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3. ax, added to the stem of a verb, produces adjectives denoting incli.
nation or propensity, and in most cases a censurable one - as pugno, pugnax; audeo, audax. Sometimes the suffix ax gives to the vero
merely the meaning of a present participle -- as minor, minax = mi4. cundus is less frequently employed to derive adjectives denoting capa
bility, inclination, or approximation - as iracundus, of an angry dis
position (from irascor); facundus, eloquent (from facio.) 5. lus, with the connecting vowel ŭ added to the stem of verbs, produces
adjectives either simply denoting an action or the inclination to it
as patet, patulus (being open); credo, credulus (credulous.) 6. uus forms adjectives of a passive meaning, from transitive verbs
as conspicuus, individuus ; and others of an active meaning from intransitives - as assiduus.
229. Adjectives are formed from substantives by a great variety of terminations, some of which present scarcely any difference in meaning, and cannot therefore be clearly defined in every instance. 1. cus, added to the stem of substantives, produces adjectives denoting
the material of which a thing consists or is made - as lignum, ligneus. 2. cius, preceded by the connecting vowel i added to the stem of a sub
stantive, produces adjectives denoting that a thing consists of what is implied in the substantive or belongs to it - as later, laterãcius. Sometimes adjectives are formed by the suffix īcius from the supine
of verbs — as commentum, commenticius. 3. ūceus forms adjectives almost exclusively from substantives of the
first declension, devoting a substance or a resemblance to it, as ar.
gilla, argillāceus. 4. cus, preceded by the connecting vowel č, forms adjective which de
note belonging or relating to a thing as civis, civicus. Sometimes
the suffix ticus is employed in the same way — as rus, rusticus. 5. ilis, appended to the stem of substantives, produces adjectives denot.
ing what is in accordance with, like, or becoming to that which is expressed by the substantive — as civis, civīlis ; hostis, hostilis : vir,
virilis. 6. ülis, serves to form adjectives of the same meaning as those ending
in ilis, but is employed much more frequently - as annus, annālis. When the stem of the substantive ends in l, or its last syllable begins
with l, ālis mostly becomes āris — as populus, populāris. 7. ius forms adjectives denoting suitableness, belonging or peculiar to
the idea expressed by the substantive -- as rex, regins; pater, patrius. This suffix is appended only to substantives denoting persons; and those words in or, which do not denote persons, form adjectives by sim
ply adding us to the nominative - - as odor, odorus. 8. īnus makes adjectives, especially from names of animals, denoting
what belongs to, or is derived from, that expressed by the substantives, most commonly the flesh of the animals - as divus, divīnus; mare, marīnus ; fera, ferīnus ; canis, canīnus; but from bos, ovis, and sue,
we have bubulus, ovillus, and suillus. 9. ānus, added to the stem of substantives, makes adjectives denoting
a resemblance, or belonging to what is expressed by the substantive
- as urbs, urbānus ; mons, montānus. In like manner are formed adjectives from ordinal numerals, to denote that which belongs to the number implied — as quartāna febris, a fever lasting for four days;
primānus, belonging to the first legion. 10. ārius, added to the stem of substantives, makes adjectives signify
ing that something belongs, or has reference, to what is implied in the substantive - as legio, legionārius (belonging to a legion); grex, gregārius, belonging to a flock. ārius also makes adjectives from distributive numerals, to denote the quality of having a certain number of units — as deni, denārius (a coin containing ten units — that is, asses); septuagenārius, a man who has lived seventy years; numerus
ternārius, the number three — that is, containing three units. 11. ivus, added to the stem of substantives, forms adjectives denoting
that which belongs to, or is fit for, the thing expressed by the substantive — as furtum, furtīvus ; festus, festīvus. When added to the stem of participles, it denotes the manner in which a thing has arisen
-- as natus, natīvus ; captus, captivus. 12. õdus, added to the stem of substantives, produces adjectives denot
ing fulness of what is expressed by the substantive or bringing it about ;- as calamitas, calamitosus ; lapis, lapidõsus. Sometimes the connecting vowel ğ is introduced - as artifex, artificiosus. 13. lentus, with the connecting vowel ŭ or o added to the stem, denotes
fulness or manner - as fraus, fraudălentur ; vis, viõlentus. 14. ātus, added to the stem of a substantive, forms numerous adjectives
denoting possession of what is expressed by the substantive-as ansa, ansātus; barba, barbātus.
