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guroesa theatrical manner, and must be highly improper, as well as give offence to the hearers; because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty, which are indispensable" on such occasions. The speaker who delivers his own emotions must be supposed to be more vivid and animated,w than would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.

We shall conclude this section with the following rule, for the tones that indicates the passions and emotions. “In reading, let all your tones of expression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in some degree, more faintly characterized. Let those tones which signify any disagreeable passion of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions; and, on all occasions, preserve yourselves from being so far affected with the subject, as not to be able to proceed through it, with that easy and masterly manner, which has its good effects in this, as well as in every other art."

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SECTION VII. a Ces-sa-tion, sés-sa'-shủn, a stop, r In-ter-rog-a-tive, In-têr-rogʻ-gå.

tiv, denoting a question. b Per-cep-ti-ble, pêr-sép'-td-bl, such s Ter-mi-nate, têr'-me-nate, to limit, as may be known or seen.

end, c Meas-ur-a-ble, mézh'-úr-d-bl, such t Mes-sen-ger, més-sén-jůr, as may be measured.

who delivers a message, d Tem-po-ra-ry, têm'-po-rå-re, u Con-junc-tion, kôn-júnk'-shản, a fleeting, short lived.

part of speech, union. © Con-ti-nu-i-ty, kón-te-nd'-e-te, lo Dis-ci-pline, dis-se-plîn, order, connexion, cohesion.

ern.

education. f Ush-er, úsh'-år, to introduce, an w Co-in-cide, kd-in-side', to concur. assistant.

x Con-trol, kồn-troll', to check, gov& Ex-cite, ek-site', to rouse, animate.

\y U-til-i-ty, ya-til-e-tè, usefulness. h Dis-gust, diz-gůst', aversion, of- z Ag-ri-cul-ture, å g-re-kůl-tshůre, fence.

tillage, husbandry. i De-liv-er-y, de-lfv'-år-é, act of de-a Spe-cies, spé-shez, a sort, class. livering, utterance.

Jo Re-sign, re-zine', to give up claim, A In-ter-val, în'-tér-vål, space be- submit, tween places, or times.

c Mal-ice, mål’-lis, intention to in. | Punc-tu-a-tion, půngk-tshů-d'- jure. shin, stops in writing.

ld Se-rene, sè-réne', calm, placid. m Con-struc-tion, kön-stråk'-shủn, e So-lic-i-tude, só-lis'-se-idde, anxia meaning, sense.

ety, great care. n In-ti-mate, in'-tè-måte, to hint, f Re-morse, ré-mðrse', anguish of a familiar friend.

a guilty conscience. o En-gage, én-gåje', to take, induce, g Sen-su-al-i-ty, sén-shd-ål'-e-tè, bind.

luxury, addiction to corporeal p Dis-qui-e-tude, dis-kwll-e-túde, pleasures. uneasiness.

h A-ver-sion, d-ver-shủn, dislike, 9 Al-le-vi-ate, ål-lè'-ve-ate, to make hatred.

light, to ease.

i Lau-da-ble, låw'-dá-bl, praise-, shủn,search, tracing, examination. worthy, good.

11 El-o-cu-tion, él-O-ku-shủn, elok In-ves-ti-ga-tion, in-vês-td-ga'-' quence, delivery.

PAUSES.

Pauses or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total cessationa of the voice, during a perceptible, and in many cases, a measurahlee space of time. Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the hearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in delivery; and that he may, by these temporaryd rests, relieve the organs of speech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued action: to the hearer, that the ear also may be relieved from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a continuity of sound; and that the understanding may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several members.

There are too kinds of pauses first, emphatical pauses; and next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical pause is generally made after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Sometimes before such a thing is said, we usherf it in with a pause of this nature. Such

pauses

have the same effect as a strong emphasis; and are subject to the same rules; especially to the caution, of not repeating them too frequently. For as they excites uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointment and disgust.h

But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses, is to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breath; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses, is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, and without tlie least separation. Many a sentence is miserably mangied, and the force of the emphasis totally lost, by divisions being made in the wrong place. To avoid this, every one while he is reading, should be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagine, that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the voice is allowed to fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervalsk of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and, by this management, one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper interruptions.

