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and rather

utterly unfounded. I see no proof whatsoever that the old Irish observed any distinction between ordinaries and chorepiscopi. If they knew any thing about the peculiar office of the latter, it might perhaps with almost as much appearance of reason be asserted that all their bishops were chorepiscopi, excepting him of Armagh. But if such an order had existed, I suppose

contrary to Lanfranc and Anselm would have been as likely the state to have been aware of the circumstance, and to ments of have made all due allowance for it, as Dr. Lanigan, or any of the moderns. And if it were possible for such an order to have been very prevalent in Ireland, without those famous and learned English primates being aware of it, the charge might in that case have been easily refuted by an explanation of the matter on the part of any of the Irish authorities, and then it would not have been repeated as it was.

It is true that ihe Irish may have been ac- The Irish quainted with the triple mode of consecration, not adoptand used it on some occasions, especially such of ing genethem as laboured in other countries, as in Eng- triple mode land for instance; a case of which has been of consecrabrought under our notice in the consecration of still have Cedd mentioned in the preceding article. One other instance of the kind, occurring in Ireland its use elseitself, is cited by the Rev. W. Reeves from the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick; in which it is

known somewhat of


stated that “he set over the Church of Tamney, Bishop Carellus, whom according to the custoin of the Church, Patricius, Bronus, and Bitæus ordained to his episcopal office."* But were this even stated on a more satisfactory authority, it would not serve the argument very much. It might shew that the Irish knew something of the rule or practice followed elsewhere; but this would only make the contrast of their general carelessness about it the more remarkable.






of the intercourse

The records of history furnish us with some existing be interesting information relative to the intertween England and course maintained before the Conquest between Ireland in the Irish people and their neighbours in the isle ceding the adjacent. It is a subject which belongs proConquest.

perly indeed rather to the secular than to the ecclesiastical history of Ireland; but seeing how little attention appears to have been directed to ·

Trias Thaum. 135.

it in any of those modern works in which it might have been more suitably introduced, it appears worth while to set forth here some particulars relating to it, which, especially as connected with the Anglo-Norman invasion of this country, cannot fail to prove interesting to the reader. The earliest writing to which we shall now direct attention in connection with this subject is the following extract from ORDERICUS VITALIS (Ec. Hist. Lib. 4) in the Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores ” of Duchesne, Lut. Par. 1619. The passage occurs in the History of William II. A.D. 1068, p. 513. (N.B. Ordericus wrote in the twelfth century.)

"The two sons of Harold king of England, vexed at Orderic's having seen their father put to death, and themselves account of banished out of the country, had taken refuge with Dir- the Irish exmet king of Ireland.* By means of his co-operation and England that of the princes of the realm, they were enabled to under the raise an auxiliary force, and return to Exeter with sixty- song of Ha

. six vessels freighted with troops well armed. Then advancing inwards from the shore they commenced ravaging the country with considerable audacity, and raging about with fire and sword, made use of every endeavour to perpetrate as much mischief as possible. Upon this Brien, son of Eudo count of Bretagne, and William Fitzgerald, advance on them without loss of time to encounter them in arms; and in two conflicts engaged in on the same day, they reduced a tremendous multitude to

• Or rather, “ a king of Ireland." This was the celebrated king of Leinster, Dermod Mac Maol-na-mbo, who was killed in battle in Meath, A.D. 1072. Vid. Lan. iii. 474.

such a scanty handful, that the remnant which retreated made their escape in two boats, and filled Ireland with lamentations. And only that night interrupted the battle, not even a messenger to tell the news of the slaughter would have escaped home to his native soil. Such fortune justly befel sons who sought revenge for a tyrant father, and the parties who became their abettors in such a design."

A similar account is furnished by Willelmus count of the Gemmeticensis in his History of the Normans, prize no

(Lib. 7, cap. 41, p. 290, tom. eod.) where he ticed. adds, that there were slain upon this occasion

a thousand and seven hundred warriors, with some princes of the realm of Ireland.”

The subject of this intercourse between England and Ireland in the times immediately before the Conquest will be found illustrated with further particulars and other interesting extracts in the articles wbich follow.

W. Gemmet's ac

same enter



King Mur- “ Murchardach, king of Ireland to Anselm, arch-pre-
togh thanks late of the English, greeting and faithful obeisance.
Anselm for

“What ample acknowledgments am I bound to renhis kindness der unto you, my lord, for that, as I am informed, you to his son-in- make remembrance constantly in your prayers of me a

• Vid. pp. 428, 429, sup.

sinner. And besides this, you have given to my son-in- law Arnulph law Ernulphus the benefit of your aid and interference, de Montgo as far as was consistent with your own dignity. Be as- mery. sured that you shall find me also ready to act as your servant in such matters as you shall be pleased to make the subject of your commands. Fare you well.”

Upon this epistle the notes of Ussher are as follows:

notes on

“ Ernulf, whom Murchardach here calls his son-in- Archbishop law, is Arnulph de Montgomery, the original invader of Ussher's Pembroke and lord of that region, (which is called Di.

this Epistle, veta and Western Wales,) son to Roger de Montgomery and account first earl of Salop and Arundel.* Concerning him Gi- of the above raldus Cambrensis writes in his Guide through Cambria Arnulph. (lib. 1. cap. 12,) 'Arnulph de Montgomery under Henry I. king of the English, was the first who built a castle in Pembroke, a rather unsubstantial one, of hurdle work and SCTUS. Which afterwards, on occasion of his returning into England, he gave over in charge to a trusty and prudent individual, Gerald de Windsor, his constable and standardbearer, with a few men for a garrison ;' i. e. to that Gerald from whom the earls of Desmond and Kildare, and the other families of the Giraldines (or Fitzgeralds] in Ireland derive their origin. Arnulph having afterwards re- How Ar. volted from Henry I. (together with his brother Robert nulph came

to be allied de Belesme, Earl of Salop, passed over into Ireland with

by marriage a view to obtaining auxiliary forces for strengthening to king Murhis cause against his own sovereign ; and there he took togh. to wife the daughter of king Murchart or Murchardach, as Caradoc of Lhancarvan also testifies in the History of A.D. 1101 and 1102. The issue of the conspiracy William of Malmesbury expresses in these words (lib. 5, de

. See the Annals in the next Article inf. at A.D. 1091, seqq.

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