230. For the sake of convenience, all proper names may be divided into names of persons, towns, and countries, to show in what manner adjectives are formed from each of these three classes. 1. The Roman Gentile names ending in ius - as Fabius, Cornelius
are in reality adjectives, and are used as such to designate the works of persons bearing those names — as lex Cornelia, lex Julia. Other adjectives in ānus, however, are formed from these names to denote things which have reference to a member of a family or gens, and are
named after him — as jus Flavianum (from Flavius.) 2. From Roman surnames (cognomen) are formed adjectives ending in
ūnus, sometimes with the connecting vowel i, and with the same meaning as those in ūnus derived from Gentile names — as Cicero, Ciceroniānus ; Caesar, Caesariānus. The ending inus is more rare as Jugurtha, Jugurthinus.
231. Adjectives are formed from names of towns by the suffixes ānus, īnus, as, and ensis; they denote belonging to the place from which they are derived, and are therefore used as names for the inhabitants. 1. ānus, forms adjectives from names of towns ending in a, ae, um, and
i-as Roma, Romānus; Formiae, Formiānus ; Tusculum, Tusculānus ;
Fundi, Fundānus. 2. īnus makes adjectives from names of towns ending in ia, ium
Ameria, Amerinus ; Lanuvium, Lanuvinus; but Praeneste and Reate
also make Praenistīnus Reatīnus. Some names of Greek towns make adjectives by the same suffix — as Tarentum, Tarentīnus ; Saguntum,
Saguntinus. 3. as (gen. ātis) forms adjectives from some names of towns ending in
a, ae, and um -- as Capena, Capenas; Fidenae, Fidenas ; Arpinum,
Arpinas ; Antium, Antias. 4. ensis is employed to derive adjectives from names of towns ending in
0, and from some ending in a, ae, or um — as Narbo, Narbonensis ;
Athenae, Atheniensis. 5. čus makes adjectives from Greek names of towns and islands in us, um, on, and some others.
---as Corinthus, Corinthius. 232. Of the names of nations, some are real adjectives, and are used as such as Latinus, Romanus, Sabinus ; e. g. lingua Latina, “the Latin language;' nomen Romanum, the Roman name. But others are real substantives, and from them are formed adjectives by means of the termination icus—as Gallus, Gallicus ; Arabs, Arabicus ; or by the ending ius—as Syrus, Syrius ; Thrax, Thracius. When persons are spoken of, however, the adjective is not used, but the substantive, which stands in apposition to the name of the person-as miles Gallus, 'a Gallic soldier;' servus Thrax, “a Thracian slave.'
233. Names of countries ending in ia, and formed from the names of nations, sometimes admit of the formation of adjectives, to denote that which belongs to, or comes from, the country-as pecunia Siciliensis, .money derived from the country of Sicily,' not from the inhabitants ; exercitus Hispaniensis, ' a Roman army stationed in Spain,' and not an army consisting of Spaniards.
DERIVATION OF VERBS FROM SUBSTANTIVES, ADJECTIVES, AND
OTHER VERBS. 234. The number of verbs derived from substantives and adjectives is not very great. As a general rule, it may be observed that intransitive verbs formed from nouns follow the second conjugation - as flos, florēre (flourish); albus, albère (be white); whereas transitive verbs follow the first conjugation
- as fraus, fraudare (deceive); albus, albare (whitewash.) There are a few verbs of the fourth conjugation formed from substantives in is—as finis, finire (end); vestis, vestire (clothe.)
235. Many deponents of the first conjugation are derived from substantives and adjectives, and most of them have an intransitive meaning as philosophus, philosophor (I am a philosopher); Graecus, Graecor (I conduct myself like a Greek.) They have more rarely a transitive meaning - as osculum, osculor (I kiss.) A few deponents formed from nouns follow the fourth conjugation- --- as pars, partior (divide); sors, sortior (obtain by chance.)
236. Derivative verbs are much more frequently formed from simple verbs by means of certain suffixes which modify their meaning. 1. By means of the suffix što (in deponents, žtor) are formed what are
called frequentative verbs — that is, such as denote repetition of an action. All frequentative verbs belong to the first conjugation. In verbs of the first conjugation this suffix is appended to the real stem of the word—as clamo, clamito; minor, minător. In verbs of the third conjugation, as well as in those of the second and fourth which make their supine in the same manner as those of the third, the suffix ito is appended to the stem as it appears in the supine -- as
lego, lectăto; dico, dictito. 2. Another class of frequentative verbs, with the same meaning, are
formed by adding the termination of the first conjugation to the stem of simple verbs, such as it appears in the supine — as curro, curso, cursare; tueor, tutor, tutari. In this manner some verbs have two frequentatives —- as curro, curso, and cursito; dico, dicto, and dictito.
