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broke up.

hand, quum expresses purely time, and is equivalent to tum quum (then or at the time when), it is construed with the indicative - as qui injuriam non propulsat, quum (that is, tum quum) potest, injuste facit, he who does not repel an injury when he can, acts wrong.

355. The conjunctions dum, donec, and quoad, in the sense of “as long as,' are construed with the indicative. In the sense of ‘until they take the indicative, if the event is conceived as one that really happened or happens; but if the event is conceived as merely possible, and if an intention or purpose is implied, they have the verb in the subjunctive-as non desinam, donec perfecero, I shall not cease until I have ac

complished it. Milo adfuit, quoad senatus dimis- Milo was present until the senate

848 est, iratis subtrahendi sunt ii, in quos we must withdraw from angry per

impetum conantur facere, dum se sons those on whom they attempt ipsi colligant,

an attack, until they recover

themselves. 356. Antequam and priusquam are joined with the indicative when it is simply stated that one action precedes another in time; the subjunctive, on the other hand, is used when the event does not or did not actually happen before the other—as priusquam de adventu meo audire I reached Macedonia before they

potuissent, in Macedoniam perrexi, could hear of my arrival. nunquam eris dives, antequam tibi you will not be rich until (before)

ex tuis possessionibus tantum refi you gain so much from your ciatur, ut eo legionem tueri possis, possessions that you can keep &

legion with it. 357. The concessive conjunctions quamvis (however much), and licet (although), are construed with the subjunctive, like quantumvis and quamlibet, while quamquam (although) is joined with the indicative quamvis neges, tamen tibi credere however much you may deny, still nullo modo possum,

I cannot believe you in any way. licet mihi invisus sit, tamen eum although he is hateful to me, still non persequar,

I will not persecute him. 358. The conjunctions quasi, velut si, tamquam si (sometimes tamquam, sicut, or poetically ceu alone), perinde ac si, aeque ac si, non secus ac si, are joined with the subjunctive, as they introduce a clause which is only a conception of the mind—as sic cogitandum est, tamquam aliquis our thoughts must be such, as if in pectus intimum inspicere possit, any one could look into our

innermost heart. quid ego his testibus utor, quasi res why do I make use of these witdubia aut obscura sit ?

nesses, as if the matter were

doubtful or obscure ?


359. Relative clauses which simply add an explanation of some word or circumstance contained in the leading clause, have the verb in the indicative. But when a relative clause, besides containing a simple explanation, implies at the same time the idea of intention, purpose, result or consequence, cause, and such like, the subjunctive is employed. In all these cases the relative involves the idea of ut (in order that, so that) or quum (as, since), which accounts for its requiring the subjunctive.

360. The following special cases render this plain1. The subjunctive is used in a relative clause when it expresses the

intention or purpose of the action contained in the leading clause. In this case the relative is equivalent to ut is, 'in order that he;' e. g., legato8 Romam misit, qui (ut ii) auxilium a senatu peterent, he sent deputies to Rome, who should ask the Roman senate for suc



2. After the adjectives dignus, indignus, aptus, and sometimes also ido

neus, the relative is used with the subjunctive, if that of which a person is worthy or unworthy, or for which anytbing is fit, is expressed by a verb as dignus or indignus est qui laudetur, he is worthy or unworthy of being praised; non satis idoneus videtur, cui tantum negotium committatur, he does not seem quite fit to be intrusted with so

important a business. 3. The subjunctive is used in relative clauses which serve to complete

the idea of a certain quality, and to express its effect; in such cases the relative is equivalent to talis ut, such that,' and the demonstratives talis, tantus, hic, ille, is, ejusmodi, hujusmodi, or tam, sometimes actually precede the relative, but sometimes they are understood; e. g., innocentia est affectio talis animi, quae (ut) noceat ne

mini, harmlessness is that (or such a) state of mind which hurts no 4. After such general and indefinite expressions as sunt (there are per

sons), inveniuntur, reperiuntur (there are found men), non desunt (there are not wanting persons), exstitit exstiterunt, exortus est, habeo, est (ubi), nemo est, nihil est, and the like, the relative may be joined with the indicative as well as with the subjunctive. The latter is used when the relative implies a quality - as sunt qui dicessum animi a corpere putent esse mortem, there are persons (of such a kind, so stupid or so wise) who believe that death is the separation of the soul from the body, When the relative is joined with the indicative, a simple fact is stated without any intimation of quality, so that sunt quo8 juvat is equivalent to juvat quosdam, some persons tako a delight; est ubi peccat, equivalent to interdum peccat, he sometimes

blunders. 5. The relative is followed by the verb in the subjunctive when it im

plies a supposition or condition, so that it involves the idea of sias nihil bonum est, quod hominem non meliorem faciat, nothing is good unless it makes man better. In such a case, however, the writer, if he chooses, may use the indicative, employing the relative

in its pure sense without suggesting any condition - as nihil bonum est, quod hominem non meliorem facit, nothing is good which does not

make man better. 6. Relative clauses have the verb in the snbjunctive when they intro

duce a reason for what is contained in the leading clause; in such cases the relative is almost equivalent to quum (as, since)—as 0, fortunate adolescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneri8 ! 0, fortunate youth, who (since thou) hast found in Homer a herald of

thy valour! 7. Relative clauses have the verb in the subjunctive when the sentiment

which they introduce is to be characterised as belonging to another person, and not as the sentiment of the speaker himself — as Socrates exsecrari eum solebat, qui primus utilitatem a jure sejunxisset, Socrates used to curse the man (whoever he was) who had first severed that

which is useful from that which is just. 8. In historical narrative the subjunctive is sometimes used in a relative

clause when actions of repeated occurrence are spoken of — as quemcunque lictor jussu consulis prehendisset, whomsoever the lictor had seized by the command of the consul.

