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quo (in order that thereby); nē, or ŭt nē (in order that not); nēvě, or neu (and in order that not): quin (that not); quominŭ8 (in order that

not.) 8. Adversative conjunctions, all of which answer more or less to the

English but,' or 'however:'--sěd, autem, vērum, vērõ, āt, āt, ēnēm, atquē, tāměn, attāměn, sedtūměn, vērumtāměn, at vēro, ēnimvēro, vērum

ēnimvēro, cētěrum. 9. Conjunctions denoting time:- quum, út, ŭbă, quando (when); quum

prīmum, ut primum, ŭbi primum, sīmúlāc, simălatque, or simăl (as soon as); postquam (after); antěquam, priusquam (before); dum, usque dum, dòněc, quoad (until, as long as.) 10. Interrogative conjunctions :-num, utrum, ăn ; the suffix ně (nonně,

annon), necně (or not); and the prefixes ec and en.

These interrogative particles are generally untranslatable into English, since with us the interrogative nature of a clause is indicated by the position of the words.





219. Interjections are indeclinable words, being sounds uttered to express some strong emotion. Such sounds espressing the emotions of joy, grief, wonder, surprise, &c. are pretty nearly the same in all languages. The following interjections are actually found in ancient authors :io, iu, ha (ha), he, are expressive of joy and delight. hei, heu, ēheu, păpae, 7,

of grief (alas !) Ö, pro, or prõh, ătăt, hem,

of astonishment and surprise. ehem, en, eccě, hu, phui, nah, tae,

of contempt and disgust. heus, o, ehö, ehodum,

of calling attention to something. ciă, eugě,

of praise (well done! bravo !) ēvoe, evax,

of triumphant joy. Interjections do not exercise any influence on the construction of a sentence. In Latin, as well as in English, it often happens that words which belong to other parts of speech are used as interjections. Those most cominonly occurring are — Nouns-pax ! peace ! be still infandum ! shame! miserum ! wretched

- mactě! (voc. sing.), mactī ! (voc. plur.), or mactě virtute !

admirable ! bravo! Verbs - age! agite ! come! or quick!- cedo! give up!-- sodes ! my

good friend! Advs.- belle ! excellent! bravo !- bene ! very well!-- cito! quick!

All kinds of invocations of the gods may be regarded as interjections -as per deos ! 'by the gods !'- per deos inmortales ! 'by the immortal gods !'- mehercule, mehercle, hercle ! "by Hercules !' Such exclamations are sometimes accompanied by real interjections -as proh or pro Jupiter ! - pro dii immortales !

ETYMOLOGY IN GENERAL. 220. All the actual words of a language are simple, derivative, or compound. The basis of both simple and derivative words is called the stem. A stem by itself does not convey any distinct meaning, but becomes significant by the addition of certain suffixes. Thus the stem duc, by the addition of s, becomes the substantive ducs=dux (leader), and by the addition of o it becomes the verb duco (I lead.) Words thus formed from a stem, by the simple addition of a suffix to give to the stem a definite meaning, are called simple words.

221. Derivative words may, like simple ones, be traced at once to their stem, but it is customary to trace them only to the simple ones; for a simple word conveys distinctly the idea of what is indistinctly contained in the stem, whereas a derivative word gives a modification of the idea conveyed by the simple word. As ama, verb amo, I love ; from amo, is formed amabilis, amiable ; amabilitas, amiability; and amator, lover.

222. Derivative words are formed from simple ones by derivative suffixes, also called simply suffixes, as in the above example, bilis, bilitas, and tor. The same derivative suffix generally modifies in the same way all words to which it is added. 1. Derivative suffixes are generally appended to the stem of a word,

such as it appears when divested of those simple suffixes by which it becomes a distinct word - as from miles (stem milit) are derived militaris, militia; frango (stem frag), fragilis, fragor ; semen (stem se

min,) seminarium. In substantives of the first, second, and fourth declensions, the final

vowels of the stem a and u (8) are usually thrown out - as filia, filiola ; luna, lunula ; hortus, hortulus. 2. Verbs of the first and second conjugations generally drop ă and ē

