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LATIN GRAMMAR. such a way that they require different moods - as pugiles ingemiscunt non quod doleant, sed quia omne corpus intenditur, boxers sigh, not because (as one might imagine) they feel pain, but because every part of their body is on the stretch (a fact.)

INDICATIVE MOOD AND ITS TENSES.

-as

337. The indicative mood is used to make a simple statement of a fact, either affirmatively or negatively, and to put a direct question - that is, in such a way that the clause containing the question is not in a relation dependent or subordinate upon any other clausehunc librum legi,

I have read this book. illum librum non legam,

that book I shall not read. quando ad me venies ?

when will you come to me? num pater veniet?

will the father come? quod non ex urbe profectus es, mihi the fact that you have not gone pergratum est,

out of town is very agreeable to

me.

The indicative is used in Latin in conditional clauses (beginning with si, nisi, etiamsi, etsi, and sive), when it is to be intimated that the supposition is really true, so that si is equivalent to quum (as or since); or when, for the sake of argument, we assuine that the supposition is true; or, when negatively expressed, it is not true — as si nihil aliud fecerunt, satis praemii habent, if (or as) they have done nothing else, they are sufficiently rewarded.

Certain tenses of the indicative are used in Latin where we should expect the subjunctive, especially in the case of the verbs oportet, necesse est, debeo, convenit, possum, licet, and in the expressions par, fas, aequum, justum, consentaneum, satis, satius, melius, aequius est. The imperfect indicative of these verbs and expressions is used when we wish to express that at some past time something should have been done, but at the same time intimate that the time for doing it is not yet passed, or that it is not yet too late; e. g., ad mortem te duci jam pridem oportebat, 'you ought to have been put to death long ago;' suggesting that it is not too late yet, and that it may still be done. The perfect and pluperfect indicative of the same expressions are used when we wish to intimate that something ought to have been done, but that the time for it is now passed, and that it is too late--as Volumnia debuit in te officiosior e88e, 'Volumnia ought to have been more attentive to you;' suggesting that the time is now past, and that it too late to make good her neglect. So also longe utilius fuit, it would have been far more useful.

The indicative is commonly used (if there be no special reason for the subjunctive) after doubled relatives, and those having the suffix cunqueas quisquis, quotquot, quicunque, quantuscunque, utut, utcunqne; e. g., quidquid id est, whatever this may be.

The tenses of the indicative in Latin answer, with few exceptions, to the same tenses in English. Any action or condition either simply stated as past, present, or future, or as in relation to another action in reference to which it is past, present, or future.

In this manner we have three absolute tenses (present, perfect, and future), and three relative tenses (imperfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.)

In animated narrative, past events are frequently related by the present tense, as if they were going on before our eyes. This present is termed the historic present.

338. The Latin perfect has two distinct meanings1. It is used, like the past tense in English, to relate the events of the

past ;- as Cuesar Galliam subègit, Caesar subdued Gaul; illo anno multae res memorabiles acciderunt, many memorable events occurred in that year. The perfect in this sense is called the historic perfect, as it is the tense by which past or historical events are related as

facts. 2. It is used to describe an action as completed and past, but with refe

rence to present time, and thus completely answers to the English perfect—as pater jam vēnit, the father has already come. The perfect in this sense may be termed the present perfect.

The conjunctions postquam, posteaquam (after); ubi, ut (when); simul, simulatque, ut primum, and quum primum (as soon as), are followed in Latin by the perfect, when it is to be expressed that two actions follow one another in immediate succession as postquam victoria parta est, hostes refugerunt, after the victory had been gained, the enemy fled.

339. The imperfect describes a past action as in progress and not complete, and is therefore used in descriptions of things which in past time were in a certain condition, or of past events which are represented as going on. The imperfect is also used to relate events which usually or repeatedly occurred in past time—as etiam tum Athenae gloriā litterarum at that time Athens was et artium florebant,

flourishing for its reputation in

literature and the arts. quum Verres ad aliquod ppidum whenever Verres came

venerat, eadem lecticâ usque in town, he was (always) carried cubiculum deferebatur,

in the same lectica to his sleep

ing apartment. 340. The pluperfect states an action of past time which was completed before another action, at present likewise completed, began-as dixerat judex, quum puer nuntiavit, the judge had spoken when the boy

gave information. 341. The future denotes an action or condition which is to take place at a future time unspecified, or at a particular moment in future time--as hostes venient,

the enemies will come.

even

to any

as

342. The future perfect describes a future act as completed at a certain future timequum tu haec leges, ego illum for when you (will) read this, I shall ta88e convenero,

perhaps have spoken with him. The tenses of the periphrastic conjugation are, on the whole, used in the same way as those of the ordinary conjugation; but the action expressed by the participle future is in all tenses a future one — as scripturus sum, scripturus eram, scripturus ero, scripturus fui, scripturus fueram, scripturus fuero.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 343. A verb in the subjunctive expresses an action or condition as a mere conception of the mind, in the form of a wish, a possibility, an intention, a supposition, a concession, and the like, so that the speaker does not treat it as a fact; as scribo ut scias,

I write that you may know. quae si ita sint,

if these things be so. facile aliquis dicat,

a person may easily say. 344. The subjunctive is used both in leading and in subordinate clauses, though more especially in the latter. In leading clauses it is of a fourfold nature-expressing a supposition or hypothesis (hypothetical clauses), a possibility (when it is termed the potential mood), a wish or desire (the optative mood), and a concession (concessive mood.)

