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tion, wound up at least to a neutrality, if not in policy bound to assist us in case the warre had

gone on with Spaine. Henry the Fourth's former defection, though covered with a late formal conversion, having yet not so strongly estated him in the affection of Rome, as to make him despise the English aliance, or exchange it for any in judgment lesse remote from the pope; or, in case of his death or forgetfulnesse, she had the Hugonotes to friend, who, in all walled townes, prayed for her in publique, owning her for litle lesse than their princess, under the title of a protecteress. Though the Dutch were no lesse hers by interest than gratitude; yet, least prosperity should, in a resty humor, straine these cords, her hands were strengthened by cautionary townes, which did not only bridle them, but abate much of the danger our merchants were in from those remaining under the crowne of Spaine; not so much recruited about this time by the reduction of Ostend after three years siege, as weakened by the former losse of Sluce in a far lesse considerable time. As for Denmarke, Sweden, and other nations, that ordinary cal-, culation hath seated east of us, she held good correspondence with them ; but lay obnoxious to no other inconveniences from them, than what she sustained by the frost, snow, and tedious weather the vicinity of their icy coasts useth to infest more happier climats withall.

did eat the dead carcases they spared not to scrape out of their graves; and if they found a plot of watercresses, or shamrocks, here they flocked, as to a feast for the time; yet not able long to continue therewithall, that in short space, there were none almost left, and a most populous and plentifull countrey suddenly left voyde of man and beast; yet sure, in all that warre, there perished not many by the sword, but all by the extremitie of famine, which they themselves had wrought.” -Spenser's State of Ireland, apud Works, 1805, vol.viii.

P. 430.

26. Nor can she appeare lesse lovely, wise, and successful at home, to any that is able to fix his eyes upon so great a radiancy as did compasse the head of this princess, without the darke vale of prejudice,

not hetherto drawn from before the face of this nation, by the visible indeavours of many, comparisons being apt to raise no lesse odium at home then

abroad. For through the series of her raigne she kept parliaments, the pulse of this nation, in such a temper as no signes appeared either of anarchy or tyrannicall oppression ; her government having been handed to the people with that sweetnessé, that it was esteemed of no lesse advantage to them, than their obedience brought honour to her: under whom the crowne remained in such credit, as the Exchequer was esteemed equall security with the Exchange; the tellers of that court being as ready to issue out moneyes, as those that had debenturs were willing to receive it. And if any contrary practice since brings the truth of this into suspence, let the proverbe, as sure as 'check,' bayle me from the least suspition of hyperbole. Her lands, of which she had a vast proportion, were loaden with timber, fit for all imployments, lying ready, upon occasion, either to raise a navy, or mony to pay souldiers, or mariners. Nor was her treasury quite empty, or the crowne burdened with any considerable debts, but what a parliament would, without murmur, have refunded; no cause of jealousy remaining in relation to an incroachment upon their liberty or estates, since she did not extend to the least generall prejudice her owne unquestioned interest in the perquisites of the crowne; so as her parkes, forrests, and chases, were rather a relief than burthen to the subject, it being then as rare to find a man of quality denied venison, as to heare of one (if not too intemperate) punished for stealing it.' And as the justice in oyer


ii. e. Exchequer.

Falstaff, it may be remembered, treats with supreme scorn Shallow's threat of charging him in council, “ for having beaten his men, killed his deer, and broken open his lodge.” The lenity of Elizabeth, in conniving at a frolicsome misdemeanour, often committed by men of some ránk, was unpopularly contrasted with James's excessive rigour in preserving his game.

was moderate in his courts that related only to the preservation of game; so those in Westminster hall were as carefull to distribute equity and right : or, if, in her time, some cushions in Chancery, Chequer, and Court of Wards, were taken with the moth of corruption, it was after her inspection fayled her, for want of a contrary faction truly to informe her, and no propensity in her nature to protect such courses. The ordinary plea used after, of selling dear, because they bought so, being voyd the most of her dayes ; in which no visible bribes for offices were offered or accepted, but what resulted from favour or desert. The church, in her dayes, lay not disfigured in the filth of profanesse, nor was it dawbed by the varnish of hypocrisy : Ceremony and Sabbath (the ordinary pretences for sedition) being decently not rigidly commanded or observed. So as the wall-eyed blanchers at them were followed more out of reproach than approbation ; and might have been so still, had not the state rendered them more

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