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ing to their exigencies. He spent a week in the house of the cowarba of Patrick in Armagh.(!)
“ A.D. 1152. A synodal meeting was held in Drogheda of the matof the bishops of Ireland, with the cowarb of Patrick, ters transthe Cardinal John Papiro, and 3000 ecclesiastics, monks, acted at the
Synod of and canons. They introduced on that occasion several Kells. regulations pertaining to morals, to this effect ;-that the men must banish their mistresses and concubines ;-that no allowance must be asked for extreme unction or for baptism; (and yet that it was not well that nothing should be given, seeing that they were instituted for the benefit of men ;)—that nothing should be taken for conferring ecclesiastical orders ;--and that tithes should be punctually paid.(2)
nor's notes on the
On these passages O'Conor has the following Dr. O'Co. notes :
above. "(1) The principal cause of Paparo's coming to Ireland was to introduce Roman rites and to confer the four palls on the four archbishops of Ireland. His arrival some refer to A.D. 1152. [Wrongly, vid Lan. iv. 141.]
(2) This first mention of tithes should be carefully Original of noted. For neither in these nor in the other Irish annals Church prois there any where mention made of Church property, perty in Tredown to this year 1152, under any other denomination than the episcopal tribute of Armagh, which is called the Riar Patraicc, and the episcopal tribute of Derry called the Riar Coluimcille. Other churches as well as these had their lands assigned to them of old by the kings, which went by the name of Termon, i. e. (Terræ immunes) free lands, and nemeadh, as above at A.D. 1148. The word Riar signifies the king's land, or portion, or donation, such as the old churches were endowed with by the kings in ancient times.”
Neimheadh, Neimheadh is explained by O'Brien " glebe
land,” quasi neamh-iath, holy or consecrated
land, (iath, land.) Moore's ac On the subject of this article Mr. Moore obcount of the Synod of
serves, that besides the distribution of the palKells re- liums, &c., the chief affairs that appear to have ferred to.
occupied the Synod of Kells were some enactments against simony and usury, as well as against the prevalence of marriage and concubinage among the clergy, &c. See Art. LXXVI.
inf. Note con- An anonymous writer, (quoted by Ware, cerning the place where Lan. iv. 141, 2,) in giving the transactions of bly was
the Synod of Kells, asserts that it was held at “ Meil," (vid. p. 532 sup. not.) which may have been a mistake of the transcriber; but which seems to have been the cause that led some to suppose that the synod was held at Mellifont, as they understood Mell to mean. Kells was however certainly the place. “Yet it may be,” says Lanigan, “that after Cardinal Paparo's departure some of the bishops assembled again at Mellifont, under the presidency of Christian, who was then apostolic legate ; and thus perhaps we may account for the singular statement of the Annals of Innisfallen at A.D. 1152, that the synod was held at Drogheda, or as some have said, ad monasterium pontanense, inasmuch as
Mellifont, being not far from Drogheda, might have been called its monastery."
The old book of Flan Mac Eogan says that The ar“it was in violation of the rights of the clergy at Kells of Patrick and Columbkille that the pallium was partly ofgiven to the church of Dublin, or even to that the native of Tuam.”* This word “even” seems to imply, people of “although the latter dignity being situated among the Irish, the injury was in this case qualified, at least in appearance, by the honour done to a native see; while in the case of Dublin there was a pure exaltation of foreign, at the expense of mere Irish' influence.”
BULL OP POPE ADRIAN IV. TO KING HENRY II. OF ENGLAND, GRANT
ING HIM LIBERTY TO TAKE POSSESSION OF IRELAND, &c.
“ Adrian, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Pope Adrian our wellbeloved son in Christ the illustrious king of the sa!utes English, health and apostolical benediction.
Henry II. " Your Highness is contemplating the laudable and very pra
ciously : profitable work of gaining a glorious fame on earth, and augmenting the recompense of bliss that awaits you in congratuheaven, by turning your thoughts, in the proper spirit lates him on of a Catholic prince, to the object of widening the boun
gressions on daries of the Church, explaining the true Christian faith Ireland : • O'Conor, Rer. Hib. Prol. ii. p. 159; Reeves, Ant. of Down, &c.
his pious ag
cess of the
to those ignorant and uncivilized tribes, and exterminating the nurseries of vices from the Lord's inheritance. In which matter, observing as we do, the maturity of deliberation, and soundness of judgment, exhibited in your mode of proceeding, we cannot but hope that proportionate success will, with the divine permission, attend your exertions.
Certainly there is no doubt, but that Ireland and all his interest the islands upon which Christ the Sun of Righteousness
hath shined, and which have received instruction in the expedition : Christian faith, do belong of right to St. Peter and the
Holy Roman Church, as your grace also admits. For which reason we are the more disposed to introduce into them a faithful plantation, and to engraft among them a stock acceptable in the sight of God, in proportion as we are convinced from conscientious motives, that such efforts are made incumbent on us by the urgent claims
of duty. recites the “ You have signified to us, son well-beloved in Christ,
your desire to enter the island of Ireland, in order to the bargain bring that people into subjection to laws, and to exter
minate the nurseries of vices from the country; and
that you are willing to pay to St. Peter an annual triconcluded
bute of one penny for every house there, and to preserve between them :
the ecclesiastical rights of that land uninjured and invio
late. gives his * We therefore, meeting your pious and laudable defull sanc
sire with the favour which it deserves, and graciously Invasion : acceding to your petition, express our will and pleasure,
that in order to widen the bounds of the Church, to check the spread of vice, to reform the state of morals, and promote the inculcation of virtuous dispositions, you shall enter that island, and execute therein what shall be for the honour of God and the welfare of the country. And let the people of that land receive you in honourable style, and respect you as their lord : provided always
of Ireland was to be
tion to the
that ecclesiastical rights be uninjured and inviolate, and the annual payment of one penny for every house be secured for St. Peter and the Holy Roman Church.
“ If then you shall be minded to carry into execution and conthe plan which you have devised in your mind, use your some deendeavour diligently to improve that nation by the inculcation of good morals; and exert yourself, both per- ing exhortasonally, and by means of such agents as you employ, tions. (whose faith, life, and conversation you shall have found suitable for such an undertaking,) that the Church may be adorned there, that the religious influence of the Christian faith may be planted and grow there; and that all that pertains to the honour of God and the salvation of souls may by you be ordered in such a way, as that you may be counted worthy to obtain from God a higher degree of recompense in eternity, and at the same time succeed in gaining upon earth a name of glory throughout all generations.'
Lynch, (the author of the work flippantly en- The authentitled Cambrensis eversus) and Mac Geoghegan ticity of this were indiscreet enough to attempt to prove this questioned bull a forgery, and that Adrian could never have by some. sent forth such a monstrous document. Such speculations have not however met with much countenance from any of the more judicious and well-informed writers of the Church of Rome. A complete exposure of their absurdity may be seen in Lanigan, iv. 164-166.
According to an old Irish tradition preserved Curious in the Leabhar Breac, (an interesting compila-Irish
tradition of the 15th century, from documents of relative to