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produced a ground-plan of the whole, with the Bosphorus. He produced a series of a restored view of this interesting struc- beautiful drawings prepared by Mr. Kell, ture, which it is hoped will be cleared of for the detailed account of the antiquities the floors and modern fittings by which it of Kertch, now in the press : the originals, is at present disfigured. Mr. Le Keux discovered in the Pantecapeian catacombs, brought some fragments of painted glass, have been deposited by Dr. McPherson in decorative tiles, &c. found in the examina- the British Museum. They comprise ortion of this building, and he exhibited a naments of gold, vases of bronze, glass, series of fine photographs, by Mr. Bergman, and terra-cotta, with fibulæ, personal ornaa gentleman resident at Sherborne, repre- ments and reliques, closely similar to those senting various parts of the abbey church, found in Germany and England with the the castle, the curious fragment of an effigy vestiges of the Anglo-Saxon age. These of Abbot Clement, a relique of twelfth objects appear to indicate that some of the century sculpture, as also of the charters Varangian body-guard of the Byzantine granted to the schools: these documents emperors, stated by Gibbon and other have been most successfully reproduced on writers to have been Anglo-Saxon or a small scale by Mr. Bergman, shewing in Danish warriors in the imperial service, a remarkable manner the value of photo- had made choice of the attractive neighgraphy in producing facsimiles of ancient bourhood of Kertch as their retreat from documents or MSS. A letter was read the din of arms. The public services of from the Rev. E. Hartson, Vicar of Sher- Dr. McPherson, both in the war in China borne, stating that the stone coffin sup- and during the recent campaign, have reposed to contain the remains of Ethelbald, ceived, as we believe, the warm commenda. brother of Alfred, had been found behinđ tions of the authorities under whom he has the high altar, where Leland describes his served; and the spirited exertions of which tomb to have been. It appeared to have he related the results, achieved under cir. been opened at some previous time. The cumstances of no ordinary difficulty, must bones remain, but no fragments of gar- be cordially appreciated by the archæoloments or other objects were found.

gist and the historian. Some of the obThe Hon. Richard Neville read an in- jects now deposited in the British Museum teresting statement of the progress of his display the character of Greek art of high excavations at Chesterford during the pre- class. Some remarks were offered by Mr. vious month. He had found the site of a Westmacott on the interesting features of fourth cemetery adjacent to the Roman these discoveries, as illustrated by Mr. station, and brought for inspection some Kell's admirable drawings; and Mr. Kem. of the antiquities discovered. He noticed ble pointed out certain remarkable analocertain dwarf walls of dry masonry, which gies between the sepulchral usages noticed appeared to have been connected with in the Crimean catacombs, and those which some peculiar use in Roman interments, had fallen under his own observation in the the remains of children being found placed north of Europe. Dr. McPherson had read alongside of them. Mr. Neville had seen a memoir on his researches in the Cimmesimilar walls at Rickling, Essex, and at riau Bosphorus at the recent meeting of Hadstock, with indications of the like se- the British Association at Cheltenham, pulchral purpose, which seem to claim in. when it was received with great interest in vestigation.

the section of Ethnology. This detailed Dr. Duncan McPherson, late Inspector. account, with coloured illustrations of all General of Hospitals, Turkish Contingent, the important antiquities discovered, will delivered a detailed narrative of the ancient be published shortly by Messrs. Smith and vestiges, sepulchral deposits, and examples Elder, and will form a valuable addition to of art disinterred during excavations which the notices of the ancient occupation and he had directed, on the site of Panteca- history of the Crimea. Mr. Vaux brought pæum and the Mons Mithridatis, in the to the meeting a collection of drawings by immediate vicinity of Kertch. Amidst Lieut. Thompson, representing tombs and the arduous responsibilities of the charge other remains in the Crimea, including some entrusted to him during the recent cam. chambers, covered with stones“ stepped paign, in the organization of an effective over," of most curious construction. medical staff for the auxiliary force of Mr. Franks offered some remarks on 25,000 men placed at the disposal of the the fraudulent manufacture of British British Government by the Porte, Dr. urns, flint arrow-heads, and other ficMcPherson had found means, with the aid titious antiquities, in the neighbourhood of the camp-followers as labourers, to pro- of Whitby and Scarborough. They secute the investigation of many ancient alleged to be found scattered over vestiges, which throw a fresh light upon land, and the imitation the history of the capital of the kings of cessfully carried out

[graphic]

were frequently victims of the deception. sent as envoy by Philip and Mary. This The Rev. J. Greville Chester had sought fine memorial was erected by his executors to investigate the matter ;-he sent some in 1561. Captain Oakes presented a series of the deceptive reliques of flint as a warn- of photographs, on a large scale, illustrating ing to the unwary. The fabricator had architectural antiquities of Northamptoncarried his art so far as to produce even shire, at Brigstock, Brixworth, and Earls fish-hooks of silex.

