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This mode of speaking, however, can be used only when the things compared with each other are either in the nominative or accusative.

319. The ablative of a substantive joined with an adjective, participle, or pronoun, is frequently used, both with and without the verb sum, to describe the nature or quality of any. thing — as Agesilaus fuit corpore exiguo, Agesilaus was a man of a small

body. orator summo ingenio,

an orator of the highest genius. flumen difficili transitu,

a river difficult to cross. Neither the genitive nor the ablative of quality can be used, unless the substantive is accompanied by an adjective, participle, or pronoun; 'a man of genius,' therefore, cannot be rendered either by homo ingenië or by homo ingenio, but must be changed into homo ingeniosus. . (Comp. No. 294.)

320. The relations of place where ? and whence? are generally expressed in Latin by the prepositions in, ab, ex, or de: but there are many cases in which these relations are expressed by the mere ablative without any preposition.

Place where? is expressed by the ablative alone in the case of the word locus, when accompanied by an adjective or pronoun; also in the expressions : dextrā (on the right-hand side), laevā (on the left-hand side), terrā marique (by land and by sea), and sometimes medio (in the midst or middle), and numero (in the place of); e. g., hoc loco, in this place; illo loco, in that place; aequo loco, in a favourable place; medio aedium, in the centre of the house.

The ablative of place where? without a preposition is very frequently used when a substantive denoting place is accompanied by the adjective totus or omnis, and when the meaning is throughout a place'-as totā Italia, in all Italy or throughout Italy. The preposition in, however, may be added when the idea of 'throughout’ is not to be emphatically stated-as in tota Sicilia, in all Sicily.

Place whence? is expressed by the ablative alone in the case of names of towns and small islands—as Roma proficisci, to set out from Rome; Delo Rhodum navigare, to sail from Delos to Rhodes.

In the same manner are used domo, from home; rure, from the country; and sometimes humo, from the ground.

321. The ablative of words denoting time is used to express the time when, at which, or within which anything happens



tertio anno bellum confecit,

in the third year he concluded the hoc die,

on this day. So also, hieme, in winter; aestate, in summer; vere, in the spring; te, at or by night; luce, by daylight, or in daytime.

Some substantives not denoting time may nevertheless be used in the ablative to express the time at which, or the circumstances under which, anything happens—as adventu Caesaris, on the arrival of Caesar; bello Punico primo, at the time of the first Punic war.

322. Any substantive (or personal pronoun) accompanied by an adjective, participle, or another substantive standing in apposition, may be put in the ablative to describe the time or circumstances under which anything happens. This ablative, usually called the ablative absolute, may always be resolved into a distinct clause, and may therefore be defined as a clause put in the ablative to express time and circumstances; as hoc factum est rege vivo,

this was done while the king was

alive. hae res gestae sunt rege duce, these things were done under the

guidance of the king. urbem cepit me adjuvante, or me he took the city with my assist


Such an ablative absolute may either qualify a particular word (usually the predicate) or an entire clause; but the subject of a clause expressed by the ablative absolute must always be different from that of the leading clause. Compare No. 379.

323. The following prepositions always govern the ablative:

-a, ab, (abs), absque, clam, coram, palam, cum, de, ex or e, prae, pro, sine, tenus.

Respecting in, sub, subter, and super, see No. 275. The verbs pono, loco, colloco, statuo, constituo, and consido, although they express motion, are generally construed with in and the ablative.



324. The vocative is used to address a person, and is inserted in clauses without affecting their construction.

The vocative, like the nominative, is not governed by any other word. A vocative, however, may consist of a word which, when qualified by others, exercises its influence upon them as a word, but as a vocative it exercises none; e. g., vos o amici ! you, my friends! primā dicte mihi, summā dicende, camenā, Maecenas ! Maecenas, praised by me in my first, and to be praised in my last poem.


325. An adjective is used in Latin not merely as a simple attribute and predicate, but frequently stands in apposition to a substantive or pronoun, and then expresses the condition in which a person or thing is during an action, where we generally use adverbs or adverbial combinations of words-as

multi eos, quos vivos coluerunt, mortuos contumelia afficiunt,

natură ipsă de immortalitate animorum tacită judicat,

many treat persons after their death (mortuos) with contumely, whom during their lifetime (vivos) they honoured.

nature herself silently (tacită) expresses her opinion of the immortality of the soul.

This is the case especially with adjectives denoting order (ordinal numerals) or succession – as Hispania postrema perdomita est, Spain was subdued last, or was the last country that was subdued.


326. Adjectives (and pronouns) are frequently used as substantives to denote persons or things of a certain kind or class.

When persons of a certain class are to be indicated, the masculine plural of an adjective is used 1—as boni, the good; sapientes, the wise; omnes fortes, all brave men. Sometimes the word homines is added.

When things of a certain class or kind are to be designated, the Latins use the neuter plural of an adjective, though they may also use the substantive res in the same way as is done in English- -as bona, bonae res, good things or property; mala, bad things or evils.

