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3. CLONMACNOISE. Henry, a Dominican friar, died about 1367. Michael Cory, bishop of Clonmacnoise in 1390, succeeded by papal provision. ..

(H. 172) 4. CLOGHER. Matthew Mac" Cathasaid, lawfülly elected cir 1361. Bernard Mac Camæil, bishop of Clogher in 1356, and O'Corcroin, bishop in 1370, succeeded to the see by popes' provisions.

(H. 181) 5. DOWN. Friar William, 1365—1368 ; succeeded by pope's provision.

(H. 201) 6. CONNOR. William Mercier, 1353— 1375, was archdeacon of Kildare. His predecessor, James O'Kerney, 1324-1351, was promoted by pope John XXII.

(H. 222) 7. KILMORE. Richard O'Reley, Ob. 1370 ; immoral, it seems. His successor, Thomas of Rushok, was promoted by Pope Urban VI., being translated by him to this see in 1389.

(H. 228) 8. ARDAGH. Owen O'Ferral, canonically elected. His fourth successor, Gilbert Mac Brady, 1396, came in by papal provision.

(H. 253) 9. DROMORE. “Christopher" presided in 1369. His second successor John O'Lannub, was appointed by Pope Urban VI., circ. 1382.

(H. 260) 10. RAPHOE." Richarä Mac Crossain, succ. 1386. His successor John, was appointed by Pope Boniface IX., 1397.

(H. 273) 11. DERRY. Simon, sed. 1367 and 1369. A friar. His second successor on record was appointed by Pope Boniface ix., 1401.

(H. 289) 12. KILDARE. Robert of Aketon ; nulled by the pope at Down in 1365 ; succd. to Kildare, 1366--1368; Henry, bishop of Kildare in 1401, William, 1432, and Geoffry Hereford, 1449 were appointed by the popes Boniface IX. and Eugene IV.

(H. 387) 13. FERNS. Thomas Den, 1363—1400 ; archdeacon of Ferns. His predecessor William Charnells, was appointed by the pope, and obtained possession, A.D. 1350. 4 When the castle of Ferns was Military taken by the Rebels, he in person headed a party made up of his services of servants and dependants, and putting the rebels to flight, recovered the papal the Castle ;" of which he was made Constable, with the Fee of £20 a bishop Den, year, as appears by a liberate for year's salary from 10th of Decem- against the ber to 10th of June, 1355, dated at Dublin, 5th of June.-Rot. pat. Irish rebels, tur. Berm. N 33. f. He was for a time Treasurer of Ireland. Ob. A.D. 1350. 1362.

(H. 443 and Ms. nn.) His two next successors were by pope's provisions appointed. They were Patrick Barret, 1400 -1,15; Robert Whitby, 1416_1458.

(H. 444) 14. EMLY. “William," archdeacon of Emly, 1363—1393 ; succeeded by papal provision. In 1377 he was fined 100 marks for not

appearing upon summons at a parliament held at Castledermot in that year

(H. 497) 15. LIMERICK. Stephen de Valle, 1360—1369;"succeeded by a pope's provision. Vid. sup. Meath.

(H. 508) 10. ARDFERT. John de Valle, 1348—1372; was promoted by provision of pope Clement V., as also his two successors, viz., Corns. O'Tigernach, 1372—1379; William Bull, 1379–1382. (H. 522)

17. CORK. Gerald de Barry, 1359—1393. (By his petition to the Lord J. and Council, in 1381, he set forth, that he was above 80 years of age, and often visited by sickness, so that he was not able to attend parliaments in person, and on that account desired to be excused personal attendance in all future parliaments, which ye king granted by a patent at Cork, 20th Jan. for the fine of two marks, and sending a sufficient proxy.-Rot. 5, Ric. 2.)

(H. 561) His successor, Friar Roger Ellesmere, was appointed by Pope Boni

face IX., and filled the see for ten years 1396—1406. Services of 18. ROSS. " Dennis," 1336-1377. (Having acquired for his life of the Bp. of one plowland in Commys, and ye Escheator having seized the same, Ross in “re- pretending that he had acquired it in fee, and that he was an Irishforming" man, he was restored thereto upon petition, by ye king, to advance the Irish of ye see and toʻshew his esteem for ye bishop, who was assiduous in rehis locality. forming the Irish of those parts. April 18, 1358.-Rot. claus. 32 Ed. III. D. R. 2. MS. notes ut sup.,


(H. 587) His four next successors, to 1426 or later, were appointed by papal provision.