Barton, and the remarkable vestiges of Mr. E. G. Squier, the talented writer Anglo-Saxon work; also the Queen's Cross, on South American antiquities, gave an Northampton, and an admirable view of account of certain ornaments formed of a the west front of Peterborough Cathedral. peculiar precious stone, of the greatest Mr. E. Richardson exhibited photographs rarity, found amongst the ruined cities of of Wells Cathedral and Glastonbury, exeCentral South America. He brought for cuted by Mr. Greenish. Mr. Franks examination a number of specimens which brought a drawing of an incised slab at he had fortunately obtained, some of them Southwell Minster, commemorating Wilsculptured with sacred symbols or hiero- liam Talbot, a priest, deposited, according glyphics; and the whole are perforated or to the inscription, sub signo Thau. formed so as to be attached to the dress, Mr. Ready, of Princes-street, Shrewsbury, being probably worn by the priests, or by sent some interesting seals, of which the the ancient Indian princes. "Bernal Diaz original matrices exist in the Fitzwilliam del Castillo, speaking of the skill of the Museum at Cambridge, especially the fine Mexicans in working precious metals, men. seal of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Wartions also their art of polishing the cal. wick, and the seal of John de Utterly, chihuis, gems which resemble emeralds; abbot of Grimesby, Lincolnshire, in 1361-and the same writer records that Monte. a very fine example of its period. zuma presented to the king of Spain a It was announced that at the meeting few of these precious objects, observing on Jan. 2, Mr. Keible would give a disthat each was worth ten loads of gold. course on Heathen Interments, as noticed Fuentes describes the precious chalchi- in Anglo-Saxon charters; and the Rev. J. guites, worn by the Indians of Quichi in Cumıning, ot' Lichtield, would read a paper their feather head-dresses. Humboldt, in on the Sculptured Monuments and Runic his travels, gi sa curious account of these Crosses in the Isle of Man, including some gems, under the name of Amazon stones, lately discovered. worn as amulets against disease, the stings of venomous reptiles, &e. The stones are translucent, beautifully flaked with apple

BRITISH ARCUEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. green colour. The substance seeins to be Nov. 21. T. J. Pettigrew, F.R.S., F.S.A., allied to the Euphotide of mineralogists. V.-P., in the chair.

Mr. Hewitt bronght some Anglo-Saxon Twenty-seven new associates and one reliques from the graves in the Isle of corresponding member were amounced. Wight, consisting of bronze fibulæ, twee- Ainong the former were the Right Rev. zers, and toilet implements, personal orna. Lord Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells; ments, beads of amber, crystal and vitreous Sir Pengwin Acland, Bart., Sir Arthur coloured paste. Mr. Burges produced a Hallam Elton, Bart. ; Capt. Scobell, M.P.; curious representation of the Morris dance, William Tite, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A.; which he had found on an ivory casket at Col. Tynte, M.P.; C. K. Kemys Tynte, Monza. The design is spirited, and the Esq.; Daniel Gurney, F.S.A.; Rev. H. M. subject, of fifteenth century work, is an Searth ; Rev. H. Strect; Rev. J. E. Jackearly illustration of the ancient English son; Mr. Burnell; Mr. Roberts, &c., &c. disport, the theme of an interesting disser- Mr. Charles Ainslie exhibited an early tation by Mr. Douce in his illustrations of iron padlock found in Fleet-ditch. It was Shakspere. Mr. Way brought a repre- of a globular forin, and so constructed that sentation of the sepulchral brass of Eliza- the whole shackle could be drawn out when beth, wife of Edward Chichester, Esq., in the bolt is thrown back. Mr. Gunston proBraunton Church, Devon. Shewas danghter duced some articles of domestic use found of John, Earl of Bath, and died in 1518. in Ireland, among which were a pair of The lady is represented kneeling in front nut-crachers of the time of William III., of a plain cross, raised on steps, upon which, found in Londonderry. Mr. Wood brought at the foot of the cross, the figure rests. specimens of pottery and glass found in The Rev. J. M. Traherne presented a litho- Canon-street West, some of which were graph of the monument of Sir Edward curious, and exhibited the eflects of having Carne, of Landough Castle, Glamorgan. been long buried in the earth. shire, which exists in the church of San Mr. Wills read a paper on Pretended Gregorio, in Monte Cæli, Rome. He was Finds of Egyptian Figures in London, and GENT. MAG. VOL. CCII.