361. The subjunctive is used in all clauses introduced into a dependent clause either by a relative pronoun or a conjunction, provided they form an integral part of it—as quod me admones, ut me integrum, your advice to keep myself uninquoad possim, servem, gratum est, jured, as far as I can, is accept

able. By a dependent clause is meant one expressed by the accusative with the infinitive, or having its verb in the subjunctive. A clause forming an integral part of such a sentence is absolutely necessary, and without it the whole does not and cannot convey a distinct meaning.


362. The imperative represents an action or condition in the form of a command, request, or admonition.

It has only two tenses — the present and the future; the former expresses a request or command in reference to present time, or without reference to any particular time; and the latter, a command or request that something is to be done in future, or when an occasion shall occur; and hence it is the appropriate form of expressing a command in laws, wills, contracts, or in writings composed in imitation of the style employed in such documents — as vive felix ! live happily ! - subvenite misero mihi, ite obviam injuriae ! help me, wretched man, and resist the act of injustice !- regio imperio duo sunto, there shall be two men with kingly power; servus meus liber esto, my slave shall be free.

Instead of the imperative present, it is very common to use the subjunctive, and especially in the second person singular when an indefinite person is addressed – as aut bibat, aut abeat, let him drink, or go away; injurias fugiendo relinquas, escape from injuries by flight. When

a definite person is addressed in the second person singular, it is more common to use the imperative than the subjunctive.

A negative command in legal phraseology is expressed by the future imperative with ne, and nor' is expressed by neve - as nocturna sacrificia ne sunto, there shall be no sacrifices at night.

Instead of the imperative present in a negative command, it is customary to use, in the third person, the subjunctive of the present or the future perfect; and in the second person in the active, the future perfect; and in the passive the perfect, or more rarely the present; the negative in these cases is likewise ne - as puer telum ne habeat, the boy shall not have a weapon; hoc ne feceris, do not do this.

A sentence which in direct speech is expressed by the imperative, becomes the subjunctive when the speech becomes indirect-as hoc mihi dicant, in indirect speech, stands for hoc mihi dicite, in direct speech.


363. The infinitive expresses the action or condition implied in the verb, as an abstract generality.

364. The infinitive may be regarded as a verbal substantive, which, generally speaking, exists only in two cases, the nominative and the accusative, and differs from other substantives by its governing the case of a verb.

The infinitive, both in the active and passive, has only three tenses : 1. That commonly called the infinitive of the present, representing an action in progress, and therefore the infinitive not only of the present, but also of the past and the future-as amare and amari; 2. The infinitive of the perfect representing an action as completed, and serving as the infinitive both of the perfect and pluperfect-as amavisse and amatum (am, um) e88e; 3. The infinitive of the future simply representing an action as yet to come, whatever may be the point of time from which it is viewed --as amaturum e88e and amatum iri.

365. The subject of an infinitive is, with few exceptions, in the accusative.

366. As the infinitive has only two cases, the nominative and accusative, it may be used either as the subject of another verb, or as its object.

367. The infinitive is the subject (nominative) when an action is the thing of which something is predicated -as patriam amare cujusvis est civis, to love one's country is the duty

of every citizen. 368. The infinitive stands as an object (accusative) of many verbs which express an incomplete idea, and require another verb to complete it—as cupio legere librum,

I want to read the book.

Verbs of this kind are those denoting will, power, custom, inclination, beginning, continuing, ceasing, neglecting, and others - as volo, nolo, malo, cupio, studeo, conor, nitor, contendo, tento.

369. A clause expressed by the accusative with the infinitive, is the subject of another verb when the whole of it is conceived as a single idea or noun of which something is predicated—as victorem parcere victis aequum est, that the victor spare the vanquished

is generous. Here the clause victis victorem parcere is the subject, and aequum est is the predicate.

370. A clause expressed by the accusative with the infinitive is the object of another verb, when the whole of it is conceived as a single idea or noun, governed by a transitive verb-as doceo te loqui,

I teach you to speak. jussit me ad se venire,

he ordered me to come to him.


371. The gerund supplies the place of a verbal substantive in all cases except the nominative and vocative (the place of the nominative is supplied by the infinitive); but it differs from ordinary substantives in governing its case as a verb, and in not being followed by the genitive of another substantive—as studium obtemperandi legibus, the zeal to obey the laws. ad fruendum frugibus terrae, for the purpose of enjoying the

fruits of the earth. 372. When the gerund is a transitive verb having its object in the accusative, as in consilium condendi urbem, the common practice is to change the accusative into the case of the gerund, and the gerund into the gerundive, making it agree with its noun--as consilium condendae urbis,

the plan of founding a city. As the gerund, as far as its meaning is concerned, is nothing but the oblique cases of the infinitive, and as the infinitive cannot in all cases be used as an ordinary substantive, the gerund also cannot be used in all cases like an ordinary substantive.

The accusative of the gerund is used only after prepositions, especially ad and inter, in the sense of .during' or 'amid'-as inter ludendum, during the play.

373. The gerundive of transitive verbs is in form an adjective, and has a passive meaning signifying that something must be done; that is, it expresses necessity -as

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