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he could sit and view the scene, and not, in pity at least, wish to redress their sufferings by releasing them from the injunctions of his decree."* Bishop Berrington's work is one which the The autho

rity for the writer of these pages has not been able to meet preceding with, it not being in the Library of Trinity Col- extracts. lege, Dublin. The extracts above given are here set forth as they stand in Mr. Phelan’s History of the Policy of the Church of Rome in Ireland.

The translation just recorded is described by Dr. O'Co Dr. O'Conor also in eloquent and striking terms, count of the as will be seen from the following extract from proceedings his Columbanus, No. 6. His expressions are tioned. certainly not very gentle, to be applied by a priest of Rome to the chief prelate of his own communion. But the case was one that was well adapted to elicit such a kind of style from a writer of Dr. O'Conor's principles. Historical Narrative of the Case of Eleven Priests

confined in Newgate for not renouncing the Pope's
pretended deposing Power, and for refusing to

take the Oath of Allegiance to King James I. “Of all the transactions of the seventeenth century, Dr. O'Cothat which, next to the Irish massacre, most injured our

nor's conancestors, and led to overwhelm their posterity by the of the mis

demnation penal code, was the rejection of the Irish remonstrance, chievous efand king James's test of allegiance, in compliance with fects of Rothe injunctions of Rome. The second order of our mish policy

in Ireland clergy who were not immediately under Italian influence,

* ib. and Dodd's Ch. Hist. iii. 524. Phelan, Policy, 234.

under King [i. e, in the seventeenth century, and according to Dr. James I.

O'Conor's views,) felt it their duty to subscribe these tests, and several wrote invincibly in their defence. But the sworn delegates of the Roman court issued their suspensions ordering them rather to submit to martyrdom for the Catholic faith.


King James's invincible defence of the oath of allegiance was now overwhelmed by a religious cry. The works of the Jesuits Bellarmine and Suarez against it, were extolled as masterpieces of Catholicity, and the deposing doctrines were rammed down the throats of the English [R.] Catholics, without the least modification, through.

out a period of one hundred and eighty-three years. His notice of the peti

“There is yet extant a petition to Pope Paul V., tion to Paul signed by eleven priests, who were under sentence of V. from the death in Newgate, for refusing James's oath in 1612.

Two of their companions had already suffered death for priests con- this offence. They died in resistance to legitimate authofined in Newgate.

rity, and by the instigation of a foreign power,

“In their petition they intreat of his Holiness by all that is sacred, * to attend to their horrible situation, and they beg of him to point out to them clearly, in what the oath, for which they were condemned to die, is repugnant to the Catholic faith. But yet, influenced by the courtly maxims, they declare their belief in his unlimited power, and they conclude with a solemn protest of blind submission to all his decrees, with an obedience as impli.

cit as if Rome were another Mecca, or as if the Vatican Their mise were the Seraglio of a Mahomet. rable condi- My heart swells with mingled emotions of pity on tion under the despotic

one side, and horror and indignation on another, when I tyranny of contemplate the dilemma in which those wretched men Rome. were thus placed, by the pride and ambition of their su

• Vid. p. 1332 sup.


power a

periors ! Before them was Tyburn, behind them stood armed with fulminating thunders and terrors, that grim disgrace, in the opinion of their flocks, by which they would be overwhelmed as apostates, if they opposed the mandates of Rome ! On one side conscience stared them in the face, with St. Paul*—on another, a Vicar-Apostolic menaced refusal of the Sac crament, even on the eve of death |_This covered them with ignominy as apostates—that though frightful to humanity, was yet attended with posthumous

Religion indignantly wraps herself up in her shroud such prosof deepest mourning, before the idol of Ecclesiastical titution of domination, when she observes the Roman Court sacri- spiritual ficing to its insatiable ambition, the lives of so many he- scandal to roes, who were worthy of a better fate! perverting sacra- all religion. ments which were instituted for the salvation of souls into engines of worldly passions, and rendering them subservient to the policy of those passions, and panders to their intrigues.