N

exbibited specimens that had been brought tiquarian and archaeological societies at to him. Their Egyptian character was home and abroad were laid upon the sufficiently distinct, and they consisted of table. damaged bronze images of well-known Mr. Clarke exhibited a Roman urn lately type. A conversation took place, and the found at Kettleborough; also a Calais groat, source whence those deceptions proceeded and a Woodbridge token of 1667, found at would appear now to be well ascertained. Easton ; a penny of Edward I., of the Lon

The Rev. F. Bagot laid before the So- don mint, dug nip at Framlingham, and a ciety a Feretrum of Latten, upon which fine silver medal of Charles I. and his Mr. Syer Cuming read a short paper. queen, by Simon de Paasse, in his collecMr. Black and others examined the in- tion. scription upon it closely, but from the Capt. Tupper exhibited the remains of a mode of its execution it was not readily to Roman poculuin, found at Widcombe Ce. be made out. It appeared to read con. metery, near Bath. FINI MAGNI MADOCVS. It belongs to the Mr. C. Ainslie produced some curious latter part of the fourteenth or beginning examples of ancient glass brought to light of the fifteenth century. It will be en- in London, said to have been found in graved.

Tower-street. Two were unguentarii, anDr. Iliff, Mr. Wakeman, and Mr. Halli- other a portion of a wine-jug, and a small well presented a variety of Tradesmen's bottle which exhibited traces of punting, Tokens, belonging to various countries, and belongs therefore to the mediæval lists of which will be printed. Among rather than the Roman period. them was one of much rarity, a small brass Mr. Corner exhibited two fine medallions of “ The Bore's Head in Southwarke,” in lead, of Italian workmanship, of the sixwhich formed a property given by Sir teenth century: one a profile to the left of Jolin Falstaff to Magdalen College, Ox- L. IVNIVS BRVTVs, with draped bust ; the ford.

other LVC. AN. SENECA, with the name VANI A paper from Mr. T. Bateman, of Yol- beneath the shoulder. They were obtained grave, Derbyshire, was read, detailing the from Rome. particulars of a discovery of Saxon Graves Mr. G. Wright exhibited a Romanoat Winster, in Derbyshire. Drawings of Egyptian lamp and some coins, reported the spear-head, iron instruments, porcelain to have been found in an excavation in beads, quern-stones, &c., accompanied the front of the White Tower, at the Tower of paper. They will be engraved.

London, in October last. Mr. Carrington, through Mr. Planché, Mr. Ainslie also exhibited a variety of communicated some remarks on the deri- gold and silver coins, said to have been vation of the name of Coward, and de- found in London within a few months past. duced it from an occupation in former The earliest is a gold British coin, identitimes of much importance, cow-herd, hav- cal with that engraved in Ruding, pl. i. ing charge of the cattle,

fig. 7. There were also Saxon pennies of Mr. Vere Irving read an additional paper Edelred and Eadward, of which a list was on the Cissbury and other camps, and Mr. directed to be made. Collins forwarded a communication on, and Mr. Wills exhibited an iron coffer of the a plan of, Ruborough Camp, in Somerset- sixteenth century, which once had been shire, which has hitherto escaped record by highly decorated with devices in gold upon the Somersetshire historians and antiqua- a deep red field. The keyhole was in the ries. It presents an example of the Castra centre of the lid, and led to the interior Trigona of Vegetius. From the drawings fastening. The lock had six bolts: the two sent by Mr. Collins, it was evident that the near the hinges are fixtures, the others earth-work had been constructed in strict moved at the same instant by the key. accordance with the rules laid down in the Within the coffer was an oblong square treatise De Re Militari, and that its pecu- case of iron, evidently for the protection of liar form had been adopted by reason of some deed or important instrument. the natural features of the site.

