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196. Cědo is used only as an imperative in the sense of 'give' or 'tell'—as cedo librum, 'give up the book;' cedo quid faciam, 'tell me what I am to do.'

197. Quaeso (I pray) and quaesúmus (we pray) are only different in form from quaero and quaerimus. Both quaeso and quaesumus are, like the English ‘pray,' inserted in a sentence --as dic, quaeso, unde venias, tell me, pray, whence you come.'

198. The four imperatives åvē, ăpăgě, salvē, vălē, are derived from the verbs aveo (I am inclined, desire), the Greek åráyw (Lat. abigo), salveo (I am safe), and valeo (I am well or strong.) åvē (or have), plural avēte, and the future imperative avēto

(sometimes avēre jubeo), signify . be greeted,' or 'good-day,'

I am glad to see you. ăpăgě was used by the Romans in the sense of 'begone,' or

'be off.' Sometimes the pronoun te is added. salvē, plural salvēte, and future salvēlo, are used in the sense

of “hail!' or be welcome.' vălē or vålēte signify ‘farewell.'

199. Of övāre (to rejoice, or celebrate a triumph), there occur only ovet, övāret, óvandi, óvāturus, ovātus, óvandi, and frequently ovans.


200. Impersonal verbs are used only in the third person singular, and can have neither a substantive nor a substantive pronoun for their subject. They state only in a general way that something happens, and their subject in English is the indefinite “it'as pluit, it rains ; licet, it is permitted ; oportet, it is a duty.

201. Impersonal verbs are those which denote the various states of the weather, aspluit, it rains.

lucescit and illucescit, it dawns. ningit, it snows.

fulgărat and fulminat, it lightens. grandinat, it hails.

tõnat, it thunders. lapidat, or lapidatum est, stones vesperascit and advesperascit, it

fall from heaven.

grows dark.

202. The following impersonal verbs describe certain states of the mind, and require the person in whom the state of mind exists in the accusative: měséret (me), I pity, perf. miseritum est, misertum est, or miseruit. păget (me,) I regret, perf. piguit, or pigitum est. poenitet (me), I repent, perf. poenituit.

pădet (me), I am ashamed, perf. puduit, or puditum est.
taedet (me), I am disgusted, perf. pertaesum est, and rarely taeduit.
oportet (me), it is necessary for me, I must, perf. oportuit.

203. The following have no personal subject, but may have the name of a thing in its place, and are also used in the third person plural with a neuter plural as their subject:

děcet (me), it becomes me, perf. děcuit.
děděcet (me), it does not become me, děděcuit.
libet or lŭbet

(mihi), I like, choose, perf. libuit, or lžbětum est. licet (mihi), I am permitted, perf. licuit, or lăcătum est.

lžquet, it is obvious, perf. licuit. We may accordingly say, hic color eum decet, “this colour is becoming to him;' parva parvum decent, 'small things become a small man;' multa or omnia licent, ‘many or all things are permitted.'

204. A second class of impersonal verbs contains those which in the third person singular assume a peculiar meaning, differing from that which they have in the other persons. They are accordingly personal verbs, and impersonal only in a peculiar sense.

The most common among them areinterest and rēfert, it is of import- dēlectat and jūvat (me), it delights

ance to. accidit, ēvēnit, contingit, or fit, it fallit, făgit, and praeterit (me), it happens.

escapes me. accēdit, it is added to, or in addi- plăcet, it pleases, perf. plăcuit, or tion to.

plăcitum est. attinet and pertinet (ad), it con- | praestat, it is better. cerns or pertains to.

restat, it remains. conducit, it is conducive.

vacat, it is wanting. convěnit, it suits.

est, in the sense of licet, it is perconstat, it is known or established. mitted possible — as pēdit, it is expedient.





205. The third person singular passive is very often used impersonally, especially of intransitive verbs, which otherwise have no passive. This mode of speaking is employed to indicate generally that an action takes place, without attributing it to any definite person-as curritur, 'running is going on, or 'people run; ''vivitur, 'people live;' ventum est, 'people came, or have come;' dormitur, sleeping is going on, or ‘people sleep.' The compound tenses of such passives have the participle only in the neuter-as ventum est; and in like manner the gerundive occurs only in the neuter in connection with esse-as pugnandum est, it is necessary to fight;' veniendum est, 'it is necessary to come.'


206. Adverbs are indeclinable words qualifying adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs, to which they stand in the same relation as adjectives to substantives -as valde strenuus, 'very energetic;' bene loquitur, ‘he speaks well;' epistola male scripta, 'a badly-written letter; satis bene scriptum, “tolerably well written.

207. All adverbs, so far as their form is concerned, may be divided into three classes : -1. Primitive adverbs - -as saepe, often; nunc, now; to which may be added prepositions when used as adverbs as ante, before; post, after.—2. Adverbs derived from adjectives by the terminations ē, o, ter, (answering to the English ly)—as docte, learnedly; merito, deservedly; fortiter, bravely; or the adjective in its neuter form — as facile, (from facilis), easily.-3. Adverbs which are in reality particular cases or forms of substantives, pronouns, or adjectives as noctu (an old ablative), by night; partim (an old accusative for partem), partly; hic, here; qua, where ; ibi (from is), there; ubi (from qui), where. In regard to meaning, they chiefly express circumstances of place, time, manner, order, or degree.

208. The only inflection of which adverbs are capable is that of comparison. This, however, is limited almost entirely to those derived from adjectives.

