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delegate, or other officer, chosen or appointed in such manner that the election or appointment of such persons to such offices may not be known to the society at large, or of which the names of all the members, and of all committees or select bodies of members, and of all presidents, treasurers, secretaries, delegates, and other officers, shall not be entered in a book or books to be kept for that purpose, and to be open to the inspection of all the members of such society; and all such societies, &c., as aforesaid, are hereby declared to be unlawful combinations and confederacies ; and every person who shall become a member of any such society, as aforesaid, and every person who shall directly or indirectly maintain correspondence or intercourse with any such society, or with any division, branch lodge, committee, or other select body, president, treasurer, secretary, delegate, or other officer or member thereof, as such, or who shall, by contributions of money or otherwise, aid, abet, or support any such society, or any member or officer thereof, as such, shall be deemed guilty of an unlawful combination and confederacy.

The matters of proof requisite to sustain a charge under this Act were, therefore, that an association had been established ; that its rules or proceedings fell within any of the particulars specified in the Act; and that the accused was a member of the association, or maintained correspondence or intercourse with it, or with any member of it, or aided or supported it, or any officer or member of it, with contributions, money, or otherwise.

It is evident from this, that some further enactment was required to render sufficient the evidence, and almost the only evidence (except informers and accomplices) which had been discovered, in most of the Riband cases brought under the notice of the Government, viz., the possession of signs and passwords. To meet the difficulties of proof a draft Bill to amend the Act of the 4 Geo. IV. c. 87, was prepared by Mr Brady when Attorney-General. It became law,* and has since been followed by a series of enactments aiming at the same end.

* This is the Act 2 and 3 Vict. c. 74. Since then have been passed 11 and 12 Vict. c. 89, 19, and 20 Vict. c. 78, and 25 and 26 Vict. c. 33.

No. VII.



" It appears from these tables, that at present there are in Ireland three railways bankrupt or winding-up; two at a stand-still; six paying no dividend on the preference stock; ten paying no dividend on the ordinary shares ; seven, the dividends of which were less than those paid on the Government Funds; six paying dividends at a rate less than that of commercial interest; and but one the shares of which were above par. He thought that where lines had become bankrupt, or where works were stopped, Parliament should not give them extensions of time, or try to have them worked on the commercial principle, as he did not think that they would succeed on that principle. He thought that these lines should be examined, and if their traffic would pay for the cost of completing them, supposing the money to be advanced at 3} per cent., then the Government might safely complete those lines. If the traffic would not pay for the cost of completing them at 3} per cent., then, if the localities took such an interest in the matter as that they would guarantee any portion of the cost of either keeping the railways in repair or of making them, so as to reduce to a profitable speculation for the Government to advance money at 3} per cent., then he thought that they might be completed and become public property; and so far as money already advanced was concerned, he would have the lines worked for about seven years, and if they realised any profit beyond what would pay the Government 3} per cent. on what they advanced on them, he would then give the value of that excess as compensation to the existing owners. He would have the Government take possession of lines either bankrupt or where the works were not proceeding, only on the principle of the general taxes not losing. It was not a question of transference of burden, but simply a question of management. With regard to lines which only paid dividends to preference shareholders, he thought that as the limit of twenty-one years fixed by the Act of 1844 runs out, the Government should take the lines. The traffic should be valued, and the lines purchased by the Government at 3} per cent., and he would do the same with those lines which paid no dividend to their ordinary shareholders. With regard to lines that paid less than the rate of interest in the Funds, he would not interfere with them, unless the companies were anxious to sell. With respect to those lines which paid more than the interest on the Funds, they were, of course, not wholly unsuccessful as commercial speculations, and there would be no occasion, till the experiment of Government management was tried, to interfere with them at all. He thought the Government ought to take contracts for keeping the lines in repair, but the receipts should go to the Government altogether, just as in the case of the Post Office. He thought that all the lines that it would be really profitable to make on the commercial system in Ireland had been made, and that new lines should only be made like country roads-namely, the locality anxious to have them should offer to contribute a part of the expense, whatever would make them profitable; and if the locality guaranteed that, the Government should advance the money, and the railway should become public property.Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland. Part xxxii. Nov. 1866.