Every hypothetical sentence consists of two clauses — the one, which states the condition or supposition (beginning with si, nisi, ni, si non, etiamsi, tametsi), is called the protăsis; and the other, which contains the conclusion or inference, is called the apodosis. The protasis is sometimes not expressed, being either implied in something which precedes, or supplied by the mind of the hearer or reader-illo tempore aliter sensisses, at that time you would have thought differently'namely, 'if you had looked at the matter,' or 'if you had lived.'

345. The present subjunctive is used both in the protasis and apodosis, to denote that the supposition is possible, and may be true; and accordingly, that the apodosis is also possiblemas me dies deficiat, si hoc nunc dicere the day would not suffice for me, velim,

if I wished to say this now. 346. The imperfect subjunctive is used in the protasis and apodosis, to denote that the supposition is not or cannot be true, and that accordingly the inference also is not true. The time expressed in such sentences is the present-as si pecuniam haberem, ad te venirem, if I (now) had money I should

come to you; implying that I have no money, and accordingly cannot come to you.

by the

347. The pluperfect subjunctive is used in both clauses, if the supposition as well as the inference is not true, and belongs to past time-as si pecuniam habuissem, ad te venis- if I had had money (which was sem,

not the case), I should have come to you (which, under the circumstances, was a matter of

impossibility.) Sometimes the imperfect and pluperfect are united in the same sentence — as si sibi cavere potuisset, viveret, if he had been able to be on his guard, he would (now) be living.

348. The subjunctive, as a potential mood, is used – 1. To express that which does not really exist, but may or might exist,

and is conceived as possible. The subject of such clauses is usually an indefinite or an interrogative pronoun-as dicat aliquis or quispiam, some one may say; dixerit aliquis, some one might say; quis credat? who would believe it?

Things which are possible at the present time are expressed by the present or the perfect subjunctive, while a past possibility is expressed

mperfect - as quis eum rgueret? who would have refuted him ? 2. The potential snbjunctive is also used with definite subjects for the

purpose of expressing an opinion in a inodest manner, and this occurs most frequently in the first person of the perfect when the speaker expresses his own opinion with a certain degree of modesty or hesita

tion -as haud facile dixerim, I would not easily say. 3. The potential subjunctive is used in doubtful questions containing a

negative sense -- as quid faciam ? what shall I do? equivalent to, 'I do not know what I shall do.' In like manner the potential subjunctive is used in questions expressive of disapproval-as hos cives patria desideret? is the country to long for such citizens? the implied answer being assuredly not.'

349. The subjunctive, as an optative mood, is used to express a wish or desire -as valeas,

fare well. valeant cives,

may my fellow-citizens fare well. beati sint,

may they be happy. 350. The subjunctive (a concessive mood), is used to express a concession or admission. It usually denotes that what is conceded is not true, or at least is undecided, but that it is granted for the sake of argument-as sint haec falsa, invidiosa certe non granting that these things are sunt,

false, invidious they certainly

are not. sit sane dolor gravis, malum non est, granting that (or although) pain is

severe, it is not an evil.

The conjunction ut (in the sense of 'granting that') is often added to a concessive subjunctive—as ut sit infelix, granting that he is unbappy; and in negative clauses ne must be added — as ne sint in senectute vires, granting that there is no strength in old age.

351. All dependent or subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions út (that, in order that, so that, although), ne or ut ne (that not, or in order that not), ut non (so that not), quin (that not), quominus (that not), and quo (in the sense of ut eo, in order that thereby), have the verb in the subjunctive—as sol efficit, ut omnia floreant, the sun makes (that) all things

flourish. virtutem colere debetis, ut beati esse you must cultivate virtue, that (in possitis,

order that) you may be able to

be happy. precor, ne me deseras,

I pray that you may not desert me. 352. All questions expressed in the form of a subordinate clause — that is, indirect questions — have the verb in the subjunctive -- as quaero, quid facturus sis,

I ask what you are going to do. quaesivi, quid faceret,

I asked what he was doing. 353. Subordinate sentences introduced by the conjunctions quod, quia, quoniam, quando (because, since), usually have the verb in the indicative when the writer or speaker states his own view of a case; but the subjunctive must be used when he states the reason of another person, intimating that he merely quotes the opinion of another, without assenting to it or dissenting from itAristides expulsus est patriā, quod Aristides was expelled from his praeter modum justus esset,

country, because it was alleged

that) he was too just. Socrates accusatus est, quod corrum Socrates was accused, because (as peret juventutem et novas super

his enemies said) he corrupted -stitiones introduceret,

the young, and introduced new

superstitions. 354. The conjunction quum or cum, when it denotes cause, and signifies 'as' or 'since,' is always construed with the subjunctive—as cum vita brevis sit, summa diligentia as life is short, we must take the adhibenda est, ut ea bene utamur. greatest care to make good use

of it. In historical narrative, where a preceding event may be looked upon as the cause of a subsequent one, quum is always construed with the ubjunctive, even when we translate it by 'when,' as if it denoted time

as Epaminondas quum vicisset Lacedaemonios, atque ipse gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clypeus. If, on the other

as

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