The neuter singular of an adjective is used when an individual thing is to be indicated. —as bonum, a good thing; malum, an evil or a bad thing; and when the abstract idea is to be expressed-as verum, the truth; justum, justice.

Some adjectives have so completely acquired the meaning of substantives, that they are almost invariably used as such -as amicus, a male friend; amica, a female friend.

Some adjectives are used as substantives with an ellipsis of some substantive which determines the gender-as patria (terra, urbs or civitas), native country or city; fera (bestia), a wild beast; cani (capilli), gray hair.

327. The comparative of both adjectives and adverbs is frequently used to denote a higher degree than usual, or than should be, where we generally employ the word ‘rather'—as senectus est naturā loquacior,

liberius vivebat,

optime valeo,

old age is naturally rather loquacious.

he lived too freely (which, however, may also be expressed by nimis libere).

328. The superlative often does not indicate absolutely the highest degree of a quality, but only a very high degree-that is, the highest degree in comparison with some, but not with all. In this case we may render the Latin superlative into English either by 'very' with the positive, or with the positive alone -as

Sulla, qui est vir fortissimus et cla- Sulla, who was a very brave and rissimus,

illustrious man. I am very well.


329. A considerable number of superlatives which denote order, succession, time, and place, are often joined to a substantive, although in reality they, qualify only a part of the thing expressed by the substantive. Such superlatives are primus, postremus, ultimus, novissimus, summus, infimus, imus, intimus, extremus, and medius primo vere

- that is, prima parte } at the beginning of spring. veris, in summo monte that is, in summa

on the top of a mountain. parte montis, In like manner are also used medius, reliquus, and cetera as reliqua Graecia, the remaining part of Greece; cetera multitudo, the other part of the multitude; in media via, in the middle of the road.



330. A clause is either an independent or leading clause, or it is a subordinate or explanatory one.

331. An independent clause simply states a fact by itself, in the form of an assertion or of a question—as miles dormit,

the soldier sleeps. fratremne vidisti?

have you seen the brother? 332. A subordinate sentence is usually so constructed that it cannot stand by itself, and can be understood only when viewed in connection with another-as miles dormit, ut vires reficiat, the soldier sleeps, that he may

restore his strength. Sometimes an independent clause also remains unintelligible unless an accessory clause be added - as miles fortior est quam expectaveram, the soldier is braver than I had anticipated, where miles fortior est is not complete without the accessory clause.

Two clauses thus combined form a compound sentence, and always convey a distinct meaning.

333. Subordinate clauses are connected with the leading clause by conjunctions, relative pronouns, or by interrogative particles te non laudo, quoniam mihi non ob- I did not praise you, because you temperasti,

did not obey me. omnes qui adfuerunt hoc sciunt, all who were present know it. ex me quaesivit unde haec scirem, ,he asked me whence I knew this.

Subordinate clauses are often expressed in a peculiar way by the construction of the accusative with the infinitive -as scio eum bonum hominem, I know him to be a good man, or I know that he is a good man.


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334. Two or more clauses may be joined together in such a manner by copulative or adversative conjunctions, that no one of them is subordinate to another. Such clauses are termed co-ordinate. Co-ordinate clauses may be all leading or all subordinate clauses of the same sentence--- as haec res mihi valde placet, et pater this thing pleases me very much, cam vehementer probat,

and my father greatly approves

of it. mihi haec res placet, sed pater eam I am pleased with this thing, but improbat,

my father disapproves of it. neque cur tu hoc consilium tam vehe- I do not understand either why

menter probes, neque cur pater you so greatly approve of this tantopere improbet, intelligo, plan, or why your father go much

disapproves of it. 1. In subordinate or explanatory clauses introduced by a relative

pronoun, the substantive to which the pronoun refers is often drawn into the relative clause, so that the demonstrative clause follows the relative one — as quae cupiditates a natura proficiscuntur, facile explentur sine injuria — that is, eae cupiditates, quae a natura, &c., those desires which proceed from nature are easily satisfied without

injury. 2. When a substantive is followed by another substantive which stands

in apposition to it, and is explained by a relative clause, the apposition is almost invariably drawn into the relative clause - as frumentum, quae sola alimenta ex insperato fortuna dedit, ab ore rapitur, the corn, the only food which fortune unexpectedly afforded, is torn away

from the mouth. 3. Relative clauses do not always contain a mere explanation, but very

often stand to the leading clause in a relation which is commonly expressed by conjunctions denoting intention, cause, and the like. Such clauses require to be expressed in Latin by the subjunctive mood.



335. The sentiment contained in a sentence is expressed in the form of a simple statement or question in the indicative mood; or in the form of a wish or command of the speaker in the imperative mood; or as a mere conception of the mind in the subjunctive moodpater me in Graeciam misit, my father sent une into Greece. confer te in Graeciam,

remove thyself into Greece. in Graeciam profectus est, ut philo. he went into Greece that he might sophos audiret,

hear the philosophers. 336. Co-ordinate clauses, whether they be leading or subordinate, usually have the same mood, though the verbs may be in different tenses.

There are cases in which even co-ordinate sentences are conceived in

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