Mr. Tross Beale exbibited three rubbings

of brasses in Gondhurst Church, Kent, Dec. 10. Dr. John Lee, F.R.S., F.S.A., presenting the effigies of John de Bedge. V.-P., in the chair.

bury, 1424; Walter Culpeper, and Agnes Sir Benjamin Hall presented to the As- Roper his wife, 1462 and 1457 ; and Sir sociation a copy of Mr. Mackenzie's work John Culpeper, son of Walter. on the Architectural Antiquities of St. Mr Beale also exhibited rubbings from Stephen, West, executed, and only re- Bodiam Church, Sussex, of the Bodiam cently completed, at the expense of the family, upon which Mr. Planché made Government, but commenced as early as some remarks, and promised further infor. 1843. Various other presents from an- mation upon the subject.

the sun.

Mr. Syer Cuming read a paper on the torum, and in the radiated crown which Discovery of Celtic Crania in the vicinity all the emperors of this period wear. The of London, in which he referred to a crescent moon, placed beneath the head of variety of specimens contained in the Mu. Salonina and other empresses, is another seum of the Royal College of Surgeons, Mr. indication of the growth of astral worship. Bateman's Museum, and other collections Aurelian was especially devoted to the of much interest.

worship of the sun, and built a splendid The Rev. Mr. Kell forwarded a paper on te nple to his honour at Rome. The the ancient site of Southampton, occa- mother of Aurelian had been a priestess, sioned by the discovery of bone-pits in and the Emperor Elagabulus a priest, of St. Mary's-road, which seemed tostrengthen the opinion expressed by Mr. Keele in the Although the coins of this hoard are third vol. of the Collectanea Antiqua. rudely executed, the heads on many of

Mr. Kell also made some remarks on them are sufficiently distinct to be characthe nature of the sculptured stones at teristic. In the strong, bluff features of Clausentum, of which an account has been Valerian we recognise the hardy warrior; given in the Winchester Congress volume the delicate lineaments and elaborately of the Association, and submitted some curled beard of Gallienus shew the inan of evidence to prove that they had been ob- effeminate manners, but elegant taste, to tained from quarries in the Isle of Wight. whom the cares of empire were a burden,

The Society was then adjourned over and who, though roused occasionally to to the 14th of January next, when Mr. activity, gladly returned to his dilettante Planché will read a paper on the Sculptured pursuits. Salonina is said to have been Effigies in Wells Cathedral, lately visited the daughter of a barbarian king', and by the Association.

her features are not of the Roman cast. The coarse face and brawny neck of Ma

rius agree with the account that he had YORKSHIRE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.

worked at the forge before he was an emAt the monthly meeting held Dec. 2, peror. It is not difficult to trace a family the Rev. J. Kenrick read a second paper likeness on their coins between Quintillus on the coins presented to the museum by and his brother and predecessor, Claudius Lord Londesborough. The debased state Gothicus. of the coinage which they disclose was The invasion of the barbarians and the a natural consequence of the state of con- dismemberment of the empire were not fusion, foreign war, and internal insurrec- the only calamities which the Romans tion which characterises the period. Au- suffered under Gallienus. Pestilence, earth. relian, on his accession, undertook to re- quakes, and floods alarmed the superforin the abuses of the Roman mint; but stition of the people; to appease the gods, the workmen, headed by a slave, Feli- the Sibylline books were consulted, and cissimus, to whom the administration had sacrifices offered to Jupiter Salutaris. been committed, raised an insurrection of To this excited state of the public mind so formidable a kind, that it cost the Eckhel refers the extraordinary number of Emperor 7,000 of his troops to dislodge coins, with tigures of the gods, struck in them from the Cælian Mount, which they this reign. The collection now exhibited had seized and fortified a. Such an effect contains coins with the legends of Jupiter from such a cause may seem incredible; Conservator, Jupiter Propugnator, Jupiter but Rome abounded in “the dangerous Ultor, Neptunus Conserrator, Apollo Conclasses,” ever ready for an insurrection. servator, Diana Conservatrix, Liber Pater The common people, too, are very sen- Conservator, Mars Pacifer, and Sol Consitive on the subject of any interference serrator Augusti. Famine usually accomwith the coinage. Wood's halfpence had panies the other calamities mentioned benearly raised Ireland in rebellion.

