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He shall elude the ambush. But have done so, excepting Shakwhat if he were to fall into it? An- speare. tinous is fierce and strong--but hand

“ Numerous as are the lion's thoughts to hand, Telemachus would hew

who sees him down, cleaving the head of the

Not without fear, a multitude of toils beautiful Scorner. Antinous takes

Encircling him around.” with him twenty men—and Telemachus has twenty ; but are they People always sleep sound for armed ? Most likely—but if not,

some hours the night before they are they can use their oars. Telemachus hanged-dreaming either not at all has two spears in his hand-as Flax- -or of a reprieve-or of themselves man shews him landing on the Pylian on the scaffold asking for water. shore-and he was not his father's Penelope was doomed to die-of son if he left behind him his sword. grief for Telemachus. The sorrow “ Follow me-my lads—our cry is of twenty years may be a profound, Ulysses ;" and leading the boarders,

but it is a still sorrow, One's life in three minutes he would have may not unpainfully float down it as taken the Ambuscade. Not so willed on a gloomy but not roaring riverJove and the blue-eyed daughter of and there are gleams of beauty on Jove.

its banks. So felt Penelope, sorrowIn her upper room lies the mourn- ing for Ulysses. But all at once she

Food or wine she will have missed “my son-my son.” She none--her waking-dreams are of then knew what is anguish; yetmurder. To what does Homer liken her body-her senses--not her spirit her ? To a lion wounded by the

-not herself—slept. Minerva saw hunters ? No. But he likens her her—the childless widow-for 80 thoughts to the thoughts of a lion Penelope was in her mind-soul wounded by the hunters--and no heart and sent a comforter. other man that ever lived would


There then did the blue-eyed Minerva devise another plan:
She formed a representation, (which) in person resembled the lady
Iphthimia,-daughter of the great-hearted Icarius :
Her Eumelus, dwelling in a house in Pheræ, had married.
Her did (Minerva) send to the house of the godlike Ulysses,
If by any means Penelope, wailing and lamenting,
She might restrain from weeping, and tearful mourning.
And she entered her chamber by the bolt of the lock,
And stood over her head, and addressed her in these words :-
“ Sleepest thou, Penelope, vexed in thy heart?
The gods who live in-ease permit thee not
To weep, nor to be sorrowful,—since about to return is
Your son : for to the gods he is sinless."
Her then answered the discreet Penelope,
Most sweetly slumbering in the gates of dreams!
“ Why, sister, comest thou hither ? by no means formerly indeed
Wert-thou-wont-to-come, since thou dweilest in a house very remote :
And thou orderest me to stop from sorrowing and lamentations
Numerous, which provoke me throughout my mind and my

heart :
(Me) who first lost my brave, lion-hearted husband,
Adorned with every kind of virtue among the Greeks,
(My) brave (lord) whose glory was wide throughout Hellas, and the midst

of Argos.
And now again hath my beloved son gone in a hollow ship,
A child, neither acquainted with labours, nor commerce.
On his account I the more lament, than on his (the father's):
For him I tremble and fear, lest any thing suffer
Should he among the people among whom he hath gone, or on the sea :
For many enraged foes plot against him,
Longing to slay him, before he come to his father-land.”

Her the pale shade answering addressed :
“ Be-of-good-cheer, and not at all fear too much in thy mind :
For such an attendant goes along with (him), as other


Men would choose to go alone with (them)—for powerful (is she)
(Namely) Pallas Minerva : thee she pities in thy lamentations :
And me hath she sent forward to tell thee so."

Her addressed the discreet Penelope :
“ If thou art indeed a goddess, and hast heard the voice of a goddess,
If so, come, tell to me with respect to that hapless one,
If any where he live, and look on the light of the sun,
Or if he be dead, and in the dwellings of Ades."

Her the pale shade answering addressed:
66 With respect to him I will not answer thee directly
Whether he be alive, or dead: for it is a bad thing to answer the things

that may-be-borne-away-by-the-wind. (The shade), thus having spoken through the lock of the door, withdrew Into a breath of wind : but from sleep roused-herself-up The daughter of Icarius, and her heart was delighted That a manifest dream had come upon her in the hours of midnight.


