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thing which is remembered, forgotten, or of which a person is reminded -as semper hujus diei et loci meminero, I shall always remember this day

and place. reminiscor beneficii tui,

I remember your kindness. admonuit eos matris sororumque,

he reminded them of their mother

and sisters. The verbs of remembering and forgetting, especially memini, are often joined with the accusative - as memini numeros, obliviscor causam, amicum meum bene meministi. Tbis, however, is the case especially when the object of these verbs is a neuter adjective or pronoun used substantively. Recordor is more generally construed with the accusative than with the genitive.

298. The verb misereor (miseresco), I pity, and the impersonal verbs miseret (miserescit

, miseretur), piget, poenitet, pudet, taedet, pertaesum est, are accompanied by the genitive of the thing exciting the feelings expressed by these verbs, and the impersonal verbs govern the accusative of the person in whom the feelings exist—as misereor (miseresco or miseret me),} I pity my friend. poenitet me consilii,

I repent of my plan. pudet me negligentiae meae,

I am ashamed of my carelessness. pudet hunc hominem insolentiae, this man is ashamed of his inso

lence. 299. Verbs of charging, accusing, convicting, condemning, and acquitting, govern the accusative of the person and the genitive of the thing with which one is charged, and of which he is accused, convicted, acquitted, &c.

Such verbs are accuso, incuso, insimulo, arce880 (I summon before a court of justice); postulo, ago cum aliquo (I begin a lawsuit with a person); arguo, coarguo, convinco, damno, condemno, absolvo; e. g., accusavit Titum furti, he accused Titus of theft; damnatus est repetundarum, he was found guilty of extortion; proditionis absolvit ducem, he acquitted the general of treachery.

300. When the price or value of a thing is stated in a general way, it is always expressed by the genitives magni, permagni, tanti , tantidem, quanti

, quantivis, quanticunque, pluris, plurimi, maximi, parvi, minoris, minimi. This is the case especially with verbs of estimating and valuing—such as duco, facio, habeo, pendo, puto, taxo-as domum tanti ducit quanti ducenda he values the house at as much as est,

it should be valued. sapiens voluptatem non tanti facit a wise man values pleasure not so quanti virtutem,

much as virtue. Verbs of selling and purchasing, however, are joined with the ablatives magno, parvo, minimo, nihilo, nonnihilo.

The verb aestimo may be joined either with the genitive or the ablative

-as magni or magno virtutem aestimo, I value virtue highly. 301. The impersonal verbs interest and rēfert (it is of importance, or interest to) are joined with the genitive of the person to whom anything is of interest or importance; but when the person is expressed in English by a personal pronoun, the Latins use the possessive forms mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra-as patris interest or refert,

it is of interest to the father. mea interest or refert,

it is of interest to me. As a possessive pronoun is the representative of a noun in the geni. tive, it frequently occurs that a substantive standing in apposition to the person implied in the possessive pronoun is put in the genitive — as mea scripta timentis, my writings who (1) fear — that is, the writings of me who fear; mea unius opera respublica salva est, through my exertion alone the republic is safe.

Sometimes the genitive of the personal pronoun is used instead of a possessive pronoun. This is the case chiefly with substantives containing the meaning of an active verb, so that the genitive of the personal pronoun is an objective genitive-- as accusator tui for accusator tuus, your accuser (the man who accuses you.) Sometimes, however, there is a difference of meaning — as imago mea, my image, or the image belonging to me; but imago mei, an image of me, or a portrait

of me.


302. The ablative, which is peculiar to the Latin language, expresses a variety of relations necessary to define and modify the predicate--that is, those relations which in English are expressed by the prepositions by, with, from, in, or at. It is used sometimes with and sometimes without prepositions.

303. The ablative is used to denote the part of person or thing, or the point to which the statement contained in the predicate is limited - as aeger est pedibus,

he is suffering in his feet. tu temporibus errasti,

you were mistaken as to the times. claudus altero pede,

lame in one foot. 304. The ablative is used to express the means or instrument by which anything is done or brought about-as manu aliquem ducere,

to lead a person by the hand. securi aliquem percutere,

to strike one with an axe. When a person is employed as the means or instrument through which anything is done, the ablative cannot be used; but instead of it must be used the preposition per with the accusativ: - as litteras tibi misi per servum, I sent you the letter by a slave.

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305. The ablative denotes the moving cause by which, or through the influence of which, anything is done ardere studio,

to burn with zeal. cxsultare gaudio,

to exult with delight. The ablatives causā and gratiâ (for the sake of, on account of) are in reality ablatives of cause, and are joined with a genitive or a possessive pronoun. When joined with a genitive, they usually stand after it - as patris causa or gratia, on the father's account; mea causa, on my


306. A substantive accompanied by an adjective, a pronoun, or a participle, is put in the ablative to express the manner or concomitant circumstance of the predicate—as summa aequitate rempublicam con- he settled the affairs of the repubstituit,

lic with the greatest fairness. deos pura et incorrupta mente vene- we must worship the gods with a rari debemus,

pure and sincere mind. 307. Substantives denoting manner - such as modus, mos, ratio, ritus, and consuetudoare used in the ablative without being accompanied by an adjective, participle, or pronoun-as latronis modo,

in the manner of a highwayman. more majorum,

according to the custom of our

forefathers. Sometimes, however, the Latins use the preposition cum to express a .concomitant circumstance, when this circumstance is something external, and is regarded as quite distinct from the idea contained in the predicate - as magnum cum studio aderat, he was present with great zeal (that is, and displayed great zeal.)

