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A. D. 1603.

Feelings of the Irish people to wards his Majesty.

The accession of the first monarch of the Stuart family to the throne of England was accompanied with important advantages, which to all appearance promised well for the peace and prosperity of Ireland. For the people of this country, who had regarded former English princes as but usurpers of royalty in their land, were prepared to embrace King James with a kind of enthusiastic feeling, as a rightful claimant of kingly power—as one in whom the succession of the throne was restored once more to a line of lawful monarchs, he being, as they supposed, of their own race, * and having the blood of their ancient kings flowing in his veins, for which very reason their ancestors had, in a former age, crowned Edward Bruce at Dundalk

• King James himself took pleasure in asserting this claim. “In a speech which he delivered in council at Whitehall on the 29th of April, 1613, he says, “There is a double cause why I should be careful of the welfare of that people (the Irish,) first as King of England, by reason of the long possession the crown of England hath had of that land, and also as King of Scotland, for the ancient kings of Scotland are descended of the kings of Ireland,'" &c. . . Stuart's Armagh, Appr. ii. p. 581.

From a pedigree given in the same page of Mr. Stuart's work, the following is extracted :-" The present royal family of England may be traced through James I. to Kineth or Keneth Mac Alpine," &c. Kineth II. began to reign A.D. 843; ... was ancestor, it seems of the Bruces- Robert de Bruce, Earl of Carrick and Lord of Annandale; Robert Bruce 1. in 1306 ; Margery Bruce, Robert's daughter ; Robert Stuart II., Margery's son, in 1370; Robert Stuart III., 1390 ; James Stuart I., 1423; James Stuart II., 1437 ; James Stuart III. 1460; James Stuart IV., 1489; James Stuart V., 1514; Mary Stuart, 1544; James Stuart VI. of Scotland and I. of England, 1567-from whom are descended George I., II., III., IV., &c.

as King of Ireland.* Moreover, the destructive A.D. 1603. rebellions of the preceding reign had now come to an end, and the people, weakened and wasted by war and famine,f had but little heart or power for exciting fresh disturbances of any serious magnitude. Even those parts of the country where the struggle for independence had ever been most obstinately and incessantly maintained, were now completely reduced under English rule; and James has therefore been regarded, not without reason, as the first English king who was able to enjoy complete sovereignty in every part of Ireland. From these His accescauses his accession to the throne was followed ed by a peby an interval of tranquility of nearly forty riod of years' continuance, not indeed entirely undis- tranquility turbed by the agitation and intrigues of Rome,

in Ireland; but yet so calm and universal, that learned authors have not hesitated to say that Ireland had never seen the like before. Sweet indeed and refreshing must it have been, to such of the poor of the land as had survived the sad scenes of misery and horror, in which their tyrant leaders had involved them for so many preceding years.

The reign of the new monarch was not how- marked

• See p. 632, sup.

† See Appendix, No. 56. * See Sir John Davies's “ Discoverie of the true causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued," &c.; a work which forms a most valuable con tribution towards our history, or at least the Anglican period of it. Dubl. 1761, p. 180, &c.

A. D. 1603. ever allowed to commence without some exhihowever at

bitions of excitement and agitation throughout first by par- the provinces. The Romish teachers of the bances of people had been instilling into their minds the the peace.

false doctrine asserted by certain foreign universities, * which taught that it was mortal sin to aid in any way the “English heretics” against the Earl of Tyrone; and that those who did so could have no salvation unless they deserted and repented of their crime. Under the influence of such lessons, some of the chief cities and boroughs of the suuth were led to make resistance to the proclamation of the king's accession, and to assume for a time an attitude of decided hostility and rebellion, taking measures also for setting up the Romish religion by force of arms. Cork, Waterford, and Limerick appear to have been particularly distinguished for their manifestations on this occasion; and other places of less importance and strength, as Clonmel, Kilkenny, Wexford, &c., were not slow to parti

cipate in the same kind of proceedings. Riotous In Cork, the rebellious citizens, we are told, in Cork on took possession of the churches, ejected the law. the King's ful reforined ministers, burned what Bibles and

Common Prayer Books they could find, rased out the Ten Commandments and Scripture sen

See the Judgment of the Doctors of Salamanca and Valladolid on the Earl of Tyrone's War in Ireland, &c. Appendix, No. 57.

accession.

tences from the churches, and painted Romish A. D. 1603. pictures in their stead, restored the mass in public use, and paraded the city in procession with a cross, which they forced all persons to reverence. In fine, they took the sacrament to pledge themselves to the support of the Roman Catholic religion with their lives and fortunes, and gave proofs of their earnestness by various acts of tumult and outrage. Nor were the citi- Similar outzens of Waterford much less violent; for they Waterford ; too showed their temper by pulling down their and their recorder from the cross, where he was reading the proclamation of the king's accession, seizing on churches, and admitting into one of them a Dominican friar to preach a seditious sermon, in which, among other injurious remarks relative to the late queen, he took occasion to say that Jezebel was dead, causing mass to be celebrated in the Cathedral, &c.

But these comparatively trifling exceptions to the general tranquillity were soon removed by the energy and address of the Lord Deputy Mountjoy, who visited Munster in person for the restoration of order. Waterford at first refused to admit the viceroy within its gates, pleading some privilege founded upon an ancient charter, and asserting that its pious citizens “could not in conscience obey any prince that persecuted the Catholic faith.”

They soon

wards

A. D. 1603. however, saw the expediency of opening their

gates, taking the oath of allegiance to the king, and renouncing all foreign jurisdiction. After which Lord Mountjoy, having visited Cork also and Limerick, as well as Cashel and other places in the southern province, returned again to

Dublin.* Forbear

And now, for the purpose of confirming the ance of the public peace and good order, a proclamation was king to

issued, granting a general indemnity and obliO'Neilland vion for past offences against the law. Moreplices. over, the chieftains O'Neill and O'Donel (i. e.

Roderick O'Donel, brother of Hugh Roe O'Donel, who had fled into Spain) were taken over by the Lord Deputy to visit the king's court in London, where, after a very gracious reception of them both, the latter was created Earl of Tyrconnel.

But these Irish noblemen, as they passed along the streets of the English metropolis, were assailed with insults by the populace, who could not restrain, even through respect for the Lord Deputy, their marks of hatred and execration toward the persons of those who had

occasioned so much bloodshed and sorrow to Further thousands of their fellow-countrymen. seditious proceedings

The moderation of King James, however, and of the his temperate bearing towards the Papal Church, agents of was made by the designing and wily agents of

• Cox's History of Ireland, ii. pp. 4-8.

Rome.

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