The Deed of Foundation of this Scholarship is printed in the Edinburgh University Calendar for 1865–6, p. 198. The following summary of its main features appears in the same publication for 1867-8:This Scholarship was founded in 1865 by Miss Elizabeth

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Drummond, in memory of her brother, Captain Drummond, R.E., Under Secretary for Ireland, and for the encouragement and promotion of the study of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. It is of the annual value of about £100, and is tenable for three years. By the Deed of Foundation it is open to Graduates in Arts of not more than three years' standing, who shall have graduated with Honours in the Department of MATHEMATICS. It is not to be held with any other Bursary, Scholarship, or Fellowship, of any Scottish University; and the holder is recommended to travel for the purpose of inspecting, in this and other countries, remarkable engineering and architectural structures, to extend his knowledge of the practical application of mathematical principles; and, if required by the Senatus Academicus, to deliver reports on the principal structures examined by him, and the mathematical principles exemplified thereby—which reports the Senatus may cause to be publicly read in the University or elsewhere in Edinburgh. The first competition will take place in November 1868, on days to be announced in next Calendar.The Senatus Academicus are the patrons.


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ABERCROMBY, Mr, 180, 182.

Belgian railways, 395; telegraphs,
Absentees, Irish, 222, 237.

Adrian IV., Pope, the conquest of Ire- Billy Welters, an Irish society, 291.
land sanctioned by, 195.

Blanchard, Major, 41, 42.
Agrarian outrages in Ireland, 264, Boates' work on Ireland, 239.
312, 321.

Boroughs, boundaries of, with refer-
Agriculture in Ireland, 357.

ence to the Reform Bill, 138–161 ;
Aitchison, Mr, of Drummore, 10, 12, Commission thereon, 138, 143-8.

14, 18, 24, 162; letters of Mr Bounties in Ireland, 358, 363.
Drummond to, 18, 26, 33.

Brady, Right Hon. Maziere, 251; on
Althorp. Lord, (ufterwards Earl the authorship of the letter to

Spencer,) 143, 174, 179; Mr Drum- Colonel Verner, 302, and of the
mond his Private Secretary, 168, maxim, “ Property has its duties as
173, 185 ; Mr Drummond's subse- well as its rights,” 337; on the
quent visit to, 421, 422; his letter murder of Lord Norbury, 339 ; on

to Mr Drummond's mother, 427. Drummond's domestic life, 414 ;
American War of Independence, its his instructions to the Crown Solici-
influence in Ireland, 229,

tor on challenging jurors, 443.
Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters, Brandrith, Captain, 404.

Brehon laws of Ireland, 192-194.
Antrim, county of, 355, 357.

Brewster, Sir David, 121, 127, 167,
Argand lamp formerly used in the 439, 442.

Ordnance Survey, 66, 67, 70, 73, 75, Bridge, floating, over the Medway, 42.
120, 123, 124.

Brighton, Pavilion of, 131.
Armagh, county of, 355, 357.

Brougham, Lord, 135, 142, 143, 167,
Astronomical instruments, improve- 173, 177. 340, 384, 419, 420.
ment of, 169.

Browning, Mr, 337.
Astronomical Society, Royal, 119. Buller, Mr, quoted, 307.

Burgoyne, Sir John F., 40, 345, 352,
Ball, Nicholas, 251.

353, 429.
Barlow, Professor, of Woolwich, 20,
29, 35, 170, 345.

CARAVATS, Irish insurgents, 233.
Barometer, 80.

Carders, Irish insurgents, 234.
Bars, measuring, 50, 52, 81, 83, 440. Carlow, county of, 355.
Base lines, measurement of, in the Carter's Life of James, Duke of Or-

Ordnance Survey, 47, 51, 52, 53, mond, 240.
81, 83-112, 167, 440.

Catholic Emancipation, 235, 307.
Beaufort, Captain, 121, 148, 150. See Roman Catholics.
Beaumont, Captain, 121, 142.

Chadwick, Edwin, on railway refurm,
Bedchamber Plot, 340, 419.


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