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Regibus) ' Robert with his brothers Arnulph, (who had inherited his father's title,) and Roger of Picardy (so named from having married a wife out of that country) renounced England for ever ; but the stringency of the oath given to this effect was qualified by the addition of this clause-unless at some future time he shall have given satisfaction to the king's pleasure by his good conduct.' This narrative is necessary for enabling us to understand the little epistle above given, which we have copied from a MS. volume of letters written by Anselm.”

Curious ob The following curious passage of Malmes

of w. of Malo bury's, occurring in his Life of Henry I. not only mesbury, for its connection with what precedes, but also concerning the relations on account of the general purport of its contween Eng. tents, will be read with interest.

(Vid. Rer. land and Angl. Scrip. post Bed. Lond. 1596, fol. 91.) Ireland in the age of Murcard' “So far did our Henry secure the attachment of and Henry Murcard king of Ireland, and his successors (whose

names fame hath not promulgated) that they would write nothing but what would gratify and flatter him, and do nothing, but what he would bid them. Albeit Murcard is said, for what cause I know not, to have ex. hibited for a few days a little high temper towards the English; although he soon calmed the swelling passion of his bosom when a stoppage of sailing and shipping in. tercourse was threatened against him. For what would Ireland be worth if no commodities were to be conveyed thither by sea from England. So starved of every kind of useful produce is the soil outside the cities, from the penury, and the ignorance of its cultivators, with its wild and squalid multitude of Irish occupants. But the English and French people who reside in the market cities for the purpose of carrying on business, maintain a more civilized kind of life.”

Thus it appears that even at this period there The resiwere not only Danes, but English and French Normans in people also living within the towns of this Ireland faisland—(hostis habet muros). No wonder then to the Invathat the Anglo-Norman invaders prospered fa- sion. mously in mastering the cities of Ireland, thus establishing themselves in the strongholds of the country, and leaving the natives to carry on as they might the debasing and weakening exercises of a bootless and fatal guerilla warfare in the rural districts.



Mention has been made in the preceding Ar- Framaracts ticle of the Chronicles of Caradoc of Llancar- Powell's van, as throwing light on the early history of Caradoc of our own country. From the rare old English

Llancarvan. version of this work, prepared in the reign of Q. Elizabeth, we have drawn for the reader's information the copious extracts that here follow; which are rendered peculiarly interesting to the student of Irish history, from the close analogy existing at the time alluded to between the respective circumstances of the two coun

tries Ireland, and Wales, as connected with the invasions of the Norman aggressors. The title of the work from which the extracts are made is as follows:

Title of the work.

“ The Historie of Cambria, now called Wales ; a part of the most famous Yland of Brytaine, written in the Brytish language about two hundreth yeares past: translated into English by H. Lhoyd, gentleman : corrected, augmented, and continued out of Records and best approved authors by David Powel Doctor in Divinitie. Lond. 1584.”

The address “ To the reader" contains much instructive matter illustrating the work itself

and its subject. In it we are informed that Powell's ac

“Caradoc of Lancarvan collected the successions and count of the actes of the Brytish Princes after Cadwallader (who died original A.D. 688] to the yeare of Christ 1156. Of the which colAnnals, and lections several copies were kept . ..

which were yearetion of them; lie augmented . . . until the year 1270 . . . a little be

fore the death of the last Lhewelyn who was slain at Buelht. These collections were copied by divers, so that there are at this daie of the same in Wales a hundred copies at the least, whereof the most part were written two hundred years ago.* This book Humffrey Lhoyd gent . . , translated into English, and partsie augmented, chieflie out of Matthew

Paris and Nicholas Trivet. The copie of his translation the Rt. Honble. Sir Henry Sidney Lord president of Wales . . . had lieing

* It is be regretted that there is no copy of this curious record, in the original tongue, to be found in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.

by him a great while, and being desirous to have the same set out in print sent for me in September last, requesting me to peruse and correct it, in such sort as it might be committed to the press :"

which accordingly after some hesitation Powel undertook to do. Touching his motives, he says

“The second thing that mooved me thereunto, is the which he slanderous report of such writers as in their books do was led to

undertake, inforce everie thing that is done by the Welshmen to

partly in their discredit, leaving out all the causes and circum- order to do stances of the same; which doo most commonlie not justice to onelie elevate or dissemble all the injuries and wrongs and vindioffered and done to the Welshmen, but also conceale or cate their deface all the actes worthie of commendation atchieved character by them. Search the common chronicles touching the from the asWelshmen, and commonlie thou shalt find that the king

persions of

English sendeth some nobleman or other with an armie to Wales, writers. to withstand the rebellious attempts, the proud stomachs, the presumptuous pride, stirre, trouble, and rebellion of the fierce unquiet craking fickle, and unconstant Welshmen, and no open fact laid downe to charge them withall, why warre should be levied against them, nor yet they swarving abroad out of their owne countrie to trouble other men. Now this historie dooth shew the cause and circumstances of most of those warres, whereby the qualitie of the action may be judged, and certeinlie no man is an indifferent witness against him whom he counteth his enimie or adversarie, for evil will never speaketh well. The Welshmen were by the Saxons and Normans counted enimies, before the twelfth yeare of Edward the first, while they had a governour among themselves : and afterward, when king Edward had brought the countrie

to his subjection, he placed English officers to keepe them under, to whome most commonlie he gave the for. faits and possessions of such Welshmen as disobeied his

lawes, and refused to be ruled by the said officers : the The rebel- like did the other kings that came after him. The said lious temper officers were thought oftentimes to be over-severe and Welsh crea. rigorous for theire owne profit and commoditie; which ated by the things caused the people often to disobeie, and manie times tyranny and like desperate men to seeke revengement, having those cupidity of for their judges which were made by their overthrow, rulers ;

and also wanting indifferencie in their causes and matters of griefes; for the kings alwaies countenanced and be leeved their owne officers, by them preferred and put in trust, before their accusers whom they liked not of. Whereupon the inhabitants of England, favouring their countriemen and freends, reported not the best of the Welshmen. This hatred and disliking was so increased by the stirre and rebellion of Owen Glyndoure, that it brought foorth such greevous lawes, as few Christian kings ever gave or published the like to their subjects. These things being so, anie man may easile perceive the verie occasion of those parentheseis and briefe notes of rebellion and troubles objected to the Welshmen, without

opening of cause or declaration of circumstances. and by the “The Normans having conquered England and gotten necessity of all the lands of the Saxon nobílitie, would faine have had defending

the lands of the Welshmen also, whereupon divers of against An- them entred Wales with an armie, so that the Welshmen glo-Norman were driven for their owne defense to put themselves in aggression. armour; for the which fact they are by some writers

accused of rebellion, whereas by the law of nature it is lawful for all men to withstand force by force. They were in their owne countrie, the land was theirs by inheritance and lawfull possession; might they not therefore defend themselves from violence and wrong, if they could. What right or lawfull title had the Earle

of Ches

their own

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