(H. ib.) 19. KILFENORA. The succession here at this period is very obscure. Rd. O'Loghlain. Ob. 1359. “Patrick," sed. 1394. Denis O'Cahan. Resig. 1491. Maurice O'Brien then succeeded by papal provision.

(A. 624) 20. ELPHIN. * Gregory " succ: 1356. Resign. 1372. Advanced to the see of Elphin by Pope Innocent VI. ..

(H. 631) 21. CLONFERT. Thomas O'Kelly appears to have been bishop from 1347 to 1377. John O'Lean, bishop of this diocese, A.D. 1322– 1336, succeeded by papal appointment.

(H. 640) 22. KILMACDU AGH. " Nicholas," (1369—1371.) John, bishop of this see in 1418, was appointed by pope Martin III.

23. KILLALA. " Robert," succ. 1350. Was fined 100 marks for not appearing upon summons at a parliament of Castledermot, A.D. 1377. His successor was advanced by Pope Urban VI. 1381. (H. 651)

24. ACHONRY. Nicholas O'Hediam, 1348—1373. Succeeded by provision of Pope Gregory XI.

(H. 659)

These records, while exhibiting the wide prevalence of papal influence in the Irish sees, at the period to which they refer, afford at the same time sufficiently plain illustrations of the fact, that the prelates appointed by such influence included in their number some, at least, of those on whose fidelity and energy in keeping down “the native Irish” the English government could place the fullest reliance.

No. XXI.


France and

One of the first objects pursued in regard to Nature of Ireland by the powers of England and Rome, Tenth, lewhen the island came under their authority, was vied in the raising of taxes out of the country for their England, own purposes ; and of these taxes none was A.D. 1188 more worthy of note than that which was known by the name of the Saladin or papal Tenths. This impost originated in the sensation caused throughout Europe by the intelligence of the

For the matter of this article in general, with more on the same subject, see the Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and Dromore, of the Rev. W. Reeves, in which are given also abundant references to original authorities for all the particulars here touched upon.

A.D. 1254.

capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187; in consequence of which the kings of England and France were led, in the following year, to impose upon their respective subjects a tax of onetenth of their moveables and annual income for the relief of the Holy Land. The assessment however very shortly underwent a limitation, and it became in the following century a charge

to which the clergy alone were liable. Origin of The first memorable instance of the exaction the Norwich of the tax in England under this modified cha

racter was in 1254, when Henry III., agreeably to a grant which Pope Innocent IV. had made him in the preceding year, instituted a general valuation of all ecclesiastical benefices in England, in order to levy with greater precision the Tenths of the clerical incomes during the three years to which his grant extended. The rural dean, assisted by three principal rectors or vicars in his deanery, was required to make a return of all the ecclesiastical revenues within the same, certified, as to its accuracy, upon oath. The whole valuation thus compiled received from the grantor the name of “Pope Innocent's Valor," or, from the agent, Walter de Suthfield, bishop of Norwich, “the Norwich Taxation;" and it continued to form until the close of the century, a standard for the regulating of all cle. rical subsidies and assessments.


In Ireland also a collection was made in vir- Collection

of the papal tue of the same grant, but whether a regular Tenths in scrutiny was instituted, or how it was conducted, Ireland in is not recorded. A little before, in 1251, there and A.D. had also been a levy in this country for the service of the Holy Land; and again in 1270, we find it on record, that the Tenths in Ireland which had been granted to Henry III. for three years, were by him assigned and made over to his Queen Eleanor.

At the Second Council of Lyons, held in A.D. A twelve 1274, by Pope Gregory X., this pontiff having years' grant obtained (by a resolution entered into at the in England, close of the second session) a general grant of the ecclesiastical Tenths for a term of six years, * Scotland, by a levy was in consequence begun in England in sv. to K. the same year, according to the scale of Pope Edward 1.'; Innocent's Valor above-mentioned. The amount was all collected for England in 1282, and was on the point of being remitted to Rome, when Edward I. peremptorily forbade the removal of any portion of it, and soon after took forcible possession of the whole. Subsequently exerting himself by politic negociations with several successive pontiffs to secure the treasure for himself, and especially by promising to undertake an expedition to the Holy Land, he was at

Wales, and

* Labbe, Concil. tom. xi. par. i. col. 398. Par. 1671.

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