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Is this an Idea of the First Four Here is “ the sea-mark of his utBooks of the Odyssey? And would you most sail.” Happiness enough here wish them all away? If you would, --by his presence made to emerge then it would surely be by gently from misery-to compensate all the disengaging them from the Twenty, woes of the much-enduring

man, and and giving them an asylum in some leave him deep in debt to Heaven. secret and sacred cell in your heart. And do you grudge Telemachus But what to you would be the his visit to Nestor and to Menelaus, Twenty, were these four buried in

“ In life's morning march, when his spirit dust! They would be much; for a

is young ?” deep human interest overflows one and all, among the wonderful and Joy tempers his grief-till it smiles wild that seem to belong but to ima

-as sunshine will seek out and not gination's sphere. You would sympa- suffer a flower to be sad in mists and thize with Ulysses longing for rugged storms. And how pure those courts Ithaca even in Ogygia's enchanted of kings! The manners there how isle; for home-sickness is the mala- virtuous in their simplicity—the dy of a noble heart, and conjugal morning air how bright and the affection its most endearing virtue. evening air how still-in religious But on the first sight you now have service duly done to the Gods ! The of Ulysses weeping to the waves, you whole life we see—the whole life of know, better far than he does, a which we hear-heroic; and Poetry thousand reasons in nature for his shedding over it, generally, a gentle tears. The Muse has told you far lustre-sometimes, as in the narramore than Minerva told him-and tion of the adventures of Menelaus all your love and admiration of his by himself, a gloomy light that seems Penelope and his Telemachus-in- strangely to darken and illumine a sensibly changed into a profound hardly human world. pity-are poured on the majestic

You have been made to feel that mourner's head. Your heart burns Penelope is worthy of the love of within you to think that he will re- Ulysses-and you long for the Redturn to that home, to redress, to vin- LIZATION OF HER DREAM. dicate, to avenge, and to enjoy.



All history is but a romance un- avowed themselves the champions of less it act as an example. The mise. rights. Abasing all the privileges beries of the fathers are for the warn- longing to centuries of public service, ing of the children; and the ruin of of opulence,and high hereditary recolthe man or the nation which will take lections, they exalted meanness, pono lesson from experience will only verty, and ignorance; exclaiming be more sudden, fatal, and return- against the luxury, feebleness, and less, than that which has already prodigality of the first ranks of the given the disregarded moral of the state, they pampered the vices, the grave. Is there no appeal to the indolence, and the rapine of the wisdom of England, in the evidence multitude; offering an ostentatious that the French monarchy perished homage to the law, they stimulated solely by party? In a time of pro- the people to its open violation; profound peace, in a general flourishing claiming themselves the heralds of a

, of every resource and every class of new triumph of peace, they covered the kingdom, with a remarkable ab. the way to its temple with corpses. sence of public burdens, with no It is cheering to the sacred sense of financial difficulties but those which justice to know that this labour had the opulence of the nation could have its reward ; that the hypocrites felt thrown off, as dewdrops from the the heaviest vengeance of their own lion's mane, with an unbroken mili- delusions; that, after years employed tary and naval force-with a popula- in laying the mine under the monartion exceeding in activity, dexterity, chy of France, the moment in which and general acquirement, all others they applied the match was the moin Europe, scarcely excepting even ment of their own extinction; that our own; France, possessing every the blast which tore up the foundamaterial of foreign and domestic tions of society, shattered themselves power, the chief monarchy of the into dust and ashes, and left of their Continent, fell into sudden ruin. As ambition but an ignominious and if the ground had been hollowed un- abhorred name. der her throne, the throne went Hypocrisy is of all vices the most down at the instant, and disappeared hateful to man; because it combines from the eyes of Europe. As if some the malice of guilt with the meanness sudden decree of Heaven had com- of deception. Of all vices it is the missioned the sword against all that most dangerous; because its whole retained the impress of birth, ho- machinery is constructed on treachnour, and learning in the land, all was ery through the means of confidence, cut away even with the surface. It on compounding virtue with vice, on is remarkable that all the great ha- making the noblest qualities of our bitual agencies of public destruction nature minister to the most profligate were kept aloof. Pestilence, famine, purposes of our ruin. It erects a and war, were chained up; the ruin false light where it declares a beawas left to be wrought by party, and con, and destroys by the very instrufrom whatever source the commis- ment blazoned as a security. The sion came, whether from the wrath French Revolution was the supreme of Providence, or the malignity of work of hypocrisy. All its leaders the enemy alike of Heaven and man, were low and licentious slaves, of it was found fully equal to do the the basest propensities nurtured by work of them all. The leading prin- the most criminal habits. We can ciple of this party was selfishness, detect in them nothing, to this hour, and the leading pretext a zeal for that belongs even to the higher failthe populace. The system consisted ings of our nature, not even a geneof nothing but a reversal of all the rous self-delusion, not even a wanmaxims of human experience, for the dering enthusiasm for the good of purpose of a reversal of the whole man, not even the erroneous ardour order of human society. Its chiefs, which might have rashly tasted of personally contemptuous of morals, the tree of knowledge, and thought


