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His biographer remarks,“ As his labours were prosperous, so they were opposed. It could not be grateful to the prince of darkness to behold his kingdom so warmly attacked, and his subjects in such nuinbers deserting his standard. Hence he stirred up all his strength, and a furious persecution eusued. No opposition was too riolent-no names were too opprobrious-no treatment was too barbarous to impede his career, or render bim odious in the estimation of the public. Some of his followers were roughly handled, and their property destroyed. Gentry, magistrates, and others, became one band, and employed every engine to check his progress, and silence him from preaching. The Old Deoil was the only name by which he was distinguished among them for between twenty and thirty years. But none of these things moved him. He had counted the cost, and was prepared for the fool's cap." P. 33.
His benevolence was unbounded. In this respect he adorned the doctrine which he preached. Too often has the love of money' in ministers brought reproach upon the gospel, and marred their
Too often has this been the means of closing many an ear and hardening many a heart. Nothing so prejudicial, so ruinous to a minister's success, as a character for niggardliness! In Berridge the world had no such inconsistency to taunt him withno such flaw to rejoice in. He was profusely, immensely generous. He was ready to sacrifice every thing, to part with every thing, yea, and with his own life also, to serve a brother, or to show kindness to an enemy. His heart was large and his hand was open. His life is a noble pattern of disinterested, self-denying, self-sacrificing love.
“ It is impossible to tell the numerous instances of his benevolence. Never man entered upon the work of bis master with more disinterested views. His purse was as open as his heart, though not so large. At home, his tables were served with a cold collation for his numerous bearers, who came from far on Sabbath days, and his field and stable open for their horses. Abroad, houses and barns were rented, lay preachers maintained, and his own travelling ex. penses disbursed by himself. Cottagers were always gainers by his company. He invariably left half-a-crown for the homely provision of the day, and dur. ing bis itineracy it actually cost him five hundred pounds in this single article of expenditure. Nor was his liberality contined to these channels. His ear was ever attentive to the tale of woe; his eye was keen to observe the miseries of the poor; the law of kindness was written upon bis heart; and his hand was always ready to administer relief. His gains as vicar of Everton, and his patrimonial income (for his father died rich), were appropriated to support his liberality; and even his family plate was converted into clothes for his itinerant preachers. He manifested on all occasions a most benevolent
conversion of souls. We have heard of some who have used no small exertion to soothe, with false peace, consciences that had been awakened under some ministry more effective than their own. We bave heard of others setting their faces against the work of the Spirit of God, because it did not take place exactly according to their own ideas of propriety. We have heard of others being not a little afraid at any thing like a prospect of our getting quit of the moderation of our own church, as thereby they would lose a most valuable counterpoise to the fanaticism wbich is manifesting itself in certain quarters !
and generous disposition. The cases of distress and suffering greatly affected him; be felt for the poor, and was prompt in relieving them to the utmost of his ability. Like bis divine Lord and Master, he felt compassion pervading his breast at the sight of human misery and want; and when he found his own resources inadequate to the relief of the subjects of them, he kindly used bis influence with his rich friends in their behalf, amongst whom there was no one more ready to afford him pecuniary aid for assisting the poor and afflicted, than his most excellent friend at Clapham, whose beneficence was most extraordinary and extensive. Mr Berridge evinced how greatly that selfishness which so powerfully actuates mankind in general, was subdued in him by the influence of true religion. The command, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself,' was delightfully attended to in every instance that demanded obedience. His charities were bestowed in the kindest manner. He did not lessen the value of the gift by any harsh and unfeeling expressions in bestowing it. He could weep with those who wept on account of the trials and difficulties they met with." P. 34.
The records of his ministry have by no means been fully preserved, and hence the amount of his success cannot be properly estimated. It seems, however, to have been very great.
During one of his itinerating circuits, in company with a brother clergyman, which occupied in all about a year, the number of awakened souls is said to have between three and four thousand ! Blessed success! This, perhaps, might not be the usual amount of it. But, granting that this was altogether extraordinary even in his much-blest ministry, still, who would reckon the fourth part of it amazing? And what faithful minister of Christ in our land is there, whose heart would not be gladdened, and whose hands would not be mightily upheld by even the hundredth part of such a blessing as this.