before those derivative suffixes which begin with a vowel

(stem ama), amor ; palleo (stem palle), pallor. 3. The e in verbs of the second conjugation is dropped also before con

sonants, except in those verbs which make their perfect in vi. 4. When the stem ends in a consonant, and the derivative suffix begins

with one, a connecting vowel (i or ŭ) is often inserted between them, or one of the consonants is thrown out — as in fulmen (from fulgeo, stem fulg.) The latter is the case especially when the stem ends in v- as mõtus, möbilis (from moveo, stem mov); adjutor and adjumen

tum (from juvo.) 5. When the stem of a verb ends in a, e, i, or u, these vowels are gene

rally lengthened before the derivative suffix -as velāmen, complēmentum, molīmen, volūmen.

as amo

6. In forming nouns from verbs by suffixes beginning with t, the, stem

undergoes the same change as in the formation of the supine ending in tum ; whence it may be said that they are formed from the supine -as amator (from amo, amatum), lector (from lego, lectum.)



223. The most natural way of deriving words from others is generally to form the stem into a verb, and then to deduce from that verb all other derivatives.

224. We shall here enumerate the different suffixes by means of which substantives are derived from verbs, substantives, and adjectives, treating first of substantives derived from verbs. 1. Substantives are derived from verbs (chiefly intransitives of the first

three conjugations) by adding the suffix or to the pure stem (that is, after the a and e of the first and second conjugations are dropped); and such substantives express the action or condition substantively

- as amor, error, clamor, from amo, erro, clamo. 2. Substantives are formed from verbs by adding or to the stem as it

appears in the supine — that is, by changing um into or. These denote a male person performing the action implied in the verb -- as

amator, a lover; adjutor, a helper. From many of these substantives in tor, feminines may be formed by

changing tor into trix - as victor, victrix. Those in sor sometimes make feminines in strix — as tonsor, tonstrix; but expulsor, throwing

out the 8, makes expultrix. 3. Substantives denoting abstractly the action or condition expressed

by a verb are formed from the supine by changing the termination

um into io, gen. iónis -- as tractatio (from tracto, tractatum.) 4. Substantives with the termination us (fourth declension), are like

wise formed from verbs by changing the supine ending um into us. Their meaning is very nearly the same as that of substantives in io, and in some cases the same verb admits the formation of substantives both in io and in u8 — as contemptio, contemptus ; concursio, concursus. In some words of this kind in io, the abstract idea of what is implied in the verb is lost. - as in legio, a legion; coenatio, a dining-room;

regio, a district. 5. There are a few verbs from which substantives in īgo are formed,

denoting an action or a condition which is the result of the action

as origo, origin (from orior); vertigo, turning or whirl (from verto.) 6. Substantives in men (gen. minis) derived from verbs denote the thing

performing the action expressed by the verb, or serving the purpose of performing the action. In some cases men is affixed to the stem - as flumen (a river, from fluo), velamen (a cover, from velo), lumen (a light, from luceo, the c being thrown out.) In others a connecting vowel (i or u) is introduced between the stem and men — as regimen from rego), specimen (from specio.) In many cases the ending men is lengthened by the addition of tun, without producing any change of

meaning -as velamen, velamentum. The termination mentum, however, occurs more frequently in words which have no form in men

as ornamentum, instrumentum. 7. Substantives ending in culum, (contracted clum) or bulum, are derived

from the stem of verbs, sometimes with, and sometimes without, a connecting vowel; these denote the instrument, and sometimes the place, of the action expressed by the verb - -- as gubernaculum, (rudder, from guberno), coenaculum (dining-room, from coeno.) If the stem of the verb ends in c or g, the termination is ulum --as cinculum (from cingo.)

