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was early promoted, and became one of the council, and master of the ordnance. In common with most of the eminent military characters of his day, he served with distinguished honour on the continent, and gained especial notice in the expedition against Cadiz: his conduct of the wars in Munster have been fully detailed—the campaign against the last of the southern Geraldines, with its conduct and success have already been detailed, as also his important assistance to lord Mountjoy in the wars against Hugh, earl of Tyrone, and finally, his masterly campaign which closed that rebellion with the siege of Dunboy. These the reader has or may have read in the lives of Hugh, earl of Tyrone, and O'Sullivan More.*
After these memorable achievements Sir George Carew returned to England, where in the first year of king James, he was appointed to the government of Guernsey, and two years after, raised to the peerage by the title of baron Carew of Clopton, near Stratford-uponAvon in Warwickshire. He was next preferred to the high post of master of the ordnance in England, and appointed one of the privy council. He was afterwards created earl of Devonshire by Charles I.f His subsequent life was chiefly employed in writing the history of those events of which, in the earlier period, he had been the witness or principal actor. Among these writings, the most important and the best known is the "Pacata Hibernia," which gives the most full and minute detail of the Munster and Ulster wars above mentioned. To this work we have been chiefly indebted for our details of these transactions. It is mentioned by bishop Nicholson, that he wrote other works on the affairs of Ireland, "whereof forty-two volumes are in the archbishop of Canterbury's library at Lambeth, and four volumes more of collections, from the originals in the Cotton library."J
These, with several other MS. volumes, all of which..were read through and noted by archbishop Usher, exhibit in a very strong and interesting point of view, the intellectual activity and untiring energy and industry of this extraordinary man. A folio edition of the Pacata Hibernia, published in 1633, contained his picture, under which these lines were written:—
"Talis erat vultu, sed lingua, mente manuque
Sir George Carew died in 1629, " in the Savoy,"§ a»d left no heir male. His only daughter married Sir Allen Apsley.|| i
Sir &rt8ur ©fiicijester.
DIED a. D. 1624.
The name and lineage of Chichester has been traced by the heralds to an ancient family in Devonshire.
• Pp. 94, 155. f Nicholson's Irish Hist. Library. J Page 53.
§ Nicholson. || Walpole's Letters. Note, vol. I. p. 157
The subject of this memoir was the second son of Sir John Chichester, knight: his mother was Gertrude, daughter of Sir William Courtney of Powderham castle, in Devonshire: he was born at Raleigh, his father's seat in that county. A precocious promise of talent was probably the occasion of his being at an early age sent to pursue his studies at the university. But there was an activity in his temperament which soon rendered him impatient of a studious life. A daring frolic, more suited to the manners of his time than the present, made it necessary for him to fly the country. The queen's purveyors, instruments of despotic power, and by no means limiting their exactions to the demands of law, were the objects of popular hatred, and considered (like the bailiffs of the last generation) as fair game for either mischief or spite: they were universally set down as robbers, and it was thought by the young student to be no bad joke to follow the precedent of prince Henry, and ease the robber of his plunder. This exploit was followed by discovery, and Chichester was compelled to save himself from the resentment of the queen, who little relished a joke for which she was to have paid; the unpopularity of the exaction made it dangerous, as the laughter of the public was imbittered by discontent; it was no laughing matter to Elizabeth. Chichester betook himself to France, where his personal bravery and military talent recommended him to the favour of Henry IV., by whom he was knighted. His reputation soon reached the English court, where it was not lost upon the ear of the queen. It was her study to encircle her throne with genius and heroism, and Chichester received his pardon.
After some years spent in the military service, he was sent into Ireland, where his services were numerous, and his promotion rapid. He commanded the troops garrisoned at Carrickfergus in 1599, and was, during the entire of that war which we have related in the life of Hugh, earl of Tyrone, among the most aotive, successful, and trusted leaders under lord Mountjoy. In 1603, he was appointed by patent, governor of Carrickfergus, with the fee of thirteen shillings per day for life. In the next year a new patent extended his powers; he was appointed commander of all the forces and governor of the inhabitants of the surrounding districts, of which the towns, forts, shipping and fisheries were placed at his discretion. This was followed by another patent, appointing him lord-deputy of Ireland. He began his government by renewing the circuits, and establishing two for the first time, as already described, so as to establish justice and order throughout the country. He at the same time issued proclamations declaring the abolition of tanistry, and enforcing the laws. Among the numerous projects for the plantation of Ulster, that of Chichester was selected, and its details carried through by his own skill and activity.
