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a. When there are several subjects of different persons, one of which

is a first person, the verb is put in the first person plural; if there be among them no subject of the first person, but one of the second, the predicate is put in the second person plural; and when all the subjects belong to the third person, the verb is put in the third person plural, precisely as in the English language — as ego et pater meus ambulamus, I and my father (we) are taking a walk; tu et uxor tua estis in periculo, thou and thy wife (you) are in danger; feminae, liberi et senes interfecti sunt, women, children, and old men (they) were

killed. 6. When there are several subjects of the third person, the predicate is

plural, when the plurality of subjects is to be indicated, as is usually the case when the subjects are names of persons — as Romulus et Remus urbem Romam condiderunt. If, however, the several subjects may be conceived as forming only one whole - that is, one body of persons and things - -the predicate is generally in the singular — as senatus populusque Romanus intelligit, where the people and senate

form only one body of people. c. When one of several subjects is in the plural, the predicate is gene

rally plural; but if the one nearest the predicate be singular, and is of particular importance, the predicate may agree with this subject alone - - as prodigia et eorum procuratio consules Romae (at Rome) tenuerunt ; et Peripatetici et vetus Academia concedit, where concedit agrees with the nearest subject.

261. When the predicate consists of an adjective or a participle, it agrees with the subject in gender, number, and case

as

miles est fortis,

the soldier is brave. milites sunt fortes,

the soldiers are brave. femina est timida,

the woman is timid. feminae sunt timidae,

women are timid. templum est splendidum, the temple is splendid. templa sunt splendida,

the temples are splendid. a. When there are several subjects of the same gender, the predicate

is either plural and of the same gender as that of the subjects; or, attaching itself more particularly to the one nearest to it, it remains

singular. b. When the subjects are of different genders, the predicate may agree

with the subject nearest to it, or it may be put in the plural: but in

the latter case there are two conditions to be observed :1. If the subjects are names of persons, the predicate is commonly put

in the plural of the masculine gender. 2. If the subjects are names of things, the predicate is commonly in the

neuter plural. c. When the subjects consist of names of persons mixed with names of

inanimate objects, the predicate may either agree in the plural with the gender of the names of persons, or may be put in the neuter plural — as rex et regia classis profecti sunt ; Romani regem regnumque Macedoniae sua futura sciunt. But in these cases also, the predicate often agrees only with the subject nearest to it.

262. When the predicate consists of a substantive, it cannot, generally speaking, agree with the subject either in gender or in number -as Maecenas est dulce decus meum, Maecenas is my delightful honour.

263. But when both the subject and the predicate denote persons or living beings, and when the substantive, used as predicate, has two genders, it agrees with its subject like an adjective-as aquila est regina avium,

the eagle is the king of birds. philosophia est magistra vitae, philosophy is the instructor of life.

When the subject is accompanied by an apposition, the predicate generally agrees in number with the subject - as Tullia, deliciae nostrae, tuum munusculum flagitat. But when plural names of places have the apposition urbs, oppidum, or civitas, the predicate agrees with the latter — as Athenae, urbs nobillissima Graeciae, a Sullae militibus direpta est.

When the subject consists of an indeclinable word, or of a whole clause, it is regarded as a neuter noun in the singular, and the predicate accommodates itself to it as such as pro patria mori honestum est, where the subject consists of the clause pro patria mori.

264. The real nature and meaning of the subject of a sentence is often more attended to than its grammatical form; the most common cases of this kind are the following1. Collective nouns — as pars, vis, multitudo, uterque, quisque, and

others, when they are used as subjects — have the predicate frequently in the plural, agreeing in gender with the beings understood — as pars perexigua Romam inermes delati sunt ; missi sunt honoratissimus

quique. 2. When males are expressed figuratively by feminine or neuter sub

stantives, the predicate sometimes follows the natural rather than the grammatical gender of the words used - as capita conjurationis virgis caesi ac securibus percussi sunt. The same is often the case with the numeral substantive millia as millia triginta servilium

capitum capti sunt. 3. A subject in the singular, connected with another by the preposition

cum, usually has the predicate in the plural as ipse duæ cum aliquot principibus capiuntur ; Nia cum Lauso de Numitore sati, The singular, however, may be used when the sụbjects are not conceived as performing an action or enduring it in common as Tu cum Sexto scire velim quid cogites, where the main point is to know what thou (tu) art thinking, and not wþat the two together are thinking.

265. Adjectives in the masculine or neuter gender are often used as the subjects of sentences without their referring to distinct persons or things mentioned in a preceding sentence, In this case they are said to be used substantively, the masculine gender denoting human beings, homo or homines being

understood, and the neuter things, either in the singular or plural-as sapientes virtutem colunt,

the wise cultivate virtue. iners laborem fugit,

the lazy flee labour. omne malum vitandum est,

every evil should be avoided. mala fortunae fortiter ferenda sunt, misfortunes should be borne with

fortitude.

RELATIONS EXPRESSED BY THE NOMINATIVE

AND ACCUSATIVE CASES.

266. The nominative is the case which names the subject of a preposition, that is, the person or thing of which anything is predicated. Hence the subject of a sentence or clause is in the nominative case; and as the predicate must agree with the subject, the predicate also is in the nominative, when it consists of a declinable word, and is connected with the subject by means of the verb esse, or one of those verbs which express only modifications of the idea contained in esse—such as fio, I become; maneo, I remain ; videor, I appear or seem-as Cicero fuit magnus orator,

Cicero was a great orator.
Cicero fit consul,

Cicero becomes consul. The passive verbs dicor, vocor, nominor, appellor, nuncupor, scribor, ducor, habeor, judicor, existimor, numeror, putor, intelligor, agnoscor, reperiur, invenior, reddor, creor, deligor, designor, declaror, renuntior, and some others are accompanied by a noun as a predicate, which must, accordingly, like the subject, be in the nominative case - as Numa rex

creatus est.

