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Present, vel-, nol-, mal-.
Perfect, võl-uisse, nõluisse, māluisse.

PARTICIPLES. Present, vol-e-ns, nol-e-ns, 188. The verb eo (I go) belongs to the fourth conjugation, and is almost regular. Its stem consists of a simple ī, which before a, 0, and u is changed into e; the imperfect indicative is formed without the connecting vowel e; and the future ends in bo instead of am.

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Sing. i-bam, i-bas, i-bat, &c. Sing. i-rem, i-res, i-ret, &c.

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In like manner are conjugated all the compounds of eo; but in the perfect īvi, ivisti, &c., the endings are generally contracted into ii, iisti, or isti-as abeo, perf. abii, abiisti, or abisti; redeo, perf. redii, rediisti, or redisti, redieram, rediissem, or redissem, &c.

Among the compounds of eo two deserve special notice-vēneo (I am sold), ambio (I go round.) The former, which has a passive meaning, is composed of venum and co, and takes the place of the passive of vendo (venum do), I sell.

Ambio is conjugated regularly according to the fourth conjugation as ambiunt, ambiam, ambiebam (also ambibam), ambient (also ambibunt), ambiendum, ambiens, genitive ambientis.

189. The verbs queo (I can) and nequeo (I cannot) are both conjugated like eo — perfect quīvi and nequīvi, supine quitum and nequitum, infinitive quire and nequire; but neither of them has an imperative, a gerund, or a future participle.

190. Fio (I become, or am made) is a verb of the fourth conjugation, and presents few irregularities, except that its compound tenses are taken from facio, to which it supplies the place of a passive. Its stem is fi.

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

PERFECT.

Sing. fi-o, fi-s, fi-t.
Plur. fimus, fi-tis, fi-u-nt.

Sing. fiam, fi-ās, fi-at.
Plur. frāmus, fi-ātis, fiant.

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

IMPERPECT.

Sing. -z-bam, fi-e-bās, fisė | Sing. fi-ě-rem, fieres, fiebat.

ret. Plur. fi-e-bāmus, fi-e-bātis, Plur. f i-č-rēmus, f 1-ě-rētis, fifi-e-bant.

ě-rent.

FUTURE.

-, fi-et. Plur. Fremus, pielii, furent. The subjunctive is wanting.

PERFECT.

fac-tus (a, um) sum, es, &c. I fac-tus, (a, um) sim, sis, &c.

PLUPERFECT.

fac-tus (a, um) eram, eras, &c. I fac-tus (a, um) essem, esses, &c.

FUTURE PERFECT.

fac-tus (a, um) ero, eris, &c. | The subjunctive is wanting.

IMPERATIVE.

PRESENT.

FUTURE.

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Sing.fi.

The future is wanting.
Plur. fi-te.

INFINITIVE.
Present, fi-čri.
Perfect, fac-tum (am, um) esse.
Future, fac-tum iri.

PARTICIPLES,
Present is wanting.
Perfect, fac-tus, a, um.

Gerundive, fac-i-e-ndus. The i in fio is long throughout, even when followed by another vowel; but it is short in fit, and wherever it is followed by -er.

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

191. Defective verbs are those of which only certain isolated forms occur in Latin authors. Such verbs are coepī, měmžnī, ūdī, nāvī, aio, inquam, fārī, cědo, quaeso; and the imperatives, åvé, špågě, salvē, vălē, and ováre.

192. The four verbs coepi (I begin), měmini (I remember), odi (I hate), növi (I know), are in reality perfects, the presents of which are not in use, with the exception of növī, which is derived from nosco (I become acquainted.) These perfects have the meaning of a present; for novi, 'I have become acquainted,'

is equivalent to 'I know;' hence the pluperfect has the meaning of an ordinary imperfect, and the future perfect that of an ordinary future. They have of course only those tenses which are derived from the perfect; and their conjugation is quite regular.

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FUTURE.

coep-tūrus,

7-sūrus, Coepi has also a passive coeptus (a, um) sum, which is used in connection with other passive verbsdomus aedificari coepta est (the building of the house was commenced.) Hence we have the forms coeptus sum, coeptus eram, coeptus ero, coeptus essem, coeptum (am, um) e88e, and so on.

193. Of aio (I say, say yes, or affirm) only the following forms occur:—

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IMPERFECT.

PARTICIPLE.

Sing. aiebam, aiebas, aiebat, &c. / Present, aiens, affirming.

The imperative ai is obsolete, and the perfect ait is like the present.

194. Inquam (I say) is very defective; the following forms only occur :

INDICATIVE.

IMPERFECT. Sing. inquam, inquis, inquit. Sing.

inquiebat. Plur. inquimus, inquitis, in- Plur.

quiunt.

PRESENT.

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Sing. inque.

Sing. inquito. Inquam is, like ait, used only between the words of a quotation — as tum ille, nego, inquit, verum esse, 'I deny, he then said, that it is true.'

195. The verb fārī (to speak), a deponent of the first conjugation, is defective; there are, however, some of its compounds —as affari, effari, praefari, and profari—which have à few more forms, distinguished from the others by being placed within parentheses.

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

PRESENT.

Sing.

fātur. Plur. (famur, famini)

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The subjunctive is wanting.

IMPERFECT.

(fabar.)

| (farer, &c.)

FUTURE.

fābor (faberis), fābitur. The subjunctive is wanting.

PERFECT.

fātus (a, um,) sum, &c. ' fātus (a, um) sim, &c.

PLUPERFECT.

fātus (a, um) eram, &c. ' fātus (a, um) essem, &c. IMPERATIVE. INFINITIVE.

SUPINE. Pres. fāre.

Pres. fāri. fātu.

PARTICIPLES.
Present, fantis, fanti, fantem, fante.
Perfect, fātus, a, um.
Gerundive, fandus, a, um.

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