Pauses in reading must generally be formed upon the manner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation; and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquired from read

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ing books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be sufficient to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses, which ought to be made in reading. A mechanical attention to these resting places, has, perhaps, been one cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar ione at every stop, and a uniform cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is to assist the reader in discern, ing the grammatical construction;" and it is only as a secondary object, that they regulate his pronunciation. On this head, the following direction may be of use: “Though in reading great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense; and their correspondent times occasionally lengthened beyond what is usual in common speech.”

To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be made in the right place, but also accoinpanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pauses is intimated;o much more than by the length of them, which can seldomn be exactly measured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper; sometimes a degree of cadence in the voice is required; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate ourselves by attending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when engagedo in real and earnest discourse with others. The following sentence exemplifies the suspending and the closing pauses: Hope, the balm of life, sooths us under every misfortune." The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice, that gives the hearer an expectation of something further to complete the sense: the inflection attending the third pause signifies that the sense is completed.

The preceding example is an illustration of the suspending pause, in its simple state: the following instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice:" If content cannot remove the disquietudes? of mankind, it will at least alleviate?.

them."

The suspending pause is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice; as will be seen in this example: “ Moderate exercise', and habitual temperance', strengthen the constitution."*

As the suspending pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the falling inflection, it is the same with regard to the closing pause: it admits of both. The falling inflection generally accompanies it; but it is not unfrequently connected with the rising inflection. Interrogative" sentences, for instance, are often

* The rising inflection is denoted by the acute ;(') the falling, by the grave () accent.

terminated in this manner: as, “ Am I ungrateful?" • Is he in earnest'?"

But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, it is commonly terminated by the falling inflection: as, “What has he gained by his folly'?” “Who will assist him?" “ Where is the messengerit?!! " When did he arrive'?”

When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected by the conjunction“ or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling inflection: as, " Does his conduct support discipline', v or destroy it ?"

The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with emphasis. Though they may often coincide,w they are, in their nature, perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls* those inflections.

The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confers so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples, to induce him to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utilityy and importance.

“ Manufactures', trade', and agriculture', certainly employ more than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species."

He who resigns the world, has no temptation to envy', ha. tred', malice!, anger'; but is in constant possession of a serened mind: he who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of care', solicitude', remorse', and confusion'.'

To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy', comfort the afflicted', are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives,

“Those evil spirits, who, by, long custom, have contracted in the body habits of lust' and sensuality';malice', and revenge'; an aversions to every thing that is good', just', and laudable', are na turally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery.”

I am persuaded, that neither death', nor life'; nor angels', nor principalities', nor powers'; nor things present', nor things to come'; nor height', nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to separate us from the love of God.'”

The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investigationk of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.

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SECTION VIII. a Mel-o-dy, měl'-18-dė, musick, har-lc Cæ-su-ral, sè-zu'-rål, relating to mony of sound.

a cæsura. h Ad-just, åd-jůst', to put in order.

verse.

d De-grade, dé-gråde', to lessen in k Ar-buth-not, år'-båth-nôt, a friend value, to diminish.

and cotemporary of Alexander e He-mis-tich, hémis'-tik, half a Pope.

11 Op-er-ate, op'-per-ate, to act, prof He-ro-ick, he-rô-ik, brave, recit duce effects. ing the acts of heroes.

m Com-pi-ler, kom-pi-lůr, a collec& Theme, théme, a subject, original tor from various authors. word, root.

In Pu-pil, på'-pil, a scholar, the eyeh Sac-ri-fice, såk'-kré-fize, to offer ball,

to heaven, that which is offered to o Pre-par-a-tor-y, pré-pår'-rå-tůr-ė, heaven.

introductory, previous. i Il-lu-mine, 11-lu-mîn, to enlighten, p Pe-ruse, pe-ruze', to read, to ex-', illustrate.

amine. MANNER OF READING VERSE. When we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melodya of verse, which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own: and to adjust and compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, so as neither to hurt the ear, nor offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter, that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with good readers of poetry. There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse: one is, the pause at the end of the line; and the other, the cæsural pause in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end of the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme renders this always sensible; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also to read it so as to make every line sensible to the ear: for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if, in readmg his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause; and degraded thein, by our pronunciation, into mere prose? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song and tone, must be carefully guarded against. The close of the line where it makes no pause in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such a tone as is used in finishing a sentence; but, without either fall or elevation of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspension of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring the meaning:

The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere about the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs“; a pause, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but still sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural pause, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th syllable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsural pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the line can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah:

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