237. Inchoative verbs-that is, such as denote the beginning of the action implied in the primitive verb — are formed by means of the suffix sco. This sufix is appended to the stem of the verb, such as it appears in the infinitive after removing the termination re; but in the third conjugation, the connecting vowel i is inserted between the stem and the suffix. All inchoatives follow the third conjugation :—labo, labasco, I begin to waver; caleo, calesco, I begin to be warm; gemo, ingemisco.
238. Many inchoatives are derived from substantives and adjectives—as puer, puerasco; silva, silvesco; ignis, ignesco.
239. Desiderative verbs—that is, such as denote a desire to do that which is implied in the primitive verb-are formed by the suffix ŭrio appended to the stem, such as it appears in the supine-as edo, esūrio, I desire to eat, or am hungry; emo, emptūrio, I wish to buy. All desideratives follow the fourth conjugation.
240. Diminutive verbs are formed by the suffix illo being appended to the stem. These are few, and they all follow the first conjugation--as canto, cantillo, I sing in an under voice, or shake ; conscribo, and conscribillo, I scribble.
241. There is a number of intransitive verbs from which transitives are formed by changing the conjugation to which they belong, and sometimes also by changing the quantity of the vowel contained in the stem, as fūgio, I flee.
făgo, āre, put to flight.
jăcio, ère, throw. pendeo, I hang.
pendo, ére, weigh, or suspend. liqueo, I am clear, or fluid. liquo, āre, clear. cădo, I fall.
cacdo, fell, or cause to fall. sědeo, I sit.
sēdo, appease, or cause to sit still.
jūceo, I lie.
DERIVATION OF ADVERBS.
242. Adverbs are derived from adjectives (participles), numerals, substantives, pronouns, and verbs, and sometimes also from other adverbs and from prepositions. 1. Adverbs are formed from adjectives and participles by the suffixes ē,
7, and těr. (a.) Adverbs in ē are formed from adjectives and participles belonging
to the second and first declensions — that is, from those ending in u8, a, um, and er, a, uim-as altus, altē; longus, longē. Bonus makes its adverb irregularly běně, and malus makes mălă; and these two are
the only adverbs of this class in which the final e is short. (6.) A limited number of adjectives of the second and first declensions
form adverbs by adding the suffix to the stem - as tutus, tuto;
creber, crebro. 2. All adjectives and participles belonging to the third declension make
their adverbs by adding the suffix tēr to the stem : between the two, however, the connecting vowel ě is commonly inserted -as gravis, graviter; acer, acriter; felix, feliciter. When the stem of an adjective ends in t, the connecting vowel is not used, and one t is thrown
out — as sapien8, sapienter ; prudens, prudenter. 3. There is a number of adjectives from which no regular adverbs are
formed, and in which the neuter (in the accusative singular) supplies its place-as facilis, facile ; recens, recens (recently); multus, multum; primus, primum, and all the ordinal numerals.
By means of the suffix štus, adverbs are formed from some substantives to denote origin from the thing implied by the substantive -- as coelum, coelitus, from heaven; fundus, funditus, from the foundation, completely
Many adverbs are formed from the supine of verbs by means of the suffix im, and they generally denote manner — as caesim, by way of cutting down.
In a similar manner adverbs are formed from nouns by the termination ātim 1 — as grex, gregatim; gradus, gradatim.
Some adverbs in o are formed from prepositions to denote motion towards a place—as citro, ultro, retro (from the inseparable particle re.) These are formed on the same principle as those derived from pronouns, such as eo, quo.
There is a considerable number of words which are used as adverbs, but which are in reality the ablative or accusative of nouns used in the sense of adverbs - as noctu, by night; vesperi, in the evening;- mane, in the morning
A large number of adverbs are formed by the composition of two or more words belonging to different parts of speech - - as quamdiu, hodie (hoc die), nudius tertius (nunc dies tertius), imprimis (in primis), ilicet (ire licet), illico (in loco), cominus (cum and manus), eminus (e and manus.)
Respecting numeral adverbs, see No. 93.