We have already alluded to his letters ; and we would gladly have given some specimens of them had it been at all easy to select portions of them, or had our limits allowed us to transfer several entire. We cannot, however, altogether forego the satisface tion of quoting one, not only as illustrative of the writer himself, but as likely to be profitable to ministers in our own day. It is written to a brother clergyman (although not addressed), if we mistake not to Rowland Hill. It is characteristic of Berridge, containing much of his sagacious common sense, as well as something of his quaintness.
" If every parish church were blessed with a gospel minister, there could be little need of itinerant preaching; but since these ministers are thinly scat. tered about the country, and neighbouring pulpits are usually locked up against them, it behoves them to take advantage of fields or barns to cast abroad the gospel seed. But all are not designed to be rural deans. How are we to judge who are? If you are enabled to preach without notes-feel an abiding desire to spread the gospel-meet with calls for this purpose-comply with the calls-ind the word 'sealed, and, if persecuted and threatened, have the word given for support: where these occur (and these are just my own experience) I have no doubt but such a minister is designed for a rural dean or rambling bishop.
VOL. XV. NO. II.
" When you open your commission, begin with laying open the innumerable corruptions of the hearts of your audience; Moses will lend you a knife, which may be often whetted at his griudstone. Lay open the universal sinfulness of nature; the darkness of the mind, the frowardness of the will, the fretfulness of the temper, and the earthliness and sensuality of the affections. Speak of the evil of sin in its nature, its rebellion against God as our sovereign, ingratitude to God as our benefactor, and contempt both of bis authority and love. Declare the evil of sin in its effects, bringing all our sickness, pains, and sorrows; all the evils we feel, and all the evils we fear; all inundations, and fires, and famines, and pestilences; all brawls, and quarrels, and fightings, and wars, with death to close these present sorrows, and hell afterwards to receive all that die in sin.
“ Lay open the spirituality of the law, and its extent, reaching to every thought, word, and action, and declaring every transgression, whether by omission or commission, deserving of death. Declare man's utter helplessness to change his uature, or to make his peace. Pardon and holiness must come from the Saviour. Acquaint them with the searching eye of God, watching us continually, spying out every thought, word, and action, poting them down in the book of his remembrance, and bringing every secret thing into judgment, whether it be good or evil.
“When your bearers are deeply affected with these things (which is seen by the hanging down of the heads,) preach Christ. Lay open the Saviour's almighty power to soften the hard heart, and give it repentance, to bring pardon to the broken heart, a spirit of prayer to ibe prayerless heart, holiness to the filthy heart, and faith to the unbelieving heart. Let them know that all the treasures of grace are lodged in Jesus Christ for the use of the poor needy sinner, and that he is full of love as well as power; turns no beggar from his gate, but receives all comers kindly; loves to bless them, and bestows all bis blessings tithe free. Farmers and country people chop at that. Here you must wave the gospel-flag, and magnify the Saviour supremely. Speak it with a full mouth, (ORE ROTUNDO,) that his blood can wash away the foulest sins, and his grace subdue the stoutest corruptions. Exhort the people to seek his grace, to seek it directly, seek it diligently, seek it constantly, and acquaint them that all who thus seek shall assuredly find the salvation of God.
“ Never preach in working hours; that would raise a clamour. Where you preach at night, preach also in the morning; but be not longer than an hour in the whole morning service, and conclude before six. Morning preaching will show whether the evening took effect, by raising them up early to hear.
“ Expect plain fare and plain lodging where you preach, yet, perhaps, better than your Master had; suffer no treats to be made for you, but live as your host usually lives, else he may grow weary of entertaining you; and go not from house to house, Luke x. 7. If the clergy rail at you where you go, bay not a word about it, good or bad, Mat. xv. 14. If you dare be zealous for the Lord of Hosts, expect persecution and threats; but heed them not. Bind the Lord's word to your heart. The promise is doubled for your encouragement; Jer. i. 16; xv. 20. The chief block in your way will be the prudent Peters, who will beg, intreat, and beseech you to avoid irregularity. Give them the same answer that Christ gave Peter; Mat. xvi. 23. They savour of the thiogs which be of men; heed them not. When you preach at night, go to bed as soon as possible, that the family may not be kept up, and you may rise early. Wher breakfast and morning family prayer is over, go away directly, that the house may be at liberty. Do not dine where you preach, if you can avoid it; it will save expense and please the people. If you would du work for the Lord, as you seem designed, you must venture for the Lord.
