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in which they glory; and a collection made in their own language, undistorted and undiluted? But probably they may be afraid of the righteous disgust which such sentiments will call forth from the community at large, and endeavour, after the fashion of their popish brethren, to explain them away, that too great a shock may not be given to the moral feelings of the Christian public. Let them attempt this by all means if they can. Perhaps they may decline all controversy, and refuse even to argue with men who will not acknowledge prelatical authority. This, beyond all question, is the line of safety, if it be not the path of duty or of honour.

But we must bring Mr Gray's statements before our readers, that they may judge for themselves. And we commence with the overture itself, which he gives as his preface or text:

“ MODERATOR, — The overture which I am to propose for the adoption of this presbytery, is in these words:

“ Whereas pretensions of a very exclusive and intolerant character, pointing against the established Church of Scotland, and such other churches of Christ as are not constituted according to what is usually denominated the episcopal form of church government, and amounting to a denial that the said churches are churches of Christ at all, are put forward with extraordinary activity and zeal at the present day by many members and office-bearers of the episcopal churches :

“ Whereas great efforts appear to be making, by persons who have wealth and influence at their command, for the propagation of the principles on which these offensive pretensions are founded :

And whereas the Presbytery of Perth seem specially called on to look to this matter, in consequence of the reported intention to erect a college within their bounds, where the principles referred to will be taught: " It is therefore humbly overtured to the next General Assembly, to adopt

such measures as to their wisdom shall seem meet, for providing the members of this church with information suited to existing circumstances, on the subject of her scriptural constitution and apostolical authority; and, particularly, for having all students in theology thoroughly trained in those principles of ecclesiastical order and government, which fortify and vindicate the cause of presbyterianism against the overbearing and unworthy assumptions of its adversaries.” P. 5. After this he proceeds to give a brief statement of his reasons for this movement, and also of the main point on which he was about to lead proof. On this latter head let us take the following clear and satisfactory quotation :

“ Some dogmas there are, too, which necessarily involve a direct and most cruel attack upon other churches by the church that avows them-dogmas which go to wrest from the bodies assailed, the comfort of fellowship wità tbe Saviour, and of a share in new covenant blessings, and to rob them of the precious belief that they belong to the Israel of God.

Sir, it is in reference to a tenet of this latter kind that I am at present to engage the presbytery's attention. I consider myself able to show that such a tenet is held by the Scottish episcopal church. Agaiost that church I do not, at this time, propose to substantiate any general charge of what is called Puseyism. That, I believe, it would not be difficult to do. It might be shown that their views of the sacraments correspond very closely with the views of the Oxford Tractarians. They contend for baptismal regeneration, in the strongest sense of the word; and they strenuously maintain that the character of a sacrifice, “a real and proper sacrifice,' belongs to the holy supper of our Lord. They permit the use of the communion service of the Church of Eng. land; but the authorized service of their canons, and that which must be used at the consecration of their bishops, is the semi-popish office prepared under the auspices of Archbishop Laud, and attempted to be forced upon the Church of Scotland two hundred years ago, and which is known by the name of the Scotch Communion Office. Their prevailing doctrines on the vital point of justification, on tradition, and the rule of faith, and on the power of absolution vested in the clergy, will be found to be much the same as those put forth by the Tractarian party; and along with the tenet of an invisible place, to which the souls of men are conducted when they leave the body, there to remain in what is called an intermediate state, till the general resurrection,' their authorities teach that the church upou earth, and the church in paradise, communicate together, by mutually praying for each other;' and that departed Christians require the prayers of Christians here, ' because their present condition is imperfect, and, therefore, capable of improvement; and because they are to be judged at the last day, and will then stand in need of mercy.' But, as I have said, it is not my intention now to take so wide a range as would be necessary for establishing the charge, that the general theology of the episcopal church in Scotland is the same as that of the Oxford divines. I take one point-a single tenet--and shall prove them to be perfectly at one as to it. The doctrine I fix upon is that which relates to the apostolical succession, and which affirms the necessity of that succession, according to a particular and exclusive definition of it, not merely to the wellbeing, but to the being and essence of a Christian church. The doctrine is, that an apostolical succession, coming down the line of an uninterrupted prelacy, is so indispensable, that the body of professing Christians which cannot lay claim to it, is not a true church. In other words, the doctrine is, that there can be no church, no ministry, and no sacraments, where there is no diocesan episcopacy. The doctrine is, not that episcopacy is better, more scriptural, than any other form of government, or that it is the only form that can warrantably be used; but that episcopacy is that grand elemental principle in the constitution of any church, which makes it a church, wbich alone conveys to it the vital powers and privileges of a church, and connects it with Christ and with the benefits of his mediation and sovereignty; and, consequently, that the Scottish establishment, and such other communions as are von-episcopal in the diocesan sense, are not churches of Christ, that the powers and privileges of a church belong to none of them, and, for lack of episcopacy, they are not a part of the mystical body of Christ.” Pp. 6-8.

