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vir haud contemnendus,

a man not to be despised. patria defendenda est,

our country must be defended. If the agent who must do anything, or by whom anything must be done, is added, it is always expressed by the dative - - as hoc mihi faciendum est, I must do this, or this must be done by me.


374. The supine is a verbal substantive of the fourth declension, and has only two cases - the accusative (in um) and the ablative (in u.) It differs from an ordinary substantive, inasmuch as it governs the case of its verb-as legati venerunt res repetitum, ambassadors came to reclaim their

property. 375. The supine in um has an active meaning, and is used after verbs of motion, to express the object of the motion-as legati in castra venerunt questum deputies came into the camp to injurias,

complain of the acts of injustice. Fabius Pictor Delphos ad oraculum Fabius Pictor was sent to Delphi

missus est sciscitatum, quibus pre to the oracle, to inquire by what cibus deos possent placare,

prayers they could propitiate the

gods. 376. The supine in u has a passive meaning, and is used with certain adjectives to denote that a quality is attributed to a subject with reference to the action expressed by the supine ; e. g. pleraque dictu quam re sunt faci- most things are more easy to say liora,

than to do. honestum factu, turpe factu, honourable to do, disgraceful to do.

The words most commonly used with this supine are-fas, nefas, opus, honestus, turpis, jucundus, facilis, difficilis, incredibilis, memorabilis, utilis, dignus, indignus.


377. A participle is in form an adjective, but differs from other adjectives by the fact of its expressing time, and governing the case of the verb from which it is formed.

In the active there are two participles: the one, called the present participle, represents an action or condition in progress, and accordingly, if present actions are spoken of, it may be regarded as a present participle - as accusat me dicens me ad hostes transfugisse, he accuses me,

ng (present) that I deserted to the enemy; if past actions are spoken of, it may be termed the participle of the imperfect savit me dicens (imperfect) me ad hostes transfugisse, he accused me,

- as accu

saying (for he said) that I had deserted to the enemy. The future participle represents an action or condition as intended or as to take place in future time--as milites adversus urbem profecturi per totam noctem in castris se tenebant, the soldiers intending to march against the city kept themselves all night within the camp. The active voice has no participle for a completed action. The passive voice, if we except the gerundive, has only one participle, which expresses a completed action -as injuria illata, an injury which has been done.

378. A participle, when occurring in the same clause as the noun to which it refers, must agree with it in gender, number, and case, like an ordinary adjective-as risum saepe cupientes tenere nequi- often we cannot suppress laughter тия,

though we wish it. Caesar victos hostes interfecit, Caesar put the conquered enemies

to death. 379. If the time when, cause, manner, or any accompanying circumstance of an action is expressed by a subordinate clause having a subject different from that of the leading one, that clause is put in the ablative—that is, the subject is put in the ablative, and the verb, being changed into a participle, is made to agree with the subject. A clause thus expressed is said to be in the ablative absolute (comp. No. 322) — as rege expulso consules creati sunt, after the king was expelled consuls

were elected. hae res Tarquinio regnante gestae these things were done in the reign sunt,

of Tarquinius. sole stante terra vertitur,

the earth turns round while the

sun is standing still.

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