209. The general rule for the comparison of adverbs is, that the neuter singular of the comparative of an adjective is at the same time its adverb; and that the superlative of an adjective is changed into that of an adverb by changing the termination us into è-as doctus, adverb doctē; comparative doctior, neuter doctius, which is also an adverb; doctissimē is the adverb formed from the superlative doctissimus.

210. Primitive adverbs, and those formed from substantives and pronouns, except the following six, have no degrees of comparison :


Comparative. Superlative. diū (long),

diūtius, diūtissimē. 8aepě (often),

saepius, saepissimē. sécus (otherwise),

8ēcius, tempěrī (in time),

tempěrius, nüper (lately),

nuperrimē. sūtīs, (enough, or sufficient), sătius,


211. Prepositions are not inflected: they simply denote in what relation or connection one person, thing, or action stands to another: e. g., Rome is a town in Italy; I travel through England.

212. Many of the relations which we express in English by prepositions, are expressed in Latin by certain cases of nouns without a preposition, whereby the Latin language has the advantage of conciseness--as domo, ‘from home ;' hoc modo, ‘in this manner;' me ducente, 'under my guidance.'

213. Prepositions always exercise an influence upon the noun with which they are connected, and this influence is called government, rendering it necessary that the noun should be in a particular case.

214. According to the cases which prepositions govern, they are divided into three classes 1. Prepositions governing the accusative are twenty-six in

number: ad, to, up to, near, or nearly. juxtā, near to or beside. adversus, or adversum, opposite, ob, against or on account of. antě, before.

[against. | pěněs, in the power of. ăpud, near, with.

per, through. circa, or circum, around, about.

poně, behind. circiter, about (in time or number.) 1 post, after. cis, or citra, on this side of.

praeter, besides, excepting. contrā, against.

propter, on account of, close by. ergū, towards.

sécundum, next after, in accordance extrā, without (opposite of intrā.)

suprā, above.

[with. infrū, below, beneath.

trans, on the other side of, beyond. inter, between, among.

ultri, beyond. intrā, within.

ver818, towards (a place.) 2. Prepositions governing the ablative are eleven in number:a, ab, or abs, from.

prae, before, in consequence of. absquě, without (wanting.)

pro, before, instead of, for. cūrām, in the presence of.

pălam, with the knowledge of. cum, with, together with.

sine, without (that is, not with.) , from, concerning.

těnus, up to, as far as. e or ex, out of, of, from. 3. The following four prepositions govern sometimes the accu

sative, and sometimes the ablative: the former, when they denote motion towards; and the latter, when they denote rest, or being in a place :

With the Accusative.

With the Ablative.
in, into, against,

виь, under, about, towards, under.
súper, above, over,

upon, concerning.
subter, under, beneath; generally with the accusative in either

sense, rarely with the ablative. 215. Prepositions are very frequently compounded with other words, and if the latter begin with a consonant, the preposition in many cases undergoes a change for the sake of euphony - as attero (for adtero), aufero (for abfero.)

There are certain particles which are never used by themselves, and are found only in composition with other words, whence they are called inseparable particles, or inseparable prepositions. They are amb, around; dis, asunder; rē, or red, again or back; and sē, aside or without.


216. Conjunctions are indeclinable words, which show the connection existing between sentences or clauses.

217. In form conjunctions are either simple or compound words—as et, āc, at, sěd, věl, aut, nam ; atquě, quamvis, attăměn, enimvēro, quamquam.

218. In regard to their meaning, all conjunctions may be arranged in ten classes :1. Copulative conjunctions, whereby clauses are put in the relation of

equality to one another, or are merely placed in juxtaposition, as ět, quě, āc and atquě (and); etiam (even, also); něquě, or něc (and not or nor); něc non, or něquè non (equivalent to et, and); quoque (also); neque-neque, or nec-nec (neither-nor); věl-věl, sīvě-8īvě, aut-aut (eitheror); modo-modo, or nunc-nunc (sometimes-sometimes); quiim-tum

(both-and.) 2. Comparative conjunctions:- ŭt, ŭtī, săcüt, vělŭt, proắt, praeŭt, and

ceu (as, or like); quam, 'than;' tamquam, quasi, ut si, ac si, as if.'

Also ūc and atque in the sense of 'as' and 'than.' 3. Conjunctions denoting concession, all of which are rendered in Eng

lish by although,''though,' and even if'- as etsi, etiamsi, tămetsī, or tămenetsi, quamquam, quamvis, quantumvīs, quamlibět, licět, and

sometimes quum; quidem or equidem signifies .indeed.' 4. Conditional conjunctions: -8ī (if); sin (if however); quodsi (if

therefore); nisi, or nī (if not); simodo, dummodo, dum, modò (if only,

if but); dummodò ne, modo , or dumně (if but not.) 5. Inferential conjunctions, meaning “therefore’- as ergo, ăgitur, štăquě,

, õdeū, idcirco, proinde, proptereā; to which may be added quüpropter, quurē, quamobrem, quocircü (wherefore); and unde (whence,

or for which reason.) 6. Conjunctions denoting reason or cause :— nam, namque, ěnim, ětěnim,

(for);, quiă, quod, quoniam (because); and quippe, quum, quondo,

quondoquidem, and siquidem (since, or as.) 7. Conjunctions denoting a purpose or object :-- út, or ŭti (in order that),

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