fish revenge.

lessly incurred death; they had no

are decided before they thing of the common mixture of are debated. It is beyond doubt, honest intention and frail perform that under the terrors of the lampmance. They were the tempter, not post and the bayonet, and of the the tempted; they were stern, sub- torch to their houses, your legislature tle, and vindictive destroyers, for the are obliged to adopt all the crude sake of selfish possession, and sel- and despotic measures suggested by

The Revolutionary clubs composed of a monstrous faction were not glowing zealots, medley of all conditions, tongues, whose political wisdom was obscu- and nations. Among those are to be red by the blaze of their own imagi- found persons, in comparison with nations. Zealots undoubtedly they whom Catiline would be thought were, but it was by a frenzy of scrupulous, and Cethegus a man of power and possession which incapa. moderation. Nor is it in those clubs citated them from seeing the ruin alone that the public measures are into which they were plunging them- deformed into monsters. They unselves. They saw clearly the ruininto dergo a previous distortion in acawhich they were plunging their fel. demies, intended as so many semilow-men. There they were cool cal- naries for those clubs, which are set culators. Two hundred thousand up in all places of public resort. In heads must fall, said Marat, before those meetings of all sorts, every France will be fit to acknowledge the counsel, in proportion as it is daring Jacobin club as its sovereigns; and and violent and perfidious, is taken the calculation was carried into effect, for the mark of superior genius. with the most unswerving adherence Humanity and compassion are ridito the great Jacobin law of massacre. culed as the fruits of superstition As the Revolution advanced, its doc- and ignorance. Tenderness to inditrines grew more undisguised ; the viduals is considered as treason to rapidity of its speed swept back its the constitution. Liberty is to be alrobe, and shewed the naked dagger ways estimated perfect in proportion hung to its bosom. Every additional as property is rendered insecure. step in the furious chase in which it Amid assassination, massacre, and hunte down the hope and the confiscation, perpetrated or meditahonour of France, cast away some ted, they are forming plans for the remnant of that specious covering in good order of future society. Em. which it had performed its early bracing in their arms the carcasses of mockeries of public virtue; until, at the basest criminals, and promoting last, it held on its career, the open their relations on the title of their despiser of all attempts at the pallia- offences, they drive hundreds of virtion of its gigantic iniquity - the tuous persons to the same end, by assertor of the right to tyrannize, of forcing them to subsist by beggary finance by universal plunder, and of or by crime.” public regeneration by the sword The farce of deliberation was still and the scaffold.