In recompense for these great services to Ireland, king James made him a grant of Inishowen, the territory of Sir Cahir O'Doherty, with other rights and lands in the province of Ulster.
On the meeting of parliament, Sir Arthur was created haron Chichester of Belfast. In the preamble to his patent there occurs a remarkable passage, which we here extract because it evidently contains the idea of James and his councillors concerning this island and its condition:—" Hibernian, insula? post Britanniam omnium insularum occidentalium raaximae et amplissimae, et pulcherrimae, coali et soli felicitate et fcecunditate afluentis et insignis; sed nihilominus per multa jam secula perpetuis seditionum et rebellionum fluctibus jactatae; necnon superstitioni et barbaribus moribus, praesertim in provincia Ultoniae, addictae et immersa?."*
We here also insert a letter to Chichester from the king, who, when favouritism did not influence his feeble character, was a just and discriminating observer:—" As at first you were called by our election without seeking for it, to this high place of trust and government of our kingdom of Ireland, and have so faithfully discharged the duties thereof,, that without any desire of yours in that behalf, we have thought fit to continue you in that employment these many years, beyond the example and custom of former times; so now we are pleased, merely of our own grace, without any mediation of friends, without your suit or ambition, to advance you to the state of a baron of that kingdom, in acknowledgment of your many acceptable services performed to us there; and that you and all other ministers of state, which serve us wheresoever, may know by this instance of our favour to you, that we observe and discern their merits, and accordingly do value and reward them," &c.f
Chichester continued in his government for the ten years ending with the parliament of 1613, the cardinal period of Irish history. As the events in which he was a principal actor are those which, from their primary importance, we have selected for the introduction to this period, we may pass on the more briefly to the end of this memoir.
Chichester was a second, time appointed lord-deputy in 1614, in which year Lodge mentions that the harp was first marshalled with the arms of England. On this occasion he maintained his wonted activity, by repressing many disorders in the counties of Leinster, especially in those more wild and uncultivated mountain districts of the county of Wicklow, which he reduced to subjection.
In 1615 he obtained the king's permission to retire from his arduous post, but was in the next year appointed lord high treasurer of Ireland. He built a splendid house for his own residence at Carrickfergus.
In 1622, he was sent ambassador to the Palatinate. To enter on the subject of this embassy we should occupy a space disproportionate to the scale of this memoir. The king was entangled by anxious interests of a contrary nature: Spain had seized upon the dominions of his son-in-law, and while he naturally desired to redress this grievance, he was endeavouring to effect a marriage between prince Charles and the Infanta: he relied too much on negotiation, and was well cajoled by all parties. Chichester was next commissioned to treat for a peace with the emperor: in the course of this proceeding he was shut up in Manheim by the besieging army of Tilly. He sent a messenger to Tilly to say that it was contrary to the law of nations to besiege an ambassador: to this Tilly replied, that he took no notice that he was an ambassador; upon which Chichester told the messenger, "If my master had sent me with as many hundred men as he hath sent
* Lodge. t Quoted by Lodge, from Rot. 10. and 11., Jar. I.
me on fruitless messages, your general should hare known that I had been a soldier as well as ambassador."
Chichester returned from the continent in October the same year, and was sworn of the privy council. He died in the year 1624, in London, and was interred in a chapel on the north side of the church of St Nicholas in Carrickfergus, about eight months after his death.
He was married to a daughter of Sir John Perrot, by whom he had one son, who died in little more than a month after his birth. In consequence his estates descended to his next brother, Sir Edward Chichester. As we shall not have to offer any further notice of this person, we may here add, that his brother's title had been limited to his issue male; the title fell, but as Sir Edward was a person of influence and very serviceable, king Charles revived the title and added a step by the title of viscount Chichester of Carrickfergus. His son Arthur, who lived in more stirring times, was distinguished by his valour, prudence, and fidelity to king Charles, in consideration of which he was created earl of Donegal, in 1647
KILLED a. D. 1608.
