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was consecrated in this manner, yet afterwards fully complied with all that could be deemed necessary for the completing or correcting of the ceremony; of which by

and by. Account of “His Cathedral seat he fixed in the aforesaid town of Kentegern's Deschu, interpreted illustrious family,' which is now life, &c., at Glasgow called Glaschu. And there he gathered round him a

very numerous family, illustrious and beloved of God, consisting of servants of the Lord, who followed a life of continence, and regulated themselves according to the model of the primitive Church under the apostles, ab

staining from private property, and giving their attenLimits of his tion to holy discipline and the service of God. And his diocese. episcopal diocese extended as far as to the bounds of the

Cambrian realm, i. e. from that famous wall formerly built by the Britons from sea to sea for a defence against

their enemies, to the river Forth and the Scottish chanCharacter of

“ This man of God then had collected a large number his disciples. of disciples, whom he instructed in the sacred contents of life, &c.

of the Divine Law, and educated them by precept and example for a life of holiness; having purposed to appoint certain of them to be his fellow-labourers in the Lord's harvest. These all were emulous with a godly emulation to imitate his life and doctrine, accustoming themselves to fastings and holy watchings, giving their earnest attention to psalms and prayers, and meditations upon lessons from the Word of God; contenting themselves with a middling sort of diet and raiment ; and employing themselves at certain times and hours in manual labour. And while after the custom of the primitive Church under the apostles and their successors,


* The Cambrian realm here spoken of is not of course Wales; but the country inhabited by the northern Cambri or Cumbri, ( Cumberland men,) the extent of which in St. Kentegern's time is above de. scribed.


they possessed no privale property, and were wont to lead a very sober, righteous, and godly life, as well as one of strict continence, they did nevertheless, at the same time, like Kentegern himself, live apart from one another in the separate abodes to which they belonged. and in which they had set themselves to pursue their course

Origin of of study and mental culture; whence they used to be the name called singular clerics, and popularly, Culdees.

“Seeing then that Britain had been visited with so Kentegern many calamities, and Christianity therein so often over- visits Rome. cast with clouds, or even utterly destroyed; there had sprung up there at various periods various rites opposed to the system of the Holy Church of Rome, and the decrees of the Holy Fathers. In order then to become possessed of the knowledge and ability required for obviating and remedying all these evils, B. Kentegern on seven different occasions started from his monastery aforesaid, and made his way to Rome.

“On one occasion however he visited Rome while B. His kind reGregory was presiding over the apostolic see, &c. To ception by this most holy chief pontiff he gave a full account of his the

Great. entire life, his election to the pontificate, and consecration, and all the circumstances which had occurred to him, in their due order. And this holy pope who was mighty in the spirit of counsel and discretion, as having been filled with the Holy Ghost, when he observed him to be a man of God, and full of the grace of the Holy Ghost, confirmed his election and consecration, as he bad the assurance that both had proceeded from God's appointment. And in compliance with his own often repeated request, which was with difficulty obtained, he supplied whatsoever was defective in his consecration, and sent him forth to the work of the ministry assigned to him by the Holy Ghost.

brought “The Holy Pontiff Kentegern, having received the home with apostolic absolution and benediction, returned home him.

What he

Note on these ex

again, bringing over with him volumes of the canons, and a great many other books of Holy Scripture; and also privileges, and many remembrances of the saints, and church ornaments, and other matters useful for the furnishing of the house of God.”

Passing over the antiscriptural tendency of tracts from these extracts in regard to apostolic poverty, Tinmuth.

Roman supremacy, &c., they are interesting as illustrative of the old Irish and British notions of Church discipline in some particulars; and also as making the name of “ Culdees” on which so much has been said and written, originate with the disciples of the first bishop of Glas

gow. The Irish The charge, “ that bishops are consecrated by reproved

a single bishop" was one of those brought against mode of the Irish by Lanfranc of Canterbury in his letter by the Eng. to Turlogh, A.D. 1074. And again Anselm, in lish pri

or about 1100, writing to Muriardach, king of mates Lanfranc and

Ireland, makes a similar complaint. “It is Anselm.

stated,” says he," that bishops are elected every where in your country, and appointed to their office without any fixed episcopal district; and

that the bishop is ordained by a single bishop Their sys like any presbyter.'

And the same circumstance is also strikingly brought before our nothe case of tice in a well known legendary anecdote of St. kille. Columbkille, who went, as we are informed, to

for their

tem illustrated in

Pp. 424, 432 sup.

their conduct.

Etchen, bishop of Clonfad, for the purpose of being ordained bishop by him, although in the end he was made only a priest instead.

Now to excuse the ancient Irish for following Dr. Lani. a practice so contrary to the general usages and nation toplalaws of the Catholic Church, it has been suggested, and much leaned upon by some, that those Irish prelates who received ordination from a single bishop, were not themselves cathedral bishops, but chorepiscopi, or coadjutorbishops, nominated to labour in rural districts; in whose case such a mode of ordination would be in no way uncanonical. For while the First General Council of Nice, by its 4th Canon, required that there should be at least three bishops present at the consecration of the former, (although the Apostolical Constitutions and Canons say, three or two,) the council of Antioch permits the chorepiscopus to be ordained by the bishop of the city within the jurisdiction of which his district lay. The following is Lanigan's view of the matter, given at (vol.ii. p. 128) in connection with the story of Columba aforesaid.

“Whether the anecdote be true or not, it seems to in- His notions dicate that it was not unusual in Ireland to have persons

about the

multiplicity consecrated by one bishop. And yet it is certain that of chorepis.

• Lanigan's Ec. Hist. ii. 126.

copi in Ire: the Irish clergy were well acquainted with the decrees land in pri- of the Council of Nice and others on this subject. To mitive ages, explain this seeming paradox we must observe that the

order of Chorepiscopi was very general in Ireland. They were undoubtedly, at least very many of them, invested with episcopal powers; although being subordinate to the regular bishop in whose diocese they were stationed, they were not allowed to exercise some parts of them without his permission. Now these chorepiscopi used to be ordained or consecrated by the bishop, properly so called, or ordinary of the diocese, without his being bound to apply for the assistance of other bishops. See the 10th canon of the Council of Antioch, and Bingham (Orig. Ec. Book 2, ch. 14, s. 5,) who adds, that the city bishops (ordinaries) were accountable for the ordination

of the country bishops (Chorepiscopi) to a provincial The inten- synod. In the case of Columba it is very natural to suption, in Co- pose, that the intention was to make him simply a chore. case, what? piscopus, so as to entrust him with the care of the rural

district adjoining Dairmagh(Durrow;) and accordingly it was not necessary to apply for his consecration to more bishops than one. As the Irish had but one name for bishops and chorepiscopi, it is often difficult to know whether persons mentioned in our Church History were ordinaries of dioceses or of that subordinate class. If we read of their having been consecrated by only one bishop, we may justly conclude that they were only chorepiscopi. Or if we find them, as is often the case, moving from one country or province to another, a si

milar inference may be drawn,” &c. Such views Now although these notions appear to be redestitute of garded with some degree of favour by my learned

friend the Rev. W. Reeves (Ecc. Ant. p. 127,) foundation in the facts ; I cannot but confess that to me they appear

any solid

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