carried on by the National Assem-. Burke saw this aspect of the fac- bly, but it had become the notorious tion even before it had altogether tool of the mob. Like all represenflung away its disguise. While among tative bodies which assume a power us, all the enthusiasts of political beyond right, the National Assemchange at any price, were ready to bly, in attempting to make the throne throw themselves at its feet, and all its vassal, had called in a third estate, the strugglers for place were pro- which made itself a slave. The feclaiming it a present deity, he saw rocious auxiliary instantly domineerthe native ferocity and malice of the ed over its perfidious summoner; Jacobin, and denounced the common and from that hour the representaconspirator against all laws human tive body of France was the repreand divine. “ In your legislature,” sentative of nothing but the brute said he to France, "a majority, some- will of the populace. The consetimes real, sometimes pretended, quence has followed the crime in compels a captive King to issue, as every land; and the ambition that royal edicts, the polluted nonsense begins by conspiracy, has always of their licentious and giddy coffee- been scourged by its own instruhouses. It is notorious, that all their ments. "The Assembly,” says Burke,

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“ acts before the multitude the farce the parliaments were the great deof deliberation with as little decency positaries of discontent. The genius as liberty. They act like the come- of the Gascon, hot, ostentatious, and dians of a fair before a riotous au- self-sufficient, gave the precedence dience. They act amid the tumul- in clamour to the South; and the Gituous cries of a mixed mob of fero- rondists amply asserted their right to cious men and of women lost to shame; take the lead where the prize was to who, according to their insolent fan- be public confusion, and the contest cies, direct, control, applaud, explode was to be a competitorship of every them, and sometimes mix and take weakness and every crime of human their seats among them-domineer- nature. That faction, composed aling over them with a strange mix- most wholly of the lawyers of the ture of servile petulance and pre- South, rapidly perished. It realized sumptuous authority. As they have power only to the point of national inverted all things, the gallery is in undoing, and having given the world place of the house. This Assembly, the lesson of utter incompetency, which overthrows Kings and king- died, to shew that the passions may doms, has not even the physiognomy from time to time perform the work of a legislative body— nec color im- of the virtues—that the popular axe perii, nec frons ulla senatûs. They may be the instrument of a moral, of have a power given to them, like which the populace never dreamed that of the evil principle, to subvert --and that the blood of the man of and destroy, but none to construct,

blood may be exacted as scrupulously except such machines as may be fit- by the blind ferocity of vice, as by ted for further subversion and fur- the clearsighted wrath of divine rether destruction.”

tribution. The fate of those traitors The philosophers of France, the is the triumph of human feeling. We Baillys, Lavoisiers, and Buffons, may turn away with mere scorn from have been charged with the crimes the sufferings of the savage rabble of the Revolution. That they were who trampled down each other in the guilty to the full extent of their general rush to the royal spoil, but power, was unquestionable-that we cannot withdraw our eyes from they sedulously unhinged the national the delight of seeing perfidy forced to respect for religion--that they gave feel that there is justice on the earth. the sanction of their names to at- We almost rejoice to see the deeptacks on morals-and that some of ening terrors of that specious vilthe leading individuals of French lany which betrayed with a kiss science exhibited in their habits the we leave the common murderers to profligacy of their principles, are be crushed undistinguished by the facts which sink their memory in a high hand of retribution; but we ingrave of eternal shame. But the true stinctively love to follow every pang work of overthrow claims other of Judas-to see the whole course hands. We must not be unjust to of penalty, the bitter disappointment, the superior claims of homicide. the helpless remorse, the cureless The feeble speculators of the closet despair, until the hour when he antimust be content with having pointed cipates the law of human abhorrence, out the road to ruin. It was the race and falls headlong. We have no such of bitter and ambitious barristers speculation in the graves of the Danthe obscure pleaders in the obscure tons and Heberts, and their associate courts—the reptile family of litigi- revellers in slaughter. We see their ousness, that poured into the path, ravages as we should those of a troop and corrupted the hopes of liberty of tigers; and when they are deIn France, the higher employments stroyed, think neither more nor less of the law alone conferred public of their destruction than of that of a distinction. All ranks beneath were troop of tigers. But the smiling and alike crowded and contemptible. bowing betrayers, the orators of huFifty thousand village attorneys, manity, the solemn devotees of prinineagre sinecurists, small depend- ciple, the pompous Vergniauds, and ents upon petty offices, and pertina- immaculate Rolands, the pure priests cious holders of petty distinctions, of the Constitutional Altar, where were an unequalled machinery for they led their unhappy King only to the uses of faction. The lawyers of stab him, in the act of clinging to

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