“I can fancy a haughty pontiff on receipt of this hum- The pon. ble petition, agitated by contending difficulties : I can tiff's alter. fancy him seated under a crimson canopy, surrounded native under by his sycophants, debating in a secret consistory, whether those unfortunate men shall, or shall not, have per- then existmission not to be hanged! The blood of the innocent ing. was now to be shed, or the deposing and absolving doctrines, and all the Bulls and decisions in their favour, to receive a deadly wound, which no ingenuity could parry, no force could avert, and no skill could cure.

“ Barrister theologues of the Poddle! Blushing beauties of Maynooth! Do let us hear what middle course you would have devised in such existing circumstances ! -In the dedication of one of your hodgepodges to Dr.

the circum. stances

• Romans, xiii.


Troy, you declare that whatever opinion he dictates, that opinion is yours. A fortiori your opinions would have been shaped by those of Pope Paul V., who deliberately encouraged the unfortunate priests in Newgate to suffer death! to be offered up as victims on the altar of

his pride, rather than resign his pretensions to the deposHis intolera- ing power, or retract his decrees! The (R.] Catholic ble pride

religion calumniated on account of the ambition of his and inhumanity in the court, had travelled barefooted over the Alps and the

Appennines, from the dreary cells of a dark and noxious adopted. prison, and stood bareheaded and trembling, petitioning for admittance at the haughty portals

of the Vatican ! Aye, and admittance was refused ! Day passed after day, and no answer was received, but that which might be collected from the sullen silence of impenetrable obduracy, and unbending domination! Both Sixtus and Pius V. had addressed their bulls with these magnificent titles—“We who are placed on the supreme throne of justice, enjoying supreme dominion over all the kings, and princes, and states of the whole earth, not by human, but by divine authority," &c. And now how could it be expected that, in compliance with the petition of eleven beggarly priests of the second order, such magnificent titles should be resigned !-No, said the scarlet Cardinal, perish the idea ! _Let not an iota be yielded, else we shall lose our worldly dominion, Venient Romani et tollent nostram gentem et Regnum. All the pride and pomp, and glory of the Vatican, would then be swept away from off the face of the earth, and what would then be the fate of the thunders of scarlet Cardinals and purple Monsignores ?

“In consequence of this horrible decision, the following innocent English clergymen (alas ! how many Irish) suffered as victims to the domination of Vicars-Apostolic and the fatal influence of the court of Rome.

"I.-Rev. Mr. Cadwallader, refusing to take the oath of

Its consequences.

throw the

allegiance, with a promise of pardon at the place of execution, if he would comply, refused, and in blind obedience to Rome, was executed at Leominster, August 27, 1610.

[Here follows eight other similar cases. See Dodd's Church History, vol. ii.]

“Let us now consider who, in the eye of unprejudiced on whom reason, was the persecutor and executioner of those un- we are to fortunate men-James or the Pope? The question bears

responsibinot one moment's examination, Qui facit per alium facit lity of these per se.

proceedings, “ If it should be alleged that the pope pitied those men who died for his worldly maxims of aggrandizement, that he was not cruel by nature but only by policy, and that he would have saved them if he could by money, or at any expense short of the sacrifice of pompous pride, and uncontrollable dominion, my answer is that this aggravates his guilt. The horrors which hypocritical pride and ambition create, must be laid at the doors of those hypocrites, who disguise their passions with the mask of sanctity, whilst in reality they persecute religion and oppress truth!

Whether Moscow was burned by the French or by the Russians, the invaders are responsible; the necessity originated in them ; he who steeps his sword in the blood of nations, because they will not tamely surrender their independence, whether he destroys those nations immediately, by the aid of foreigners, or by his own immediate and lawless dominion, is guilty of the excesses which his outrages have provoked; and he is the more guilty if he executes, with calm deliberation, enormities, which the sudden impetuosity of passion might in some instances palliate, though no provocation could justify.

He that causeth another to do any thing, is himself the doer of it.

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