In proceeding to his proof, his first witnesses are the Oxford Tract writers, and those connected with them. Hard are the names which are flung at us both by their tract-scribblers and poetasters ; yet we confess we can even bear to be called Samaria, when we remember the many good things recorded both in the Old and New Testaments concerning Samaritans; and we think also that these tractarians would have been less eager to aflix that name to us, had they remembered the prophet's words, • Neither hath Samaria committed half of thy sins; but thou hast multiplied thine abominations more than they, and hast justified thy sisters in all those abominations which thou hast done: thou also which hast

judged thy sisters, bear thine own shame, for thy sins which thou hast committed, more abominable than they : they are more righteous than thou.' (Ezek. xvi. 51, 52.) But take the following extract on this point:

“ We Scotch presbyterians are likened to apostate Israel; hear now what is said of antichristian Rome:- Why should the corruptions of Rome lead us to deny her divine privileges, when even the idolatry of Judah did not forfeit hers, annul her temple service, or level her to Israel?'Tract 47, p. 4.

“ There is no ambiguity here. It must not be thought that the popish church has sunk to so low a level as a church of presbyterians. Rome, with all her corruptions, is only idolatrous Judah ; but Scotland is idolatrous, schismatical, and apostate Israel :- Christ bath appointed THE CHURCH as the only way into eternal life.

Christ never appointed two ways to heaven; por did he build a church to save some, and make another institution for other men's salvation.' • There is no other name under beaven given upto men whereby we must be saved but the name of Jesus, and that is no other. wise given under heaven than in the CHURCH.'— Tract 51, p. 12.

" In connection with this extract let it be kept in mind, that by the church' these writers unifornily mean the episcopal communion. The device of an elect remnant,' a 'reserved seven thousand' of dissenters and presbyterians, to whom salvation will be extended, is here boldly Aung away, and episcopacy is declared to be the only road to heaven.

“ lu that part of the Tracts called • Records of the Church, No. xxv, consisting of extracts from Vincentius of Lirins, with notes by the translator, at pp. 2, 3, there occurs the following note :- Do not we hover about our ancient home, the home of Cyprian and Athanasius, without the heart to take up our abode in it, yet afraid to quit the sight of it-boasting of our episcopacy, yet unwilling to condemn separatism-claiming a descent from the aposiles, yet doubting of the gifts attending it, and trying to extend the limits of the church for the admission of Wesleyans and presbyterians, while we profess to be exclusively primitive ? Alas, is not this to witness against ourselves, like coward sinners who hope to serve the world without giving up God's service?

“ So much for the Oxford Tracts. My next authority shall be Dr Hook, the vicar of Leeds, and one of her Majesty's chaplains. This gentleman, it will be recollected, preached a sermon before the Queen, nearly four years ago, on the subject of the church. The sermon made considerable noise, and I shall read a few passages from the twenty.niuth edition of it: If the mere fact that a religious society is established by the civil goverument, be sufficient to claim for it our adhesion, see what the consequence must be; we should be obliged, on such principles, to become presbyterians in Scotland and Holland, papists in France and Italy; nay, in some parts of the world, worshippers of the mosque, and votaries of Brahma! whereas the consistent protestant could not, of course, conform to the established church in France or Italy, until those churches have undergone a thorough reformation; the consistent English churchman cannot conform to the presbyterian establishment in Scotland, but in that part of the island attends the services of the Scottish episcopal

«• The Reformed Church of England has given birth to two martyrs, an archbishop and a king; and both these blessed saints died for episcopacy. But was it for a form, or a point of discipline, that they resisted thus unto death? Surely not.'—. When they contended for episcopacy as one of the essentials of religion, they no more regarded it as an external and a form, than they regarded Christ's death upon the cross as an external and a form,'-Froude's Remains, vol. iii. p. 40.


church, which though at one time established, was, at the revolution in 1988, from political considerations, deprived of its endowments, which were then given to the community of presbyterians, which has there become the established religion.' P. 4.

" It will be seen that in this quotation Dr Hook mentions the Church of Scotland three times, but never by that, her proper, and legally ratified name. Not for the world would Dr Hook call us a church. We are the presbyterian establishment,''the community of presbyterians,' the established religion.' Wherever he finds episcopacy, he finds a church ; but nowhere besides. Hence it is that, when he casts his eye on the popish establishments of Italy and France, he salutes them as churches again and again; and the episcopal body in Scotland be at once recognises as 'the Scottish episcopal church;' but when our presbyterian church comes in his way, with singular politeness and charity be puts her, under the designation of the community of presbyterians,' into the same category as the worshippers of the mosque, and the votaries of Brahma!'* When the United States of America were English colonies, the English church was there established; at the revolution, the State was destroyed; monarchy has there ceased to exist; but the church, though depressed for a tíme, remained uninjured; so that there--among the American republicans—under the superintendence of no fewer than sixteen bishops, you will find her sacraments and ordinances administered, and all her ritual and liturgical services administered, with not less of pioty, zeal, and solemnity, than here in England; there you may see the church, like an oasis in the desert, blessed by the dews of heaven, and shedding heavenly blessings around her, in a land where, because no religion is established, if it were not for her, nothing but the extremes of infidelity and funaticism would prevail. P. 5.