fore, and to this perhaps was owing the 1 he third century after the birth of appearance of the goddess Segetia on a Christ, to which these coins belong, was coin of Salonina, the empress of Gallienus. remarkable for the great increase of the Though scarcely mentioned in our books worship of the sun, caused by the growing of mythology, this goddess formed a triad influence of Asiatic, and especially Syrian, with Seia, the goddess of the sown corn, rites and usages at Rome. "It is indicated and Tutilina, who protected the harvest by the frequent occurrence of the figure of when gathered into the rick and the barnd. the sun on the reverse of the coins, with She was one of the Di Indigetes, the old the legend Oriens Augusti, or Augus. Italian gods, whose worship preceded that of the Greek divinities, though she now of Constantine inscribed Plox. are geneappears for the first time on the coinage- rally referred to a London mint, and peran honour paid to her, perhaps, to tran- haps Londinium, as even then the commerquillize the minds of the common people cial capital of Britain was better entitled in the suffering or apprehension of famine. to this distinction than Eburacum, the The coins of Postumus are remarkable for military capital. The honour of having a the honour paid to Hercules, who appears special mint, York seems to owe to her upon them in almost every one of his my. Northumbrian sovereigns. thological characters : one, inscribed HER- Mr. Kenrick's paper was illustrated by CULI DETSONIENS, in this collection, pro- reference to some of the coins, which, with bably commemorates a victory over the the exception of the duplicates sent, by deGermans, at Deuz, or Duisburg, near Co- sire of Lord Londesborough, to the Leeds logne. Those of Claudius Gothicus ex- Philosophical Society, having been first hibited several types of the consecratio or classitied by Mr. Roach Smith, have been apotheosis of the deceased emperor. This arranged in cases and catalogued by the compliment was paid, without much dis- Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, the venerable crimination, to Claudius, Commodus, and curator of the antiquarian dejartment of Caracalla, as well as to Augustus, Trajan, the museum. and the Antonines. Eckhel doubted the consecration of Tetricus, but Mr. Well. beloved has found one in the present col

• Vopisc., c. 38; Victor. Epit., c. 35,

b Trebell., c. 3.

e Trebell. Gallien., c. 6. d Augustin. de Civ. Dei, iv. 8; Plin. N. H. xvii. 2.

BEDFORDSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL AND lection bearing the type of the eagle.

ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Considering the vast variety of types Ar the annual meeting held on the 13th in the Roman coins (those of Gallienus of November, the Rev. William Airy read amountins, according to Ecklel's Cata- a paper on “Festival Orientation.'' He logus, to 276), it is remarkable how very reviewed the theory that all churches were few of their dies have been found. If they anciently built on that principle, viz. to were of brass, as seems probable, their point to the precise degree at which the number may be more easily accounted for, sun rose in the morning on the festival of as few impressions could be taken from one the saint to whom the church was dedi. die. Classical Latinity has no name for the cated ; and stated as the result of his obdie, and numismatists have been obliged to servations in different parts of the country, use the word matrix. Indeed, we know that in no instance was this borne out, hardly anything of the mechanical pro- and in some cases the variation was very cesses of the Roman mint, The coins considerable. He arrived at the concluof Valerian, Gallienus, Claudins Gothicus, sion that the theory was a very fanciful and Aurelian, who were really emperors one, unsupported by facts. That there of Rome, would naturally be struck there. was an intention on the part of the deGaul had in this age three mints--one at signers of our early churches to point them Arelate (Arles), another at Lugdunum eastwards is not questioned, and the rea(Lyons), and another at Treveri (Trèves); son is evident, but there is no proof whatand at these the coins of Postumus, Victo- ever of “ festival orientation" having been rinus, and Tetricus, who were sovereigns adopted. of Gaul, would, of course, be struck. There The Rev. W. Monkhouse afterwards read is no trace of any mint in Britain at this a paper on Cold Harbours, in which he time. We can hardly believe that Carau- combated the various theories which have sius, who maintained himself here so long been advanced as to the origin of this puzin an independent dominion, and one of zling term, and gave as his opinion, that it whose coins appears to exhibit Britannia implied merely a shelter for deer or cattle. weleoining him with the words Expectate We fear this will not serve for our London Teni, had not a mint of his own, but “Cold Harbour.” we have no positive proof of it. The coins

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