The Christian's motto is, Trust and go forward, though the sea is before you ; Exod. xiv. 15. Do then as Paul did, give up thyself to the Lord; work, and confer not with flesh and blood, and the Lord be with thee. Dear brother, yours affectionately,
J. B.” Such was Berridge,-and such was his ministry. Let men blame him for imprudence, for irregularity, for fanaticism, for singularity, they cannot deny the amazing success which accompanied his labours. And with such a blessing from above, such a marked acknowledgment of his faithfulness and zeal, man's dispraise sits lightly on his memory. Gladly would we bear all his reproach to be honoured with his success. In a dying world like this, what is the breath of man? With an unfading crown in view, and a rich inheritance in reversion, of what weight is man's censure to those who have weighed the souls of their flock in the balances of the sanctuary and found them to be beyond all calculation precious; and whose only ambition is the Master's smile and the recompense of the eternal reward.
Art. IV.-Life of Lieutenant-General Hugh Mackay of Scoury,
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland, 1689–1690. Colonel Commandant of the Scottish Brigade in the service of the States-General, and a Privy Councillor in Scotland. By the late John Mackay, Esq. of Rockfield. With a Memoir of the Author. London: Edward Hull. Edinburgh: Laing and Forbes. Second edition, revised, with an engraving. 12mo.
In the Lives of Eminent Scotsmen,' edited by Robert Chambers, the name of General Mackay is not to be found. And yet, was he not an eminent Scotsman?' As a brave and experienced military commander he unquestionably stands high on the rolls of national fame; and he was a Christian soldier. Ah! perhaps this may have been against him; and to Mackay may perhaps be applied the words of one of old in a similar case, he was good and bravenisi Christianus ! Christianity is often made the exception in a catalogue of virtues, rather than the crowning-point in the pedestal. Even the worthy and well-meaning Bishop Burnet does more than hint that the devotional character of the Scottish commander did detract somewhat from his military merits; thus, unintentionally, we believe, giving his sanction to the prejudices of worldly men against the religion of Christ. Even the Duke of Wellington, in one of his . despatches,' rather praises the religious meetings of what were called the methodists' in his army, and
bears his testimony, as many brave men have done before him, to the value of dauntless piety in the camp and in the field. It is in the Blackadders, the Gardiners, the Melvilles, the Andersons, we have been favoured with some of the finest specimens of Christian heroism. The life of a soldier is not indeed the most favourable to the development or the progress of Christian character; and yet, where the reality of grace is unquestioned, and where there is a sound understanding, as well as a warm heart, there we may reasonably look for high attainments in the Christian soldier, inasmuch as the principle which stands firm in the scenes and seasons of severe trial must thereby prove itself at once genuine and noble. In ordinary times and occasions, a Christian man may be enabled without any uncommon effort of moral heroism, to hold fast his integrity. But when temptations from every point of the compass assail a man, the vigor of holy fortitude cannot be maintained, and the high toned consistency of Christian character cannot be displayed, save through the medium of a gracious influence on the heart, far beyond the common and every-day measure of enjoyment or of aim. Mackay was killed at the battle of Steinkirk in 1692, and over his grave was pronounced by his royal master King William, one of the finest of panegyrics—There he lies, and a braver or a better man he has not left behind him.'
It has long been matter of wonder, that William, with all his regard for Mackay, did not promote him to those honours and emoluments which he so justly earned by his bravery and his toils. Certainly the soldier who had been bred up under Condè and Turenne, who, when a mere boy, received a medal in reward of his gallantry at the far-famed siege of Candia, from the Venetian republic; who served with distinction in the service of the statesgeneral, and under the very eye of the prince; who, even on the score of talent, carried the day over Claverhouse, and was called home to England to hold an important command on occasion of Monmouth's rebellion; who afterwards accompanied the Prince of Orange on his expedition to England as one of his tried friends; and who fought the battles of the revolution both in Scotland and in Ireland; surely the man whose deeds were thus heroic and his reputation untarnished, had earned a title to distinctions above many of his age. And yet he was not rewarded as he ought to have been. At this distance of time it is perhaps impossible to throw any clear light on the circumstances of the case; but we cannot help adverting to the fact as illustrative of what must be considered as a defect in the otherwise magnanimous character of King William. After the fall of Mackay at the battle of Steinkirk, the king, in conversation one day, said of one individual who had fallen, that he had served him with his soul, while Mackay served a higher master