225. Substantives are derived from other substantives in a variety of ways: a very common process is to form feminine substantives from masculines. This is the case especially with names of animals ending in er or us, from which feminines are formed by adding a to the stem of the word instead of the masculine termination — as asinus, asina; equus, equa. 1. By the terminations lus (la, lum) and culus (cula, culum), diminutives

are formed from other substantives. Such diminutives denote primarily a small thing, but are used also as terms of endearment or contempt - as hortulus, a small garden; filiolus, dear little son; homunculus, a contemptible little man. All diminutives are of the same gender as the substantives from which they are formed, so that if the primitive is a masculine, the diminutive must end in lus or culus ; if

a feminine, in la or cula ; and if neuter, in lum or culum. 2. The termination ium, when added to the stem of substantives de

noting persons, expresses an assemblage or an association - as collega, a colleague; collegium, an assembly of colleagues; sacerdos, sacerdotium ; conviva, convivium. When ium is added to verbal substantives in tor, it denotes the place where the action is going on -- as

auditor, auditorium ; conditor, conditorium. 3. The termination atus, suffixed to words denoting persons, expresses

position or office as consul, consulatus; tribunus, tribunatus. The same thing is sometimes expressed by the suffix ūra being added to

the stem - as dictator, dictatura. 4. Substantives derived from others by the suffix ārius denote persons pursuing as a trade that which is implied in the primitive

-as aqua, aquarius; sica, sicarius ; argentum, argentarius ; mensa, mensarius. Those derived from others by the termination ārium denote a place where the things expressed by the primary word are collected and kept -- that is, a receptacle -as granum, granarium ; semen, semina

rium. 5. The termination ētum, suffixed to the stem of names of plants, de

notes the place where they grow - as oliva, olivētum ; myrtus, myrtē

tum. 6. The termination ile, when added to names of animals, denotes the

place in which they are kept - as ovis, ovīle ; bos, bovile. In like manner are formed cubile (a place for lying), and sedile (a place for

sitting), from cubo and sedeo. 7. The termination ina, when added to names of persons, denotes a

business, pursuit, or the place where it is carried on -- as medicus, medicina ; sutor, sutrina.

8. Some substantives are derived from others by the ending io, and

denote persons occupying themselves with that which is expressed by the primitive— as restis (rope), restio (ropemaker); centurio (a centurion), from centuria (a division of a 100); pellis (skin), pellio

(skinner.) 9. A few substantives denoting a condition or quality are derived from

names of persons by adding tus to the stem - as vīr, virtu8 ; senex,



226. Substantives denoting quality are formed from adjectives by the following terminations:1. tas added to the stem of the adjective, together with the connecting

vowel i, produces substantives denoting a quality abstractedly bonus, bonitas ; asper, asperitas. Adjectives ending in ius take the connecting vowel ě - as pins, piětă8 ; and those in stus take no connecting vowel at all -as honestus, honestas. In these last cases one t is dropped, as no consonant can be doubled when preceded by ano

ther. 2. ia added to the stem is principally used to form substantives from

adjectives and participles of one termination for all genders — as audax, audacia ; concors, concordia ; clemens, clementia. But the same termination is also used to form substantives from adjectives ending

in cundus — as facundus, facundia. 3. tia, with the connecting vowel é, serves to form substantives from a

few adjectives, the stem of which ends in t or r — as justis, justitia ; avarus, avarătia ; but pudicitia and tristitia are from pudicus and

tristis, 4. tūdo, with the connecting vowel ž, is employed to form substantives

from adjectives of two or three terminations as altus, altitūdo; similis, similitūdo. Some adjectives, whose stem ends in t, require

no connecting vowel — as consuetus, consuetūdo. 5. mõnia, preceded by the connecting vowel ž, occurs only in a few sub

stantives - - as sanctus, sanctimonia; castus, castimonia.



227. Adjectives are derived from verbs as well as from common and proper nouns, and a few from other adjectives and adverbs.

228. Adjectives are derived from verbs by means of the following suffixes: 1. dus, added to the stem of verbs of the second conjugation, with the

change of e into č, produces adjectives denoting the condition or quality implied in the verb — as caleo, calidus ; frigeo, frigidus ; but we

have also rapidus, from rapio. 2. lis, preceded by the connecting vowel i, added to stems of verbs end.

ing in a consonant, denotes the capability of enduring the action implied in the verb - as frango, fragilis ; facio, facilis. The same meaning is still more frequently produced by the suffix bilis, which is sometimes preceded by the connecting vowel i - es amo, amabilis.

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