When the substantive used to express a concomitant circumstance or manner is not accompanied by an adjective, participle, or pronoun, the preposition cum must be used |-- as cum cura aliquid facere, to do a thing with care.

308. With verbs of buying, selling, estimating, and the like, the price or value, if stated by a distinct sum or amount, is expressed in the ablative-as emere aliquid denario,

to purchase a thing for a denarius. orationem vendidit viginti talentis, he sold a speech for twenty talents.

309. The ablative is used with verbs denoting plenty, abundance, filling, conferring on, or providing with affluere divitiis,

to abound in wealth. manare cruore,

to drip with blood. Verbs of this kind are such as—abundo, redundo, affluo, scateo, compleo, expleo, impleo, refercio, cumulo, stipo, instruo, afficio, imbuo, conspergo, dignor.

310. Verbs, both transitive and intransitive, which denote





want or deprivation, are accompanied by an ablative of the thing of which any one is in want or is deprived. Such verbs

-careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco; orbo, privo, spolio, fraudo, nudo carere consuetudine amicorum, to be without the intercourse of

friends. eyere auxilio,

to be in want assistance. 311. The ablative is joined with verbs of abstaining, renouncing, freeing, delivering, and excluding such as obstineo, solvo, exonero, excludo abstineo maledictis,

I abstain from calumny. liberare hominem catenis,

to free a man from chains. Verbs of abstaining, preventing, and excluding, however, often take the preposition a or ab as abstinere a vitiis, to abstain from vices; milites a pugna prohibuit, he kept his soldiers from fighting. But the preposition must always be used when the ablative is the name of a person — as arcere hostes a civibus, to keep the enemies away from the citizens.

Verbs denoting a forcible removal of one from a place may be construed with the ablative alone, to denote the place from

hich; but it is more common to use the prepositions ab, ex, or de - as movere or pellere aliquem loco, to remove or expel a person from a place. In like manner the ablative alone is sometimes used with the words cedo, excedo, and decedo-as decedere Italia or ex Italia.

312. The verbs gaudeo, laetor, glorior, delector, doleo, maereo, fido, and confido, are followed by the ablative to denote the thing at which you rejoice or grieve, and in which you trust


gaudeo tua felicitate,

I rejoice at your happiness. doleo patris morte,

I grieve at the death of my father. The ablative in these cases is in reality the ablative of the moving



313. The verbs utor, abutor, fruor, perfruor, fungor, defungor, perfungor, potior, vescor, have their object in the ablativecarne utuntur,

they use meat. fruor suavi otio,

I enjoy delightful ease. hostes urbe potiti sunt,

the enemy took possession of the

city. Potior is construed also with the genitive, especially in the expression rerum potiri, to occupy the highest power in the state, where the ablative is never used. Pascor (I feed or graze) is joined both with the ablative and the accusative.

314. The expression opus est (there is need, it is necessary) is either treated as an impersonal verb, and then takes the thing of which there is need in the ablative; or opus is treat

ed as an indeclinable adjective, and then the thing which is needed is expressed by the nominative. The person to whom anything is needful is expressed in each case by the dative


praesidio opus est,

there is need of a garrison. exempla nobis opus sunt, we need examples. 315. Adjectives denoting plenty, abundance, want of, and freedom from, govern the ablative-as onustus praeda,

laden with booty. dives agris,

rich in landed possessions. dignus laude,

worthy of praise. Such adjectives are-praeditus, onustus, plenus, fertilis, dives; inanis, orbus, vacuus, liber, immunis, purus, alienus ; also dignus, indignus, contentus, anxius, laetus, maestus, superbus, fretus, and others of a similar meaning.

The adjectives plenus, fertilis, dives, and inanis, are also construed with the genitive, and plenus even more commonly than with the ablative — as Gallia plena bonorum civium. The participles refertus and completus likewise are often joined with the genitive when that of which anything is full are human beings—as carcer plenus sceleratorum ; urbs referta mercatorum.

The word macte is used, either alone or in conjunction with an imperative of sum (este, esto), with the ablative of the thing for which we congratulate a person-as macte virtute, or macte virtute esto, I congratulate you on account of your valour.

316. Participles denoting origin or birth — such as natus, ortus, genitus, satus, editus -are joined with the ablative denoting the parents of whom, or the station in which, a person is bornas nobili patre natus,

born of a noble father. humili genere natus,

born of a humble family. 317. With comparatives the ablative denotes the amount of difference existing between two things compared—as Romani duobus millibus plures there were

two thousand more erant quam Sabini,

Romans than Sabines. uno digito plus habere,

to have one finger more. The ablative, with the adverbs ante and post, likewise denotes how much one thing is earlier or later than another - as tribus annis ante, three years before or earlier; decem annis post, ten years after or later.

318. The ablative is often used with comparatives to denote the person or thing surpassed by another, which is commonly expressed by quam—as filia matre pulchrior—that is, filia a daughter more beautiful than her pulchrior quam mater,

mother. major fuit Scipione--that is, quam he was greater than Scipio.



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