The O'Doherty's were the ancient chiefs of Inishowen, a small but celebrated district in the north of Ireland, lying on the sea-coast between Loughfoyle and Loughswilly; of which two great waters a large proportion has time immemorial been converted by the enterprising industry of the inhabitants into a superior whiskey: if we are not rather to infer a more etherial source from its well-known appellation of mountain-dew: if so, it is a dew better known to the Irish gauger than to the scientific academies of Europe, the members of which may thank us for the incidental information that it has been thought not conducive to the fertility of those hills, or to the health of their inhabitants. We cannot with certainty discover whether this native produce was known in the days of the O'Dohertys—the meteorology of Ireland is said to have been changed since then. But from Stanihurst's enthusiastic description of Irish whiskey, we lean much to the inference, that the people of that pleasant region must have at all times rejoiced in the same fascinating but ensnaring distillation of their mountain air: where still, -as of old,
his fragrant fortress builds
When upon the death of his father, the spirited young lord of Inishowen succeeded, to the lordship, he had the good sense to see that his interest lay in the cultivation of friendly intercourse with his English neighbours. Being of a festive and hospitable temper, he easily entered into terms of the most cordial intimacy with his military neighbours, the officers of the English forts, with whom he shared the sports of the field and the gaiety of the social board, and lived on terms of familiar and friendly intercourse. Among these companions there was none for whom he professed a more sincere regard than for captain Harte, the commander of the fort of Culmore, near Derry—their intercourse was continual, and such as manifested the most perfect confidence and regard; their wives became friends, and O'Doherty stood godfather to the child of his neighbour, a relation of peculiar closeness in the eyes of the old Irish.
On the flight of Tyrone and O'Donell, 'Sir Cahir was accused of being privy to the conspiracy of which they had been suspected. Sir Cahir on this attempted to justify himself to the governor of Derry, Sir Amias Paulett: in the heat of accusation and defence the parties grew angry, and O'Doherty was insulted by a blow, and the threat of a felon's death.
Sir Cahir was fired with indignation, for which, indeed, he had ample cause; and considering the spirit of the times, we might easily excuse his having recourse to rebellion, a step which however manifested more spirit than prudence; but the very first step taken by Sir Cahir is far from deserving to be mentioned with the same tolerant allowance, as it was such as to imply a deficiency of every feeling of a gentleman, and indicated a degree of cruelty and treachery, only compatible with the lowest level of the most degraded condition of human nature.
Concealing his sense of insult under the smooth disguise of a reckless manner and the seeming frankness of a warm temperament which concealed the perfidy of his hard and reckless disposition, Sir Cahir meditated a bloody vengeance. Regardless of all considerations which might have embarrassed any one susceptible of human affections, or alive to any sense of just or honourable principle: his project commenced with an outrage upon truth, honour, and humanity, which sets aside every plea of palliation from the ordinary allowances which we are accustomed to make for human frailty. The first step of Sir Cahir's design was to obtain possession of the fort of Culmore commanded by his familiar friend, Harte. The step was sure; for Harte, a blunt and honourable soldier, was unsuspecting by nature, and could not doubt the honour of his friend, still less anticipate any danger from that hospitality which was ever held sacred in the estimation of the Irish. Yet such was the snare resorted to by this reckless betrayer, to lure his confiding friend to destruction. Having made all the necessary preparations to follow up so decided a step, Sir Cahir adopted the safe expedient of inviting his friend Harte with Mrs Harte, to dine with him on the first of May, 1608. Harte was glad to accept the friendly invitation, and, with his wife and child, was punctual to the hour. Dinner came, and went on with unreserved gaiety; it was hardly over when Sir Cahir began to nerve himself for the new part he designed to act: his brow darkened, his manner suddenly grew stern and reserved: and before his guests had time to interpret this embarrassing and unwonted change, the chief started from his seat and beckoned Harte aside. Having withdrawn from the immediate hearing of the company, he told his astonished hearer his purpose of hostility against the English, and demanded the surrender of Culmore on pain of the immediate death of himself, his wife, and child. The English officer refused on any terms to betray his trust;