“ The protestant episcopalians are, it thus appears, the only church in America. They are there, • like an oasis in the desert! Let them depart, and there might remain, perhaps, a community of presbyterians,' and several communities' of Christians besides ; but the church would not remain ; and, the 'oasis' gone, uubroken sterility would reign over the vast American wilderness! Dr Hook is mistaken. He has forgot that there are popish as well as protestant episcopalians in America. There would be a church after all. There would still be an • oasis.'— We say not that other denominations of Christians are cast out from the mercy of God through the Saviour, because they belong not to the church; all that we say is, that it does not follow that these concessions must render void the divine appointment of the church, the divine command to all nations, and of course to all mankind, to be united with it, or the scriptural evidence for episcopacy as the divinely sanctioned organization of its ministry.'--P. 11.

"• The following specimen of Tractarian phraseology occurs in the letter of An English Churchman,' dated February 11, addressed to the London Evening Vail:* This principle is applicable not only to our own church, and to the establishment of Scotland, and to the churches of France, and Rome, and Greece, but to the national religions' of Turkey and China.' From this passage, along with Dr Hook's discourse, and some preceding extracts, the following lists are deduced, which Dr Hook and his friends can easily extend : Church of France,

Worshippers of the Mosque.' of Italy,

· Votaries of Brahma.' of England,

National Religion of China.' of Rome,

• Community of Presbyterians.' of Greece,

· Wesleyans.' in Scotland,

Jews. in America,

Virtuous heathens.'

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Churches of Christ.

Churches of Christ.

“ Here we are told that the church' is confined to one denomination,' namely, the episcopal ; and while it is admitted that “the mercy of God through the Saviour' may reach other denominations, a caveat is entered against the inference that these other denominations are therefore a part of the church, and included within her pale, because that would be to make 'void the Divine appointment of the church.'— Let us ver remember, that the primary object for which the church was instituted by Christ, its Author and Finisher, and for which the apostolical succession of its ministers was established,

was and is, to convey supernaturally the saving merits of the atoning blood of the Lamb of God, and the sanctifying graces of his Holy Spirit to the believer's soul. In THE CHURCH it is, that the appointed means are to be found by which that mysterious union with Christ is promoted, in which our spiritual life consists,—in her it is, that the third Person of the Blessed Trinity abideth for ever, gradually to change the heart of sinful man, and to make that flesh which be finds stone,-gradually to prepare us for heaven, while our ascended Saviour is preparing heaven for us.'—P.11.

“ These sentiments, Moderator, which, by the exclusive claim they put forward in behalf of episcopacy, do deny that our presbyterian ordinances are capable of conveying the saving merits of the atoning blood of the Lamb of God, and that our Scottish church enjoys the presence and grace of the Holy Spirit-these intensely bigotted sentiments were publicly addressed to her who is Scotland's sovereign, as well as the sovereign of England, aud whose first official act, on her accession to the throne, was to swear to maintain the rights and liberties of the Church of Scotland !” Pp. 10–14.

Our next extract is one in which Mr Gray shows what the real principles of the projected college are. From the opinions of its projectors—from the uniform sentiments of Scottish prelatistsand even from the very disclaimers of some of the party, who seem to have been alarmed lest its being supposed to be a Puseyite college should argue its success, he shows that there can be little doubt that its object is to uphold pure unmingled Tractarianism, or Puseyism, or Laudism, or semi-popery, as men may think best to call the system.

" In the course of last autumn a report had been circulated that the college was to be a Tractarian or · Puseyite' institution, so far as religion was concerned. This report was deemed injurious to the prospects of the college ; and the friends of episcopacy took, in consequence, some notice of it. I have seen three letters on the subject which were inserted in the newspapers, one of them without a name, and the other two by clergymen of the Scottish episcopal church. In none of these letters was the report dealt with in a satisfactory way. In none of them was there a disclaimer of the obnoxious tenet which places presbyterians and dissenters beyond the pale of Christ's visible church. True it is that the charge in the report was general, but a general charge is sometimes most effectually put down by an answer that is particular and specific. In the anonymous letter, which appeared in our local organ of the episcopal party, there was not only no denial of the doctrine of exclusion, but there was what was very much like glorying in it. Dr Pusey, Dr Hook, and the Tracts for the Times, were extolled to the skies; our friends of the episcopal persuasion were styled “the church of Christ in Scotland ;' and Bishop Walker was mentioned as the late venerable and pious Primate of all Scotland.' The letters of the clergymen were, of course, more cautiously expressed. But that is all that can be said of them. They contained nothing to show that the rumour, which had caused them to be writ

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