the benefits of a large bounty paid to them in Britain, and of Englith Capital which can afford long credit. Whereas foreign linens enter the same market after having left behind them in Britain, a certain part of the dusies paid on importation, and after having paid some other custom-house charges; so that before they can be unshipped, there is a disadvantage against them, equivalent to from five to fix per cent.

But the importance of British connexion, and the growing magnitude of Irish commerce through that connection, must be obvious to every man who reflects that the TOTAL value of the linen trade in Ireland, was,


480,516 1751,

751,993 1761,

803,258 1771,


In 1741,

Whereas the linen trade, including yarn, with Great Britain alone, upon an average value of the three years enda ing 1798, amounted to 2,844,402 1. If, indeed, the Union which with respect to the linen trade of Ireland, is precisely the same in fubstance as the adjustment whereon Mr. Foftet used those emphatic words, (p. 108) “ if it were to take away the benefit of the linen trade from Ireland, it would be a good cause for rejecting it: but as it for EVER confirms ALL THE ADVANTAGES We derive from the linen trads, and binds England from making any laws that can be injurious to it: surely gentlemen who regard that trade, and whose fortunes and rent depend on its prosperity, will not

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