267. The accusative denotes the object of transitive verbs— that is, the person or thing affected by the action expressed by a transitive verb in its active form. The object of a transitive verb in the active voice is therefore expressed in the accusative

as

pater amat filium,

the father loves his son. Caesar vicit Pompeium,

Caesar conquered Pompey. Every sentence containing a transitive verb and an object (accusative) may be changed into the passive form by changing the accusative into the nominative (the object into the subject), and changing the nominative into the ablative with the preposition a or ab before it - as filius a patre amatur ; liber emitur a fratre. The preposition a or ab in such cases denotes the quarter from which the action proceeds.

As to whether a verb be transitive depends entirely upon its meaning, so that the same verb may in one sense be transitive, while in another it is intransitive—as consulo aliquem, I consult a person ; consulo alicui, I give a person advice, or take care of a person.

Many intransitive verbs denoting motion may, by being compounded

RELATIONS OF NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE CASES.

141

with prepositions, and by thus modifying their meaning, become transitive, and accordingly govern the accusative--as exercitus flumen transiit, the army crossed the river.

Sometimes the preposition with which such a verb is compounded is repeated before the accusative-as adire ad aliquem, to go to a person. Most verbs compounded with ob, however, govern the dative.

268. Transitive verbs, compounded with the preposition trans -such as traduco, trajicio, transporto — have two accusatives, one of the object, and the other dependent upon the preposition, which is sometimes repeated before it-as Hannibal copias Ibērum traduxit, Hannibal led his troops across the

Ibērus. 269. The impersonal verbs piget (I am vexed), pudet (I am ashamed), poenitet (I repent), taedet (I am disgusted), and miseret (I pity), govern the accusative of the person in whom these feelings exist, and the genitive of the thing which causes them as pudet me facti,

I am ashamed of the deed. miseret nos hominis,

we pity the man. piget puerum negligentiae,

the boy is vexed at his carelessness. 270. Decet (it is becoming) and its compounds dedecet, condecet, and indecet, govern the accusative of the person to whom anything is or is not becoming. So also latet (it is concealed from, or unknown to.)

271. Many transitive verbs, conveying only an incomplete idea, govern, besides the accusative of the object, another which stands in the relation of a predicate to the object, and completes the idea contained in the verb. Verbs of this kind are those of creating, making, naming, electing, having, showing, and the like-as Romulus urbem Romam vocavit, Romulus called the city Rome. populus Numam regem creavit, the people created Numa king. rex se clementem praebebat,

the king conducted himself with

clemency. 272. These verbs, when in the passive, are accompanied by two nominatives, one being the subject, and the other the predicate or in apposition to it-e. g., Cicero consul creatus est,

Cicero was created consul. 273. Some transitive verbs, which have the name of a person as their object, govern a second accusative of the thing which

may be regarded as a second object. Such verbs are the following1. Doceo and edoceo, I teach ; dedoceo, I cause to unlearn ; celo, I con.

ceal; e. g., docere puellam litteras, to teach a girl the letters.

Sometimes the preposition de with the ablative is used instead of the

accusative of the thing - as docere aliquem de aliqua re, to inform a

person of a thing. 2. Posco, reposco, and flagito (I demand), oro (I pray), rogo (I ask),

interrogo and percontor (I ask or question); e. g., pacem te poscimus, we demand peace of you. With these verbs the accusative of the thing remains unchanged when the verb is made passive — as inter

rogatus sum sententiam, I was asked for my opinion. 3. Moneo, admoneo, and hortor (I admonish), and cogo (I compel), when

the thing is expressed by the neuter of a pronoun or adjective - as te id unum moneo, this one thing I give you as my advice. The accusative of the thing with these verbs remains unchanged when the verb becomes passive-as multa monemur, many admonitions are given to us.

274. The following prepositions always govern the accusative:-ad, adversus or adversum, ante, apud, circa or circum, circiter, cis or citra, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, juxta, ob, penes, per, pone, post, praeter, propter, secundum, supra, trans, ultra, versus. Comp. No. 214.

Ante and post, as prepositions, are put before the case they govern; but they are also used as adverbs, and as such are put after their case, which becomes the ablative instead of the accusative — as ante multos annos, before many years; but multis annis ante, many years before ; post tres dies, after three days; but tribus diebus post, three days after.

275. The following four, which sometimes govern the accusative and sometimes the ablative, require special attention:1. In governs the accusative when it answers to the English into;'

that is, when it denotes motion towards the interior of anything-as in urbem ire, in civitatem recipere, in mare projicere. Also, in a secondary sense, when it denotes activity directed towards something, or in general a tendency or direction towards something—as scamnum habet sex pedes in longitudinem ; oratio in Catilinam (a speech directed against Catiline); amor in patriam (love directed towards one's country); consistere in orbem (to stand together so as to form a circle);

commeatus in tres annos (provisions for three years.) In governs the ablative when it denotes being in a place, answering to

the English 'in'--as in urbe esse, in horto ambulari, in flumine navigare, in campo currere; and also in all derivative meanings, where no motion towards anything is expressed as in morbo, in or during the

disease; in hoc homine, in this man, or in the case of this man. 2. Sub governs the accusative when it denotes motion towards, so as to

go under a thing -as venire sub oculos; also when it refers to time, and signifies “about'- as sub idem tempus, about the same time; sub noctem, towards night; sub Hannibalis adventum, about the time of

Hannibal's arrival. Sub governs the ablative when it denotes being under anything—as sub

muro, sub oculis. 3. Super governs the ablative, only when it denotes "about' or .con

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